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Fo Friends' Review.

wants of his age, “ to direct people to the spirit.”.

“ when the Lord God and his son Pablished Weekly by Josiah Tatum, Jesus Christ sent me forth into the world, to No. 50 North Pourth Street,

preach his everlasting gospel and kingdom, I PHILADELPHIA.

was glad that I was commanded to turn people Price two dollars per annum, payable in advance, or six to that inward light, spirit and grace, by which copies for len dollars.

all might know their salvation and their way to This paper is subject to newspaper postage only. God." He further remarks of himself, “ I was

to bring people off from the world's religions

which are in vain; that they might know the ELIZABETH FRY.

pure religion ; might visit the fatherless, the Notice of the Memoir of her Life.

widows and the strangers, and keep themselves

from the spots of the world.” It is by no means (Concluded from page 648.)

intended to inculcate the idea, that these were About the middle of the 17th century, when altogether new doctrines in England—that there the Society of Friends took its rise, England was were no true spiritual worshippers or that the

— greatly agitated and convulsed. It was a period obligations of man to man were altogether lost remarkable for its unsettlement, and the conflicts sight of. There were bright exceptions to this of the people with the government, both in rela- general characteristic of the times. When the tion to civil and religious matters. Though the views of Friends—the broad Christian doctrines reformed religion had for nearly a hundred years of the New Testament--were loudly proclaimed been established in England, and the people, from one end of Great Britain 10 the other, and with some degree of plausibility, boasted of persecution, in all its fierceness, lent its aid, to their guaranties of liberty under Magna Charta, stimulate the zeal both of George Fox and his yet we who profit by the additional experience followers, there was opened to those who emof two centuries, are driven to the conclusion braced these doctrines, a field for labour, both in that, at the period of which we speak, our fore- religion and philanthropy, broad as the family of fathers had but imperfect views of the duties of man, and co-extensive with the afflictions to the rulers, or the privileges of the governed. which he is heir. Quakerism has never failed The nature and extent of religious toleration were to recognize the sentiment boldly advocated by very indistinctly understood, for it would appear William Penn, that property should be held by as if many could not divest themselves of the law rather than opinion, and civil rights be long cherished sentiment, that the king must, beyond ecclesiastical interference. from the very nature of his position, be the It is not our intention to pursue this train of keeper of their consciences !

thought. We consider it unnecessary. The We of this day, consider the penal laws of intelligent reader can supply the deficiency, and that age as unreasonable and cruel ; and it fill up the outline so hastily drawn, would be no difficult task to show, that what are Hundreds of individuals--members of our now r-garded as the coinmon duties of humanity, Religious Society-could be named, who, have and essential to the fulfilment of that great Chrising from the convictions of the Holy Spirit, and tian injunction of doing to men as we would the expansive nature of its revelations, become have them do to us, were in many instances convinced of the doctrines preached by that overlooked, or disregarded. A high profession worthy elder” George Fox, which we believe of religion was common, but its spirit was not to be strictly in accordance with those of the lived in. The form was tenaciously adhered to, gospel of Christ, laboured faithfully, as good but the practical—the substantial part was too stewards, in their high and holy calling. The frequently obscured by the cold dogmas of the eyes were opened, and they were blessed with schools, or the bigotry of sectarianism. George Clearness of 'vision by the Lord himself, to perFox says, he “ was sent to turn people from ceive the spiritual needs of their contemporaries ; darkness to the light.” It was an important and were qualified in a remarkable manner, by part of his mission, and peculiarly adapted to the the same almighty power, to administer to them.


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We are well aware that the Society of Friends, and prove unquestionably, as we believe, the can boast of few distinguished philosophers, and thorough accordance of these doctrines with the fewer poets : it is natural that it should be so, sentiment proclaimed at the advent of our Saviour, from the general bearing and complexion of the “peace on earth, good will toward men." Their Quaker economy: yet the whole tendency of lives appear to the writer, most beautifully to their doctrines is practical, both in religion to commend that principle which William Penn purify the heart, and in the common concerns of speaks of, as being " the perfection of meekness life, to increase its comforts. It is said of our and divine sweetness." We repeat, they were Saviour, that he went about doing good to the not faultless. Let him that is so, venture to bodies and souls of men; so the prominent strike: but let us not encourage a feeling, which, characteristic of Quakerism, is emphatically to as one of our excellent old writers has pithily preach eternal salvation through faith in Jesus said, “ by reflection, thinks its own faults to be Christ, and to promote every possible melioration other men's." of the condition of man. In these respects,

