« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
For Friends' Review,
raised to send missionaries to communicate to nent topics in the history of our race-are illusheathen nations the blessings of Christianity. trated by a comprehensive intellect, thoroughly Sueh exertions excite our admiration, elevate stored with the accumulated knowledge of our our country in our eyes, and even exalt our times. I proceed to extract from this great work, nature. But turn for a moment to the opposite a comparison between Napoleon and Cromwell, picture, and observe ten times these enormous which, as the testimony of one, the bias of sums expended upon twenty acres of land at whose opinion was certainly not towards the Dover, and as many at Calais ; not to promote Stuarts, must have weight in our estimate of the civilization or happiness, but for purposes of Protector's character.
C. mutual hostility, defiance, aggression and blood- “ The most superficial observer cannot have shed. I do verily believe, that the true, genuine, overlooked the general resemblance in the forvalorous, military spirit, is the true and genuine tunes and character of Cromwell, and of him spirit inspired by the money of man ; and I hope who more recently, and upon an ampler theatre, that I shall never refuse or be ashamed to avow has struck nations with wonder and a we. But these strange, extraordinary sentiments.-T. F. the parallel may be traced more closely than perBurton.
haps has hitherto been remarked. Both raised to power by the only merit which a revolution
leaves uncontroverted and untarnished, that of OLIVER CROMWELL.
military achievements, in that reflux of public
sentiment, when the fervid enthusiasm of deEnglish history is a story which has no mocracy gives place to disgust at its excesses, parallel, and which, more than any other, illus- and a desire of firm government. The means of trates the inseparable connection between Chris- greatness the same to both; the extinction of a retianity and civilization in its highest develop- presentative assembly, once national, but already ments. Of all the writers upon this great subject, mutilated by violence, and sunk by its submission a living author seems to have found, or at least to that illegal force, into general contempt. In to have succeeded in conveying to his readers, military science, or the renown of their exthe truest conception of its moral bearing. ploits we certainly cannot rank Cromwell by Hallam's “ Constitutional History of England,” the side of him for whose genius and ambition is a picture of moral and intellectual progress, all Europe seemed the appointed quarry ; but it traced by a master hand. It does not deal in may be said that the former's exploits were as glowing descriptions of military achievements, much above the level of his cotemporaries, and but records the triumphs of mind. It shews how more the fruits of an original, uneducated capacity. the increasing sense of moral obligation prepared In civil government there can be no adequate the way for the more equal diffusion of the parallel between one who had drunk only the blessings of liberty ; it record the gradual re- dregs of a besotted fanaticism, and one to whom cognition of individual rights, as both the cause the stores of reason and philosophy were open. and the result of social progress; and the final But it must be here added that Cromwell, far unacknowledgment of the supremacy of law, as like his antitype, never showed any signs of a secured not so much by physical force, as by legislative mind, or any desire to fix his renown indomitable perseverance, and that development on that noblest basis, the amelioration of social of mind which Christianity alone produces. institutions. Both were eminent masters of hu
Hallam's standard of morality is not a perfect man nature, and played with inferior capacities one; but by that standard he tests the actions in all the security of powerful minds. Though which he relates, with singular impartiality. So both, coming at the conclusion of a struggle for curiously do the political questions of the day liberty, trampled upon her claims, and someconnect themselves with the history of the times spoke disdainfully of her name, each British Constitution, that it were too much to say knew how to associate the interests of those that party views never intrude upon his discus- who had contended for her, with his own assions. But it is difficult to read the calm, lucid cendancy, and made himself the representative and logical disquisitions upon the great topics of a victorious revolution. Those who had too included in his narrative, without the conviction much philosophy or zeal for freedom, to give that he brought to his task a high sense of the way to popular admiration for these illustrious dignity of history, with extraordinary sagacity usurpers, were yet amused with the adulation and critical acumen, A perfect master of his that lawful princes showered on them, more native tongue, his writings may be studied as "a gratuitously in one instance, with servile terror in well of English undefiled,” while the formation the other. Both, too, repaid in some measure this of the English constitution, from its rude begin- homage of the pretended great, by turning their nings under our Saxon ancestors, until its great ambition towards those honours and litles which outline was clearly defined in the reign of William they knew to be so little connected with high II, and the wonderful elasticity by which it has desert. A fallen race of monarchs, which had adapted itself to every successive stage of social made way for the greatness of each, cherished progress-subjects which must ever form promi- l hopes of restoration by their power, till each, by
