« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
parents, be kept in close rooms, in which free | she had embraced, was naturally viewed with
But if we would form a just estimate of her chaof the lungs, of whom ninety-two died of con- racter, we must consider not merely the nature of sumption. Of fifty-two milliners, dying in the her engagements, and the structure of her mind, same year, thirty-three died from disease of the but the circumstances with which she was surlungs, of whom twenty-eight died from consump
rounded. tion. Dr. Guy reports, that in a close printers' It is readily perceived that the unusually be room, he found seventeen men at work, of whom nevolent cast of her intellect led her to view the three had spitting of blood, two had affections of favourable side of the characters of her associatesthe lungs, and five had constant and severe colds. that her habitual disposition to be pleased with After reading these sad facts, who can deny that others, induced her to seek for points in the sentithe chief cause of consumption is the respiration ments and actions of her friends which she could of bad air ?-Ventilation Illustrated."
approve or excuse, rather than to detect their
errors. Yet this liberality in regard to the opinions FRIENDS' REVIEW.
and practice of others, was quite compatible with
a full conviction of the importance to herself of PHILADELPHIA, FIFTH MONTH 20, 1848.
the testimonies into the observance of which the We have introduced into the present number the consistent professors of her own religious society first portion of a series of extracts from the aụtobiography of a Friend, who was well known to her cotemporaries as one of the most valuable and MARRIED, -At Friends' Meeting House on highly gifted members and ministers of the society Orange street, on Fourth day, the 10th inst., to which she belonged. Though the compilation
Horatio C. Wood to ABIGAIL, daughter of William
Evans, all of this city. will no doubt in a great measure consist of the re
At Friends' Meeting House on Arch street, lation of facts which came under the notice of the on Fifth day, the 11th inst., NATHANIEL H. Brown, writer, and of the religious exercises through formerly of New Hampshire, to Rebecca Kita which she passed, it may be fairly presumed that daughter of the late Thomas Kite, of this city. nothing which was moulded by such a mind as hers is well known to have been, and judged Died,-In Vassalboro, Maine, on First day morn. worthy of being placed on record, will prove either ing, the 23d ult., Richard Shepherd, in the 66th uninteresting or uninstructive to our readers. year of his age. He was an honest-hearted friend,
and member of Vassalboro Monthly Meeting.
Near Salem, N. J., after a short illness, on Our correspondent, U. M., having in conformity Fifth day, the 4th inst., Martha ABBOTT, for many with the intimation on our 22d page recommenced years a useful member of that meeting. his review of the Life of Elizabeth Fry, we have Downingtown, Chester Co., Pa., on the 4th insty
At the residence of his mother, near inserted in the present number the first part of his GEORGE ASHBRIDGE, in the 34th year of his age. essay, the conclusion being designed to appear at
Very suddenly, on the 7th inst., at her a future time. As this remarkable woman oc
residence in Mount Holly, N. J., PHEBE OSBORNE, cupied a position among the conspicuous philana
a member of Burlington Monthly Meeting.
She was of a retiring and unassuming disposition, thropists of her day, such as probably no one of and much attached io the cause of Truth; and her sex ever did before, and perhaps effected whilst a solemn admonition is afforded by her ingreater meliorations in the condition of the most stantaneous removal out of time, the line of the degraded classes of society than could in
poet is believed to be applicable : any
" How many fall as sudden, not as safe," former instance be traced to the exertious of an individual, the narrative of her life must be read with a degree of interest which few biographies another nation or people in subjection, nor im
“ Resolved, That no nation has a right to hold are capable of exciting. As she also occupied the
pose upon it laws and institutions of government responsible station of an acknowledged minister against its consent.” in the Society of Friends, the frequent and familiar This was one of the resolutions passed wnaintercourse into which she was led by her philan- nimously by the late meeting held at Washingthropic labours with persons whose religious opinion city for the expression of sympathy with ions and practices differed widely from those which France. A copy of it was sent to the Frenchy
she had embraced, was naturais some degree of apprehension. That BIR TEZA fully aware of the necessity of a cons: upon her motives of action, as wel as actions themselves, must be obrigas a bit examine her diary
But if we would form a just esiste racter, we must consider not meet the her engagements, and the structor de: but the circumstances with which is rounded.