We have followed Elizabeth Fry from her Elizabeth Fry stands forth in bold relief, pre- childhood through a life of remarkable activity eminently conspicuous, even among her own to her death bed, and thence to her grave. We people. We might also more particularly allude have seen her religion in her fear of God, and its to such men as William Penn, Robert Barclay, demonstration in her good works. In all her Thomas Story, John Woolman, Dr. Fothergill, afflictions the angel of his presence comforted Anthony Benezet, and William Allen. Such her; she cast her burdens upon the Lord and were they, of whom the apostle spoke, of whom he sustained her. Had she been perfect, she the world was not worthy, They were indeed, had been unlike every one else, for weakness is bright examples of the Christian's faith, of the the common lot of humanity. The writer's Christian's practice, and of the breadth of the views in relation to particular traits in her charChristian's duties.* They were doubtless of acter, are expressed in the earlier numbers of like passions with ourselves, and held their trea- this Review* to them the reader is referred. sures in earthen vessels. We never supposed It has not been our aim to make these traits conthey were infallible ; the Apostle Paul disclaims spicuous; nor have we desired to exalt the creathe idea, that himself was so; he, as all others ture, by withholding the glory from the Creator

, are, was only safe, as he continually acted under By grace, Elizabeth Fry was what she was ; and the important injunction of our Saviour to every good gift of which she was the steward, 66 6 watch."

she was ever ready to acknowledge, came from The writer loves to contemplate a perfect above. For the exaltation of this grace of God, character. It affords no pleasure to scrutinize which, through faith, brings salvation to all who into the weak points of eminent, and particularly believe, and qualifies to do the will of our Father of pious, individuals ; and least of all, would he in heaven, have we written these Notices. consider himself justifiable in exaggerating the Persons not of our religious society have refailings, and placing the most unfavourable con- marked, that no inconsiderable portion of the exstruction on acts of doubtful propriety. May traordinary influence of Elizabeth Fry, arose from it ever be his concern, and that of his readers, her intimate connection with Friends—that this as we hope for Christ's sake to be forgiven, “ to gave her a vantage ground, and placed her in a speak gently of the erring,” and not to judge position particularly favourable for usefulness in when judgment does not belong to us. When her calling. The writer has no doubt of it; the

' we indulge a disposition to speak evil of the perusal of the volumes before us, confirms the absentliving or dead-striving to draw un- opinion. Her faith was strong in the immediate favourable inferences, we certainly forget the guidance of the Holy Spirit, and living under a nature of that Christian charity, without which daily exercise to act in simple obedience to its it is declared our religion is vain ; and we may requirings, she possessed a qualification, which be sure, the exhortation is applicable to us— in its extent might be said to be almost peculiar physician, heal thyself.

to herself, for seizing the favourable moment

, for 'The individuals named above, and many embracing, as she termed them, the openings" others, might be referred to, as remarkably quali- for service ; and it was a matter of duty with her fied to illustrate in their lives, their aiins, and to do so, for she believed, as we suppose every their works, the beneficent character and ten- one else does, that she was called of ihe Lord to dency of the doctrines preached by George Fox, labour in his cause, and the cause of her fellow

men; and above all things she desired, when the ! "If required to be more explicit, we need only day of reckoning should arrive, to be able 10 point to the labours of Friends, in relation to war, render her account with joy. Her life was 3 African slavery, the use of spirituous liquors, the me beautisul exemplification of the power of religion lioration of the penal laws, and prison discipline, the of the all-sufficiency of the Divine Spirit treatment of the aborigines of this country, and to come down to the present hour, their exertions on behalf of qualify for every good word and work. famine stricken Ireland, under one of the most appalling visitations of modern times.

* See pages 3, 17, 553.