an inexpiable act of blood, manisested his de- , a fine forest, and opposite rises the giant form of termination to make no compromise with that the glorious Jungfrau—a sovereign among the line. Both possessed a certain coarse good na mighty Alps. The buildings which form the ture and affabiliiy, that covered the want of hospice are extremely modest, but convenient ; conscience, honour and humanity ; quick in and on that height is to be found nearly all the passion, but not vindictive, and averse to un- necessaries of daily life. The produce of the necessary crimes. Their fortunes in the con- kitchen-garden is, in general, very abundant ; clusion of life were indeed very different; one and Indian corn, and even other corn, grows well forfeited the affections of his people, which the there. The inmates bake their own bread, and other, in the character at least of their master, sometimes kill their own meat. Poultry and had never possessed ; one furnished a moral to goats complete their stock. Europe by the continuance of his success, the Almost always the winter, which is severe in other by the prodigiousness of his fall. A fresh the valley, passes gently over the heights. Two resemblance arose afterwards, when the restora- unfailing springs of water supply them amply tion of those royal families, whom the ascendant with baths, as well as what is wanted for househad kept under, revived ancient animosities, and hold use. excited new ones ; those who from love of de- In this retirement, with all the ardor with mocratic liberty had borne the most deadly which discoveries inspire genius, and the patience hatred to the apostates who had betrayed it, re- and affection with which the love of his fellowcovering some affection to their memory out of creatures has filled his heart, the young and aversion to a common enemy.”
scientific physician we have named, has resolved
on spending his life, surrounded by objects for From Chambers's Journal.
the greater part of a disgusting nature, and with
out companions of like education with himself, HOSPITAL FOR INFANT CRETINS.
except in the valley below. Before this living The unfortunate beings whose destiny forms example of Christian love we bow with feelings the subject of this memoir, are well known to of unmixed veneration ; for, when he began his travellers in Switzerland, whose enjoyment of work, there were no admiring crowds to fan the beauties of that glorious country has often enthusiasın ; there was everything to fear from been clouded by the sight of what has hitherto want of funds, and little co-operation to hope for been considered as incurable suffering. The from the medical practitioners of the country. benevolent have sighed over their degradation; There were deep-rooted prejudices to overcome. the political economist has calculated the dead Money never is abundant in Switzerland, and weight that they must prove on so poor a popu- one canton takes but little interest in the institulation, and the Christian has mourned over im- tions of another. mortal souls, enveloped, as it were, in a chrysalis, Once inspired with this generous determinawhich will open only when the cerements of the tion, and prompted by scientific knowledge, Dr. tomb shall burst.
Guggenbühl gave himself up to the study of the They have existed for centuries-indeed, no probable causes of this mysterious disorder, and one in the country knows the time when there of the probable means of curing it. For this, were no crétins in the land ; they have existed he availed himself of the researches and opinions as an unavoidable evil, and no means had hitherto of others, and also of what is always a sure been sought to turn away so great an affliction, guide—the hereditary wisdom of the inhabitants or modify its intensity, till one of those noble of those places where crétinism is most prevaand unselfish characters, which the world sees lent. from time to time stand forth from the crowd, He found that from the celebrated De Sausrose up to help them, giving his powers of mind sure, down to the living physicians of Switzerand energies of heart to the subject, and devoting land, all agreed that the disorder never showed himself entirely to the cure or amelioration of itself above the height of four thousand feet on infant cretins.
the mountains; and that children attacked by it, It is now seven years since the simple-hearted and immediately carried up into a purer and and benevolent Dr. Guggenbühl founded his keener air, were sure to recover, and even to be asylum on the heights of the Abendberg, a spot more lively and forwarder on returning again which poets and painters might choose as the into the valleys, at the approach of winter, than scene of their reveries, and which is singularly the other children of those parts; but also, they well-calculated to supply the wants of its inmates easily fall back again into the same state as before, for their physical and intellectual development and require more than one summer spent upon A purer air cannot exist, nor a scene of more the heights to free them entirely from all sympexquisite beauty. It is an open space, three toms of the disorder. thousand five hundred feet above the level of the He found, also, that those who were rich sea, between the lakes of Thun and Brientz, and enough, sent their offspring away while infants overhanging the towns of Interlacken and Unter- to healthier spots; and that the inhabitants of seen; below, the mountain is thickly covered by Sion, in the Valais, who possess mayens, or
pastures, and chalets on the heights, send their Associations began then to be formed in many wives up to them, to be delivered there, with of the capitals of Europe, beginning with Hamthe conviction that the infants so born are freer burg, Amsterdam, &c.; and finally, Dr. Troxler, from attacks of crétinism than those born in the professor of Berne, gave the establishment the valleys. All these undoubted facts led him to sanction of his powerful name. Subscriptions found his establishment at the height so indicated, were made which have enabled Dr. Guggenbühl and in the healthiest spot possible, where the to extend his operations wider than he possibly little crélins can spend the winter as well as the could have done ; and last year he ventured to summer in comfort, and be not only under the add a second building to the original one, that care of nurses and physicians, but also under the children might be enabled to continue their that of schoolmasters and mistresses, and so re- gymnastic excercises through the winter, whereas ceive bodily care and intellectual instruction at before they could only be performed in the open the same time.