It is readily perceived that the nevolent cast of her intellect lad ber uns favourable side of the characters citas that her habitual disposition to be pere others, induced her to seek for points in
For Friends' Review.
ments and actions of her friends while
MARRIED, -At Friends' Meets Orange street, on Fourth das, was HORATIO C. Wood to ABIGAIL, darbas Evans, all of this city.
At Friends Meeting House in die on Fifth day, the 11th inst., Nathalie 33 formerly of New Hampshire, to Roen. daughter of the late Thomas Kite, ct to
Republic. _. Why not a copy sent also to the fervently for ability to labour in obedience to the
will of her Divine Master.
It may not be amiss in this place, to ask the of say
reader to refer to, and bear in mind, the closing us if we should pass this resolution, verbatim et literatim, in one of our northern cities, and circulate of the Review. The open, unsuspecting and
remarks, on the 22d page of the second number it among their slaves ?
ingenuous character of Elizabeth Fry, made it natural that she should, in her private journal, very freely and unreservedly express her feel
ings and her doubts in relation to passing inciMemoir of the Life of ELIZABETH Fry, with dents of the day, or to the peculiar and multi
extracts from her Letters and Journal. plied trials which from time to time were perEdited by two of her daughters. In two mitted to press upon her. Under this pressure, volumes, 8vo. Vol. 2. Philadelphia: J. W. and circumstances as they existed around her, it Moore, 193 Chesnut street.
does not appear to the writer at all remarkable
that she should sometimes have written unadviQur readers will recollect, that in the first and sedly, and have recorded feelings and doubts, second numbers of the Review, a notice appear- which, if entertained, had far better been suped of the first volume of this work, and a promise pressed. There are passages in the volume was given, that when the second should be pub- before us, as well as in the first, which we decilished, it also would claim attention. In the dedly object to, and it must be regretted that they 26th number, this publication was announced, were ever written. It is also to be regretted and the earliest opportunity in our power is em- that they were permitted to appear in print. braced to redeem the promise above referred to. Judicious pruning, would, we are satisfied, have
When we look into the lives of eminent indi- done more ample justice to the cause of Truth, viduals, whose course may have been out of the and to the sterling worth of this extraordinary usual line, if we would form a proper estimate woman. It is not our object to particularise any of them, we should endeavour rightly to under of the objectionable passages to which reference stand their motives and springs of action, and has been made. It would afford no gratification, thus be enabled properly to appreciate their real nor lead to the discharge of any duty, to bring characters.
into prominent notice errors of judgment, or to The life of Elizabeth Fry was marked by endeavour to cast a shade over the religious chamuch that was peculiar to herself. Educated racter of Elizabeth Fry, by labouring to prove in fashionable life, with the indulgencies of that she was not infallible. It is the wish of the wealth at her command, and associated with writer to present her to his readers, as she has those who moved in the highest circles of appeared to himself—a woman of extraordinary society, she yet felt, at an early period, that it powers-remarkably qualified and gifted for the was right for her to forego enjoyments of this labours whereunto she was called — impressed nature, and to endeavour to place her dependence with such a conviction of her infirmities, as conupon something of a far less perishable charac- tinually to feel the necessity of relying solely ter than the mere gratifications of sense, or the upon Divine support, and illustrating in her daily applause of men. It pleased Divine Providence walk the adaptation of Christianity to a full and to bestow upon her a noble and a generous na. perfect development of the highest attributes of ture. And when she was led to make the en- our nature. We would adduce her career in quiry, what she should do to be saved ? and her confirmation of the sentiment long entertained, soul was mercifully visited with the day-spring that true greatness-true dignity—the highest from on high, and she yielded her heart to the possible point of human attainment-can only sanctifying influences of the Holy Spirit, it be- be accessible to the truly baptized, humble and came still more abundantly enlarged with desires devoted Christian. for the welfare of all, both spiritually and tempo- Would that it were in our power sufficiently rally, and those natural endowments which so to impress upon the minds of all, but more parconspicuousły shone in her character, being dis- ticularly of those who are preparing to enter ciplined in the school, and brought into subjec- upon the responsible duties of life, the important tion under the yoke of Christ, were made largely, fact, that he who would most effectively bring instrumental for the good of others, and in- into operation every power and energy of his trodured her into a breadth of service, to which mind, must do it, and continually move under few of her sex have been called. Her heart the influence and guidance of the Spirit of from childhood yearned to alleviate suffering Christ. To be great, is to be good ; man canwherever she found it, and being, through the not possibly act under any influences, so perrevelations of the Spirit, enabled in some mea- fectly adapted to the employment of all his sure, to estimate the value of an immortal soul, faculties, as are those of Christianity: and the she was made deeply sensible of the importance writer trusts that, without exposing himself to a of her calling, and was often led to supplicate charge of sectarianism, he may declare his oon
DIED,–In Vassalboro, Maine, on Festi? ing, the 23d ult., RICHARD SHEPHERD: 3 ? year of his age. He was an honest-112321" and member of Vassalboro Mostblr Mens
Near Salem, N. J., alter a sort => Fifth day, the 4th inst.