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In the memorial respecting her, prepared by estimate of herself in the midst of her prominent the Monthly Meeting of Ratcliff and Barking, engagements, and her resignation and hopeful and published under the sanction of London trust under reverse of circumstances and trials of Yearly Meeting, her friends who had known many kinds, which her susceptible mind had to her from her infancy, among whom she lived undergo, were alike exemplary and instructive.” and died, and who had long sympathized with We can scarcely close these remarks without her in her religious exercises, and who must of associating William Allen's name with that of necessity, have been thoroughly acquainted with Elizabeth Fry. They were fellow-labourers, her, say:

and probably no individual of latter time could “Her ministry, was sound in doctrine, prac- be named, who has been more widely instrutical and touching; freely conveying the glad mental in spreading the doctrines of the Gospel, tidings of salvation, comforting the mourners, and beautifully illustrating them in their lives affectingly warning the careless and indifferent, than they. William Allen's Journal is one of and richly flowing forth in tender love, which the most delightful books we ever perused. The sought to gather all into the fold of the Redeemer. love without dissimulation—the “milk of human Her endearing addresses to the young found kindness,” that appears on every page-his remarkable access to their hearts; and her vocal meekness, ever regarding others better than himprayers, both in public worship and in the do-self-his apparent unconsciousness of the high mestic circle, were fervent and deeply impressive. position he actually occupied among his friends It was humbling to her and in the cross to her and countrymen generally, cast a colouring of own inclination that she ventured, from time to beauty over his life, and the pages which record time, on public service; especially when ad-it, of an extremely interesting and attractive dressing those who were not of our Society: but character, and which has been rarely equalled. amidst all her conflicts, and many fell to her lot We would be inclined to pity the individual who both from without and from within, there was a could rise from the Journal of his Life without fountain of living water which supplied all her feeling his own inferiority, and the conviction need.

that he ought to be a better man. Two such “We would particularly observe, that while she individuals as William Allen and Elizabeth Fry felt living unity with the true disciples of Christ, are not often contemporaries. Should the Sounder whatsoever name, she lived and died in ciety of Friends wiihin the coming hundred faithful attachment to those Christian, testimonies years be able to point to two of its members, as and spiritual views, of the truth of which she those upon whom the mantle of these worthies had been so thoroughly convinced in early life. shall have fallen, encouragement may be derived It was as a consistent Friend that she trod that from the fact, and the inference fairly drawn, path of usefulness which, had she not been such, that the Glory has not departed from our stricken would have been in various ways circumscribed. Society.

U. M. She moved along in the obedience of faith; and in dependence on Divine influence, was enabled to find her way to the heart and understanding of the child at school, the sufferer on the sick OBSERVATIONS ON INSANITY AND CRIME. bed, the hardened criminal, and even the poor

(Continued from page 652.) maniac: we believe it was under this influence

From the cases recited in the former part of that she first entered the walls of Newgate, and this essay, and a greater number contained in so remarkably succeeded in bringing a lawless the works referred to, and particularly Ray's multitude of her own sex into order, and after- Medical Jurisprudence of Insanity, it is manifest wards in prosecuting, on an extended scale, her that with our present system of penal law, the excellent plans for the reformation of female question of insanity or soundness of intellect, on criminals.' In all her varied services she wore which the fate of our fellow men must often the ornament of a meek and quiet spirit, accom- depend, will unavoidably be generally submitted panied by Christian courage and sound dis

inen totally unqualified to form a correct cretion ; and it was a remarkable feature in the judgment. Dr. Brigham, the Superintendent of character of our departed friend, that in the prison the New York State Asylum, remarks, “ to my or the palace her demeanour was the same; and mind there is no stronger argument in favour of before the most exalted among men, she boldly abolishing capital punishments than the impossipleaded the cause of the poor, the afflicted and bility of determining whether some homicides are the persecuted.

insane or not. There is no sure criterion of “While we thus record the public religious insanity ; no sure test of its existence by which labours of our dear devoted sister, the remem- it may be certainly recognized."* If a highly brance is precious to us of the sweet influence intelligent physician, intimately acquainted with of her spirit in our own Monthly Meeting; insane patients, could find no certain test by always promoting love, peace and union, and feelingly sympathizing in the joys and sorrows

* Report of Committee of New York Legislature on of those of all conditions around her. Her low | Capital Punishments, 1847.