air. He has also added two or three rooms in He began in the spirit of Franke, whose ex- the new building, which can be occupied by the ample he so ofien alludes to ; and relying on the parents of the children, who may wish to remain fulness of Christian benevolence to realize what with them for a longer or a shorter time; for he felt sure of executing, were the means ob- among the sick, whom Dr. Guggenbühl's rising tained. His difficulties were great, and the reputation has brought to the Abendberg, are sympathy he met with at first amongst his own some of high rank, who, though not precisely countrymen, next to nothing; but we cannot but crétins, were yet of that class of patients in whom regard the neighbourhood of Interlacken, which the brain appears not to have been properly dein summer is filled with tourists from every veloped ; and to these he has been of very great country, as a most providential circumstance for use. When we visited him in 1846, and fully the success of the rising hospital.
enjoyed the sight of so much natural and moral The first news that we received of its existence beauty, we saw two titled little girls who had was from the graphic pen of one of the daughters been taken to him from Germany, to die, as it of the Russian ambassador, (the Baron de Kru- was thought, but who have, on the contrary, dener,) then at Interlacken, who had accom- lived and prospered under his roof. panied the Princess Rephin on a visit to it, and of the number of children hitherto admitted, who described its very infancy with enthusiasm. one-third have been sent back to their families Some time after, the king of Wurtemberg, while quite cured, others more or less ameliorated, and resident at Interlacken, inspected it himself, and some few have died. In general, Dr. Guggengave substantial marks of his interest; and the bühl complains that they are not left long enough, scientific of all countries, as well as the philan- and assures us that a long space of time and conthropic and the curious, who visit the Bernese tinued care are absolutely necessary to insure Oberland, have spread a knowledge of its foun- perfect success; not less, he reckons, than three dation throughout the continent, more rapidly years in general. Some have appeared to baffle than otherwise could ever have been hoped every effort, their bodies presenting an ensemble for.
of deformity, their tongues obtruding from their Nevertheless, ill-natured doubts were thrown mouths, their heads hanging down, their skin on the facts which Dr. Guggenbühl published, wrinkled like a person of eighty, their limbs and ridicule even was not wanting to dishearten dwindled to nothing, their bodies enormous, and and distress him. Some generous-minded per- neither sign of intelligence nor any articulate sons were, however, to be found, who held out a sound to be drawn from them. Even these, by helping hand, and assisted him to put his benevo- his kind and judicious treatment, by unwearying lent designs in execution,
care, by baths, by aromatic frictions, by electriAs soon as the establishment was opened, the city, by goats' milk, by exposure to the air and government of Berne granted it a sum of six sun, by every means of infant development, hundred livres; and those of Fribourg, the playing, talking, laughing, by lessons with picValais, and St. Gall, sent crétin children to be tures, and by singing_even these have acquired maintained there at their expense. The king of the use of their limbs, the power of speech, the Prussia likewise took notice of it, and ordered faculty of learning; and have, after a long stay two children to be placed there from the princi- on the Abendberg, been sent back as well as, pality of Neuschatel; the Countess of Hahn and even more forward in most branches of in- / Hahn, who had taken her daughter to the struction, than the generality of children of their Abendberg, in the vain hope of effecting her age. Their progress is never uniform or regular, cure, (but her age, sixteen, rendered it impossi- but always by fits and starts, and all at once, as ble,) with a most natural sympathy for others if a cell were opened in their brain, or a veil similarly afflicted, requested that a Valaisan withdrawn from their understanding, and that, child should be always maintained there at her too, when least expected. Parents and schoolexpense, to be called her child, one succeeding masters might learn many a useful lesson on that the other when cured, and for which she gave Alpine height, and find data which would save the necessary funds.
more than one dunce from the rod, and teach the
To be continued.
master that he is far more to blame than the unclouded sky, the electricity which predomischolar.