, Martha 1897,33 years a useful member of that meet
At the residence of his do Downingtown, Chester Co., Pa, en te s GEORGE ASH BRIDGE, in the 34th year of 1s?
- Very suddenls, on the ith 1 residence in Mount Holls, N. J., Parn a member of Burlington Slonthly Medina
She was of a retiring and unesien and much attached to the carse el is whilst a solemn admonition is alifornia stantaneous removal out of time, the boss poet is believed to be applicable :
" How many fall as sudden, net sted."
“ Resolved, That no nation has a rete another nation or people in supernis pose upon it laws and institution a pies against its consent."
This was one of the resolutions per nimously by the late meeting held i ks ion city for the expression of super France. A copy of it was sua?
viction, that there is no more thorough exempli- cerning me, and carry on his own work in me fication of Christian doctrines and practice, than to his own praise.' “ Grant, O Lord, I pray genuine Quakerism; and by genuine Quakerism thee, a little help, that whatever thy unworthy is meant, that which George Fox, William Penn, servant does, in word or deed, may be done, as Robert Barclay, Thomas Story, John Wool in the name, so through the power, of Christ her man, and William Allen, died in the profession of. Saviour.” This journey was performed by our
In common with those who are born of mem- travellers in much unity of spirit, and similarity bers, Elizabeth Fry had a birthright in the of exercise. They visited not only the meetings Religious Society of Friends, yet the deep interest of Friends in Ireland, but the prisons, lunatic she manifested in its welfare, arose from a con- asylums and infirmaries, mingling occasionally viction of the soundness of its doctrines, and the with the poor and destitute in their cabins, importance of its Testimonies; and when it where they could . obtain neither “eggs nor pleased the great Head of the church to bestow bacon,” round a turf fire, on a mud floor, a hole upon her a precious gift in the ministry of His in the top for a chimney, and a little dirty straw Word, and to enlarge her experience in Christian on the floor for the inmates “ to sleep," as they doctrine, her views of Christian . philanthropy expressed it,“ up and down in the room.” The were still more expanded, and her eye was sick and the sorrowful were sympathized with opened to discern, to some extent, the breadth of and comforted. Among the great, the good and that field, and the magnitude of that labour, into the influential, they found, in a very remarkable which she believed her Lord and Master was manner, that a door was open for their labours; calling her.
and Elizabeth Fry appears constantly to have To suppose that her path through life would endeavoured “to seek for help from above, and for be one in which there were no trials, were to a quiet mind," and she expresses her desire that forget the declaration of Eliphaz of old, who had these apportunities might not be lost upon those discovered, that as the sparks fly upward, man among whom their lot was cast. Some of her is born to trouble ; to suppose that the largeness friends, it would appear, were apprehensive that of the gifts with which she was entrusted, or her course in this journey was of such a characthat the extraordinary beauty of the graces with ter, as judging from outward appearances, might which she was adorned, growing out of a good lead to an improper exaltation of the creature, stewardship of the manifold grace of God, would and to a cherishing of the temp'a ion to believe exempt her from affliction, were to overlook the that her own arm had wrought it; but, she reexperience of every devoted Christian, who is marks, “ a deep conviction of my own unworthioften reminded that whomsoever the Lord loveth, ness and infirmity, was so living with me, that he chasteneth, and remembereth for his consola- these things were more likely to cast me into tion, that our Saviour himself was a man of sor- the deep, than raise me up on high.” During rows and acquainted with grief.: “Sorrow upon an illness with which she was seized in Ireland, sorrow,” she writes on one occasion, concluding she writes, “I never remember to have known with the prayer that the Lord would sustain her, a more painful time; tried without-distressed and keep his “ unworthy and poor sick servant within ; feeling such fears lest my own faith in this time of unutterable trial. Keep me,'
,” should fail." However, “I had most sweet says she, “sound in faith, and clear in mind.”. peace afterwards; my beloved Saviour arose