For Friends' Review.




which the existence of insanity could be always gained the ascendancy as to prove him dangerous detected, it must be absurd to suppose that a to himself or to the community, the proper subject court and jury, consisting of men who have of enquiry is, the certainty of the fact, and the never given attention to the subject, will be likely method of preventing any disastrous conseto decide such cases 'correctly.

quences. In such case restraint is obviously the The conclusion, then, to which we are led, is proper expedient. As there are few so depraved plainly this: that such questions need not be de- as to be totally insensible of moral and religious cided. The correct administration of justice can obligations; and none, but the unequivocally hardly require that the capacities of the mind insane, who are altogether inaccessible to reason, should be fathomed, and the motives of action there can be little danger, in the management of weighed and measured by human sagacity. The criminals, whether their offences originate in actions of men are readily cognizable by the partial insanity, or inexcusable depravily, of senses, and can be compared with the legal going astray by depending chiefly upon moral standard. When those actions become de- remedies, addressed to the understanding and the structive to the peace, or dangerous to the safety heart, with as little mixture of punitory infliction of the community, the offenders become the as may be found, compatible with needful seproper objects of penal law. But the legitimate curity. procedure points to reformation and security, We often hear of criminals being brought to not the infliction of pain. A person may be a justice, in cases where vengeance only is effected. dangerous member of society, unfit to run at A man has been guilty of murder-he is prelarge, and this may be easily perceived by those sumed to be excited to the act by deep-seated who are incompetent to decide whether his pre- moral depravity-is tried, convicted, and exevailing propensities are the result of moral de cuted. Then justice is said to have overtaken pravity, or of some of the endless grades of in- him. The barbarians of Melita seem to have sanity. In either case the safety of the commu- thought the viper, which fixed upon the Apostle's nity, and the preservation of the individual, re- hand, the minister of vengeance, as well as of quire that he should be restrained. This restraint justice. We are told that Henry VIII., of Eng. may perhaps involve some degree of physical land, onee ordered his minister, the witty Sir suffering, and can- scarcely fail to operate upon Thomas More, to deliver to the King of France the mind as a punishment. As humanity dic- a message, which he deemed so offensive, that tates, that in cases of unquestionable insanity, he told his master the French monarch would the restraint should not be rendered needlessly cut his head off if he delivered that message. irksome or severe, and that the appropriate " If he does," said Henry, “I will cut off the means of restoration should be applied; so in the head of every Frenchman in England.” “ But," case of moral depravity, a Christian spirit would responded the minister, " that will be no comdictate a treatment suited to moral and religious pensation to me, for I do not believe any Frenchimprovement, accompanied by the portion of man's head will fit my shoulders as well as my restraint, and that portion only, which the cir- own.” This is something like the justice that cumstances require. Happily, where security is usually rendered by the execution of murderand reformation, and not vengeance, are the ers. The murdered person receives no more objects of penal law, there will be as little differ- benefit from the execution of the murderer, than ence in the discipline applied to the offender, Thomas More would have received from the whose criminal propensities arise from the indul- decapitation of the Frenchmen. When an injury gence of the malevolent passions, and the mono- is done to person or property, justice seems to maniac who is ricious from moral insanity, as require that the sufferer should be restored, if there is in their visible and predominant propen- possible, do the situation in which he would sities. As the skilful physician adapts his pre- have been, in case the injury had not been comscriptions, not merely to the name, but to the mitted ; and no reason appears why this restoranature and symptoms of the disease, so the treat- tion should not be effected by the exertions of ment of those who are unfit to be intrusted with the injurer. But as the infliction of an equal or their own government, should be adjusted to the greater injury upon the offender is no reparativn subjection of the reigning propensity. Abandon to the original sufferer, it is futile to speak of it the idea that justice requires the violators of the as justice. The Locrián law, which ordained law to be punished, and substitute the more hu- that he who struck out the eye of a one-eyed mane and Christian doctrine, that the efforts of man should lose both his in return, though pro the legislative and executive authorities ought to nounced by Blackstone to be judicious, was be directed to the reformation of criminals, and evidently vindietive; but its justice is another the prevention of crimes, and we shall find the question. What benefit was it to the first sufquestion of the sanity or insanity of criminals, ferer, that the author of his blindness was also in cases admitting of reasonable doubt, a matter made blind? of little importance.