nates in the atmosphere, all which have so great His great principle is to strengthen the body | an influence on our invalids, were furthered by before he attempis to develop the mind. He strict regimen and constant care. This delicate even goes so far as to say, that to venture on the little creature, who so soon after her birth had second before the first is accomplished, is pro- begun to lose all resemblance to a human being, ductive of the most disastrous consequences; and that so rapidly, now made as rapid strides and were his warning voice but listened to, how towards recovery. In three months time, the many victims of precocity, how many little deformities of her person began to disappear, wonders, who minister to parental sell-love for her skin recovered its natural warmth, the wrina time, and then sink into mediocrity afterwards, kles vanished, and her face grew young again, might be saved from subsequent suffering and with the hue and the charm of infancy; and at nervous irritability !
the same time her smile, and the manner in Dr. Guggenbühl divides crétinism into several which she took notice of those around her, different species :- 1st, Atrophy, in which the showed that the faculties of her mind were spinal marrow has suffered mostly, and the ex- awakening also. In the space of twelve months, tremities are nearly paralyzed : 2d, Rachitie, she had lost the appearance of a little doll, and where the bones have become soft and spongy, had regained that of children of her own age and out of proportion : 3d, Hydrocephalie; the proof sufficient of the efficacy of proper treatdisorder being occasioned by water formed in ment begun without loss of time, and of the disthe cells of the skull which ought to be occupied order being more efficaciously treated in earliest by the brain ; 4th, Inborn, of which the germ is infancy than at a later period. It is now in the infant at its birth, and which presents any eighteen months since she left us, and we have or all of the foregoing principles, and varies in had the happiness of learning from the Pastor intensity, from the slightly affected, down to the Biizius of Lutzelfück, (so well known as a popu. mass of animal matter which lies where it is lar writer,) in whose parish she is, that she conplaced, and can neither move nor speak. In tinues in perfect health, and can talk and express This class are to be remarked those who have herself well.” imperfect bodily growth, and the head out of proportion to the body; and also those who do not speak, yet are not deaf, but who have great
From Chambers' Journal. difficulty in articulating, and are too lazy to
MOROCCO. attempt it.
We might give some striking extracts from Few persons in Europe are aware of the ex. the German report published by Dr. Guggenbühl traordinary policy of the emperors of Morocco, in 1846, illustrative of each of these forms of and sew therefore were prepared for the solid crétinism ; but perhaps the following case of the support received by the Sultan Abd-er-Rahman first-mentioned form of crétinism (atrophy) will from his subjects when attacked by so formidable be considered sufficient in a non-professional an enemy as Abd-el-Kader had proved himself
, journal like this.
by his religious and military prestige, as much “L-, a little girl of six months old, was as by his unbounded activity and energy. brought to us. Her mother is strong and The policy, however, which has made the healthy, but her father weak and scrofulous. Till fortune of the Edrisite dynasty, has at all times she was four months old she was in good health, been a very simple one-namely, with foreign but weaker than children of that age generally. powers, no relations, complete isolation; and at A violent cold was the beginning of her illness; home, alliance with all the great families of the and when brought to our house, her appearance kingdom. This double line of conduct explains was so wretched as to procure her the name of the existence and the strength (if “union the little worm from the Princess-Royal Henri- is strength") of the empire of Morocco. Let us etta of Wurtemberg, during her visit to us; and enter more fully into the particulars of this twotruly was she so named, for she was frightful fold system, the originality of which will not to look upon. Her body was more like a skele- fail to surprise those of our readers who may ton covered with skin than anything else, and not be familiar with the ideas and principles of that skin was cold and wrinkled. All her mus. Oriental monarchies. cles were immovable, and the extremities of her Morocco, in its geographical position, stands body like miniature hands and feet. Her face almost isolated. It is bounded on the west by was deadly white, her forehead and cheeks the Atlantic, on the north by the Mediterranean, wrinkled like an old person's, while her black on the east by Algeria, which, up to the period and piercing eyes had a singularly knowing look. of the French conquest, seventeen years ago, She slept ils
, her pulse was feeble, and she had counted as nothing; and on the south by the no natural heat. She came to us in July ; the Deseri, and different tribes who obey no form of weather was beautiful, and the keenness of our government. It was not difficult, therefore, for mountain air, the uninterrupted sunshine of our the founders and successors of the dynasty of
Morocco to enclose themselves in a moral manner, such a port, but he constitutes himself their within a species of insurmountable barrier—that banker, and lends them the money necessary for is to say, to have no relation with foreign powers. their trade. Some of these loans have amounted This they have done. No commerce, no diplo- to £80,000. When the Prince de Joinville bommacy. They have imprisoned themselves in barded Mogador, he was told that the merchants their own country; they have lived, and made of that place owed £800,000 to the emperor. their subjects live, in a perpetual enclosure, the Here, then, is a man who holds in his hands, country sufficing, by its own resources, for the either by relationship or by interest, almost all few wants of its inhabitants. What has been the chief resources of his kingdom. His patronthe result of this singular policy? That this age and his strength are increased by the prestige monarchy has had to engage in no foreign wars, of holiness which he derives from his titles of and thus has been enabled to consolidate itself "Lineal descendant of the Prophet,” and the without fear of any dangerous foe.