In the early part of 1827, in company with with healing in his wings, delivered me from my her brother, Joseph John Gurney, and her hus- fears, poured balm into my wounds, and granted band's sister, Elizabeth Fry, who was also a me such a sense of having obtained reconciliahighly valued minister, she left home with the tion with my God, as I can hardly describe.” approbation and unity of her Monthly and The visit was concluded to her "relief, peace Quarterly Meetings, to pay a Religious visit 10 and satisfaction. The Yearly Meeting at DubFriends in Ireland, and also to the prisons in lin, crowning all, as to our ministerial services that country. Discouragements of various kinds, in our own Society." though she had the near sympathy of her Under date of 3d mo. 27, 1828, we find the beloved friends, attended her setting out on this following entry: « On Second day I attended journey. Some of her children were unable to the Select Quarterly Meeting. How striking to comprehend how such a service could be con- me, and how. humbling: here am I, that used sistent with a proper discharge of other duties, to be one of the last, least, and lowest in this which they believed lay nearer home, and they Quarterly Meeting, nuw obliged to be one of the were, of course, not likely, with such views, to foremost members in the meeting for Discipline; lighten the burthen which rested upon their partly from so many vacant places being now mother's spirit, or to aid her in relieving herself left among 'us-partly from my long experience of it. “What am I,” says she, at home or of its ways, and many years in its service; and abroad, unless my Lord be with me to bless my last of all, truly, deeply, unworthy as I am, labours ? therefore, I can only seek to be because it has pleased a kind Providence to grant altogether passive before Him, praying that He me the unity of my beloved friends, and thus to would, in His mercy, make known his will con- raise me up. My spirit, notwithstanding my
cerning me, and carry on his own Fies to his own praise.” “Grani, 0 lei; thee, a little help, that whatever bee; servant does, in word or deed, nethez in the name, so through the power is Saviour." This journey was perforas travellers in much unity of spirit
, ads of exercise. They visited not get there of Friends in Ireland, bat the pris asylums and infirmaries, minging us with the poor and destitute in te where they could obtain neberg bacon,” round a turf fire, on a med foz.
in the top for a chimney, and a litle ico on the floor for the inmates - ty slep" e expressed it,“ up and down in there" sick and the sorrowful were syrputz.! and comforted. Among the great
, tex the influential, they found, in a reason manner, that a door was open for të a and Elizabeth Fry appears constriku endeavoured “to seek for help from deus a quiet mind," and she expresses ber these apportunities might not be last mi among whom their lot was cast. Sa
friends, it would appear, were appraps her course in this journey was of stel is
ter, as judging from outward appearare: lead to an improper exaltation of tes and to a cherishing of the temp'a in ir that her own arm had wronght is; bem
outward cheerfulness, was much bowed down nary migrations of what he terms a class of within me, in earnest cravings to be washed, re- animals, in which the modes of proceeding, and newed, and more fitted for my Master's service.” the motives which lead to them, are so obscure
After attending the Annual Meeting of the as to preclude any attempt at explanation.” “ British Ladies' Society for promoting the Re- Many of the proceedings and motives of insects formation of Female Prisoners,”* in which she are doubtless obscure ; but far more are so clearly felt called upon to bear a prominent part, her expressed that “ he who runs may read.” Some "heart being so full of interest on the subject," insects, for example, under the impulse of proand her head so full of matter," she says “I viding for that offspring which the parents are may set my seal to this—that public services never to behold, after constructing a suitable are fearful services, and none but those engaged habitation in which to deposit their eggs, with in them, know how much they are spared who an admirable instinct are actually at great pains do good privately. Still
, if the Master calls us to furnish the larder with such' food as the into public duties, it is notonly well but honoura- young one will stand in need of on its exclusion ble; and in them much more good is accomplish- from the egg, and so placed as to be readily ed, because so many are concerned : still I would accessible the moment it is required. Nor is have no one seek for them, but if rightly brought the nature of this food less a proof of instinct into them, preservation will, I believe, be granted. than the fact of its being stored up: in some A watchful, humble spirit is called for ; one that cases it is of a vegetable nature; in others, a is not exalted by the undue approbation of fellow living caterpillar, belonging to some other mortals, nor too much cast down by disapproba- species, is seized by the parent insect, rendered tion or evil reports. There must also be a will- insensible, but not killed, (which would defeat ingness to commit all these works to Him, who the object,) by a puncture from the sting of its can prosper them or not, according to his own captor, and conveyed to the nest wherein the good pleasure.” Thus we find this dear friend endeavouring to the caterpillar of the common cabbage butterfly
egg is to be deposited. Every one has observed “ follow, and not force Providence,” as Cecil has apparently brooding upon a heap of yellow somewhere recommended, and to avail herself.