Under the Mosaic dispensation, it is obserrable If from any cause, known or unknown, the malevolent passions of an individual have so far

Commentaries, Vol. 4, p. 21.

that restitution was a prominent object-with the offences against the law of nature, that is now inspired legislator.* İt is true that many of the vested in the magistrate alone, who bears the provisions were vindictive rather than restorative. sword of justice by the consent of the whole But we are not to forget that Moses was legis- community.” lating for a people, not yet prepared for the re- This natural right of punishing murder, which ception of the Christian religion; and that our we are told was vested in every man, is neither Saviour has plainly informed us that the retalia- more nor less than the lex talionis, recognized tory principles of the Mosaic code have no place and acted upon by nearly all savage nations. in his dispensation. “Ye have heard that it hath The son, brother or nearest friend of a murdered been said, an eye for an eye and a tooth for a man, became the avenger of blood. Among tooth ; but I say unto you that ye resist not evil, some uncivilized nations it has been, and probabut whosoever shall smite thee on the right bly still is, held to be an indispensable duty to cheek, turn to him the other also.” . This is avenge the murder of a father or friend. Justice strong_language ; but it is the language of the is supposed to demand it. But in many cases New Testament: and whatever we may judge to the vengeance does not end with the death of the be its exact meaning, or the extent of its appli- first criminal. The avenger of blood himself is cation, we must agree that it prohibits the retali- regarded as a murderer, ihe victim of a second ation of injuries. That this applies to govern- avenger; and thus the tragedy issues in a proments as well as to individuals, is fairly inferred longed series of murders. There can be no from the consideration, that the case to which he doubt that this practice arose from the vindictive alludes is one which, under the ancient system, passions of men ; and that the supposed right was punishable by judicial proceedings. Besides and duty were derived from the practice. The it would be a strange perversion to assign one transfer from individuals to the community, and set of principles for the government of individuals, thence to the civil magistrate, of the right, or, in and another to regulate their actions in their as the opinion of some of the duty, to punish sociated capacity. No genuine Christian will murder with death, is the substitution of public deny that the religion which our Lord has offered for private vengeance. The vindictive passions to our acceptance, is equally binding upon the are probably less intense when thus transferred man who is acting for himself, and upon him to the public; yet it may be fairly questioned, who is acting for the public: and whatever his whether as much is not added by diffusion as is station or the sphere of his labours, the same taken off in intensity. When three years ago, Divine law must regulate his conduct. Hence an innocent boy was barbarously murdered near I confidently infer, that so far as punishments, West Chester, Pa., the county was roused, and inflicted by law, are vindictive or retaliatory, so the murderer consigned to the gibbet, apparently far they are inconsistent with the religion which by general consent. The crime admitted of no we all profess. And if such laws are not recon- palliation, except that of moral insanity ; but the cilable with the principles of Christianity, it execution of the criminal could bring no consowould be useless, not to say impious, to enquire lation to the afflicted parents of the boy. Had into their expediency. For as the Author of this crime been perpetrated in savage life, the nature is also the Founder of Christianity, what knife or tomahawk of the father would probably erer is conformable to the latter must be ulti- have avenged the murder, and none but the mately expedient.

friends of the parties have shared in the exciteIf these arguments are sound in relation to ment. punishments of the lower grades, they apply If when individuals are the judges in cases with tenfold force to those of a capital kiud. It wherein they are most nearly concerned, their can hardly be necessary to employ much time views of justice are apt to be obscured by the in proving that capital punishments are always passions, and the transfer is designed to remedy essentially vindictive. As the punishment of the evils arising from this cause, this remedy death is now seldom visited upon any crimes cannot be complete until the principle, as well as but real or imputed murder, my remarks will be mode of action, shall be changed. While murder confined to such cases.

continues to be expiated by the death of the ofJudge Blackstone observes, “It is clear that fender, the proceeding is the same in principle, the right of punishing crimes against the law of whether the execution is effected in a summary nature, as murder and the like, is, in a state of manner, by the friend of the deceased, or delibemere nature, vested in every individual.' In a rately accomplished by the mandates of the law. state of society, this right is transferred from in- It may, perhaps, be rather less liable to fall upon dividuals to the sovereign power, whereby men an innocent person, when effected by law; but are prevented from being judges in their own even that is not altogether clear. The records of causes, which is one of the evils that civil go- criminal jurisprudence furnish a melancholy catavernment was intended to remedy. Whatever logue of persons who have suffered under the power, therefore, individuals had of punishlng grave and deliberate decisions of the courts,


• Ex. 22.

• Commentaries, Vol. 4, p. 8.

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