“ Head of Islamism in the West." At the hour Being unapproachable by enemies from of need, he could also count on the valuable aswithout, they have turned their thoughts to sistance of the order of Moulez-Taïeb, a religious avoiding hostility in their own territories, and association, as powerful as it is numerous, and the following is the plan they have adopted for whose chief, being invested with the privilege of centuries :
sanctioning the nomination of the emperors, is Since the foundation of the dynasty, every necessarily, from his position, devoted to the reigning monarch has taken a wife from every existing dynasty. important family of the country. Any of those who have reigned twenty or thirty years, like
MANUFACTURE OF INDIAN RUBBER SHOES. the two last sovereigns, Moler-Sleinau and Mouleï-Abd-er-Rahman, have numbered two or The man of the house returned from the forest three thousand wives from the great families about noon, bringing in nearly two gallons of alone. At the present moment, Abd-er-Rahman milk, which he had been engaged since daylight has no less than seven hundred lawful consorts, in collecting from one hundred and twenty trees namely, two hundred at Morocco, two hundred that had been tapped upon the previous morning. at Mecknez, and three hundred at Fez. It is to This quantity of milk he said would suffice for this multitude of ladies, whose support is ruinous, ten pairs of shoes, and when he himself attended that the low state of the imperial treasury must to the trees, he could collect the same quantity in a great measure be attributed. They are every morning for several months. In making seven hundred daughters of the great families of the shoes, two girls were the artists, in a little the empire, who wait for a marriage, to return thatched hut which had no opening but the door then to their paternal home, with a young cherif, From an inverted water-jar, the bottom of which son of the sultan! The result of this matrimo- had been broken out for the purpose, issued a nomania is, that the emperors, when they reach column of dense white smoke, from the burning the age of sixty, like Abd-er-Rahman, can of a species of palm nut, and which so filled the number hundreds of male children fit to carry hut, that we could scarcely see the inmates. The arms, thousands of grandsons, and thousands of lasts used were of wood, exported from the nephews and grand-nephews. If you unite to United States, and were smeared with clay, 10 this little army, which derives its blood, its life, prevent adhesion. In the leg of each was a long from one single source—the fathers-in-law, sick, serving as a handle. The last was dipped brothers-in-law, the cousins to the sixth degree into the milk, and immediately held over the inclusively-you will arrive at the strange but smoke, which, without much discolouring, dried positive conclusion, that of eight millions of sub- the surface at once. It was then re-dipped, and jects, one million of individuals belong by the the process was repeated a dozen times, until strongest ties to the reigning dynasty.
the shoe was of 'sufficient thickness, care being This may seem monstrous, but it is neverthe- taken to give a greater number of coatings to the less the exact truth. There are whole towns bottom. The whole operation, from the smearand districts whose inhabitants are offshoots of ing of the last to placing the finished shoe in the the imperial family. Thus all the Chourfas of sun, required less than five minutes. The shoe Tafilet are cousins, in various degrees of the was now of a slighily more yellowish hue than emperor.
the liquid milk, but in the course of a few hours
'a But the imperial policy does not stop here. it became of a reddish-brown. After an expoAll those with whom the emperor, from peculiar sure of twenty-four hours, it is figured as we see considerations, cannot form connections by ties upon the imported shoes. This is done by the of blood, such as Moors, Jews, and Christians, girls with small sticks of hard wood, or the if they be of any weight, he chains to his needle-like spines of some of the palms. chariot by the link of commerce, of which he Stamping has been tried, but without success. reserves to himself the exclusive monopoly. He The shoe is now cut from the last, and is ready not only gives to some the privilege of buying for sale, bringing a price of from ten to twelve and selling such and such an article in such and vintens or cents per pair. It is a long time