eggs. This affords a beautiful illustration of of the openings,” as she was accustomed to term instinct on the part of a small black fly which
it: ever careful to bear in mind, that however deposits its eggs within the body of a living industriously and zealously she might labour, caterpillar. The young grubs, when evolved either in her own Religious Society, or among from the egg, feed upon the internal tissues of others, for the promotion of philanthropic objects their victim, instinctively avoiding, however, very dear to her heart, it was the Lord only who to attack any vital part, since the premature could bless her endeavours with an increase, and death of the caterpillar would ensure their own crown them with success.
destruction. At length the time approaches for the parasites to take upon themselves a new condition of insect life, namely, that which
immediately precedes their perfect winged conANIMAL INSTINCTS.
dition; at the same period, the caterpillar in(Continued from page 542.)
fested by them instinctively seeks out some
spot wherein it also may pass through the corInsects furnish some of the most striking in responding state of inactivity, preliminary to stances of instinct that can be found in the its appearance as a winged denizen of the air. whole animal kingdom; though Mr. Couch No sooner, however, has it attached itself, than somewhat unaccountably dismisses them by the grubs contained in jts body make their exit merely quoting a few descriptions of extraordi- through the skin; each spins its own little
cocoon of yellow silk, wherein to await its final • This Society was formed about the year 1822, and owed its institution mainly to the suggestions and efforts change. These cocoons are collected together of Elizabeth Fry, who remarks, that “if it had not beneath the body of the caterpillar, which, pleased a kind Providence to lead me into some other being now in too exhausted a condition to pass services, and in his tender mercy to bless me in them, into the chrysalis state, speedily dies, while, I think there would at times have been great danger after a short period, the parasites break from of my being pressed down out of measure by home cares.” The principal object of the Society was to their cocoons and become perfect insects, in form a central point of communication between the their turn seeking for new victims. numerous associations labouring for the benefit of
Whoever has paid attention to the manners female prisoners in different parts of England, and bolding an extensive correspondence with persons on
of insects, will be at no loss to understand many the continent, interested in subjects of a similar nature. of their “ modes of proceeding” or “the motives Many females of distinguished character and rank, were which lead to them.” The intention of the enlisted in its service, and its influence was felt and silken cord by which the caterpillar of many acknowledged, not only in Great Britain, but in other countries where the true object of judicial punishment (previously to becoming a chrysalis, cannot be
butterflies secures itself to a perpendicular wall was beginning to be better understood.
(To be continued.)
From the Westminster Review,
marks, “ a deep conviction of my ovas ness and infirmity, was so living site
these things were more likely to eat the deep, than raise me up an bigt." ! an illness with which she was kino she writes, “ I never remember to beti a more painful time; tried witwui-isa
within ; feeling such fears les ar should fail.” However, “I bal peace asterwards ; my belored Sinie.
with healing in his wings, delivered at fears, poured balm into my wounda, me such a sense of having obtaine: s tion with my God, as I can hardt The visit was concluded to her - Feld and satisfaction. The Yearty Mernig lin, crowning all, as to our ministras in our own Society."
Under date of 3d mo. 27, 1828 FS
following entry: « On Second darle the Select Quarterly Meeting, Horse me, and how humbling: here an los to be one of the last, Jesst
, and loss Quarterly Meeting, now obliged to kee foremost members in the meeting firla partly from so many vacant przez ere left among usaparily from mily of its ways, and many years in it 97 last of all, truly, deeply, un FOSTE! because it has pleased a kind Pronize me the unity of my beloved friends as
My spirit, notatki
raise me up
misunderstood. Nor can we fail to understand ing arms were used as oars, has, for ages, renthe intention of the coat of armour formed dered that animal an object of interest ; and notaround itself of small stones, shells, or bits of withstanding that these particulars have been sticks, by the larva of the Phryganea: the use proved fictitious, recent researches into its true of the paper manufactured by the wasp; of the history have shown the mollusk to be no less waxen cells and store of honey provided by the deserving consideration, from its every-day bee; of the covering of down stripped from its actions, than from the exploded functions poown body by the female of the gipsy moth, etically ascribed to it. From the excessive with which its mass of eggs is protected from thinness of the beautiful shell, to which, by the the severity of winter; these are all equally way, the animal has no muscular attachment, easy of comprehension: and no one at all ac- and its extreme fragility, it is constantly liable quainted with these interesting creatures and to fracture by being tossed about at the mercy their habits will venture to deny them the pos- of the waves. When this happens, and it is no session of instinct, nor, in some cases, of a cer- unusual occurrence, the animal instinctively tain amount of reason ither. For, as Mr. repairs the fracture by a new deposition of Couch in the main accurately observes, though shelly matter to the broken portion, by means with a slight confusion of terms at the outset, of the membranous mantle. This circumstance,
“The simplest instinct will vary its proceed- observed in a number of argonauts kept in conings according to circumstances; and the small- finement in an open cage sunk in the sea in the est glimmering of reason will direct it to modify Bay of Messina, by Madame Power, removed these proceedings according to situation, and as the doubts of naturalists as to the animal being they may best lead to the desired result. In really the architect of its own habitation; since many creatures of the land this variation is of the regular increase in the size of the shell to common occurrence, and is not only directed correspond with the growth of the animal was according to a change of circumstances, but witnessed, as well as the power of repairing the sometimes seems to be under no better influence shell when broken either intentionally or accithan caprice. The daubers, a genus of North dentally. American wasps, to save themselves the labour This habit of forming chambers in the shelly of building a cell, have been known to make covering of the mollusks, is not confined to the use of a small bottle, closing the orifice with higher members of the family, but is also pracclay; and the mason bees, (Osmiæ,) which tised, though from a different cause, by some of usually deposit their eggs in holes dug by them- the more simply organized individuals. In the selves in walls or sand-banks, will embrace the case of the water-clam (Spondylus varius) a opportunity of saving themselves labour, by em- bivalve nearly allied to the common oyster, and ploying for the same purpose the empty shell which, like the oyster, is attached by the outer of a snail."
surface of the lower valve of its shell to some From a very early period, naturalists have extraneous body, when the animal happens to been aware of the power exercised by the be developed beneath the overhanging ledge of cuttle-fish, when in danger, of expelling a black a coral reef, or in a situation where, having no fluid, in sufficient quantity, when mingled with power of locomotion, it would run the risk of the surrounding water, to hide the animal from being overgrown by the coral, it resorts to the its pursuers. This fluid is secreted by a singu- expedient of carrying forward its dwellinglar organ connected with the intestine: the chamber by a series of new formations of shelly animal is, moreover, furnished with parrot-like matter, so as always to keep its respiratory and jaws, put in motion by powerful muscles, well- nutritive apparatus on a level with the surdeveloped salivary glands, several stomachs, and rounding zoophytes. A longitudinal section of a large liver; alt indicating not only that the these shells exhibits sometimes as many as fouriustinctive feeling of hunger is habitually ex- teen such chambers, separated from each other perienced, but that the means of allaying that by stout and regularly-formed partitions. The feeling are amply provided; while the appara- common oyster, when, from a deficiency of food
, tus connected with the secretion and expulsion its body has shrunk so as no longer to fill the of the inky fluid, is expressly formed to enable interior of the shell, will form a new layer of an otherwise defenceless animal to exercise its nacre, and thus adapt the cavity to its changed instinctive demand for self-preservation, in the condition by adding a chamber in the rear of its manner most consistent with its mode of life diminished body. and organization.
Among the Echinodermata, progression is The interesting poetical fiction connected effected by means of suckers and spines ; the with the argonaut or paper nautilus, wherein it star-fishes or Asteridæ employ the former exis represented as sailing on the surface of the clusively; the sea-urchins, or Echinidæ, probea, its fragile shell forming the hull of its vessel, gress by means of the joint action of their sucks the two expanded membranous arms being ers and spines. Professor Forbes observes
, that erected and acting as sails, while the six taper-I“ many sea-urchins, such as live on hard sur