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before they assume the black hue. Brought to day he or she was employed, harboured, or conthe city, they are assorted, the best being laid cealed. aside for exportation as shoes, the others as In 1807, an act amendatory of the preceding, waste rubber.—Edwards' Voyage up the Amazon. provided that no negro or mulatto should emigrate
into, or settle in the State, withoút entering into
bond with two freehold securities in the sum of FRIENDS? REVIEW.
$500, to be of good behaviour; and moreover, to PHILADELPHIA, SEVENTH MONTH 29, 1848. pay the expense of their maintainance in case they
should be found unable to support themselves. By a late number of the Western Friend, pub- harbour or conceal any negro or mulatto, contrary
Any inhabitant of the State, who shall employ, lished at Cincinnati, we are informed that the to the provisions of this act, is rendered liable to a Meeting for Sufferings of Indiana have issued an address to the citizens of Ohio, remonstrating maintaining such negro or mulatto, in case he or
penalty not exceeding $100; and to the cost of against some of the laws of that State in relation she shall become incapable of self support. Anto the people of colour. The enactments of which other section of the same act, provides that no black they complain are usually termed the “ black laws of Ohio." The address appears without date, but dence in any court of record in the State, in any
or mulatto person shall be permitted to give evifrom circumstances known to us, is believed to have been recently issued. It may be observed
cause where either party is a white person, or in that the Yearly Meeting of Indiana, on behalf of any prosecution instituted in behalf of the State,
against a white which that Meeting for Sufferings has acted, in
person. cludes a number of Quarters, and consequently a
These are the principal but not the only acts
against which our Friends of Indiana Meeting for arge body of Friends, resident in the State of
Sufferings have issued their remonstrance. The Ohio. It is understood that this subject has also engaged the consideration of Friends in the Meet the white as well as the coloured race, is clearly
injustice of some of these provisions, in relation to ing for Sufferings of Ohio Yearly Meeting, but we exposed. The following extract may afford to our do not find that they have appealed to the public readers a view of the lone and tenor of the ador to the Legislature of the State, on that account.
dress : It is well known, that, by the ordinance of 1787, the territory north-west of the Ohio, of which the of the law of 1807, disqualifying coloured persons
.“ Let us take a passing notice of the 4th section State of that name is a part, was carefully guarded from giving evidence, &c. As every act of legislaagainst the intrusion of slavery; and that to this tion is supposed to be designed to redress some circumstance the unparalleled advancement of the evil, or to procure some advantage, we naturally State, in population and wealth, has been generally inquire, what was the evil to be redressed of and justly attributed. It must then be a cause of advantage to be gained by this provision of law ?
Was it supposed that negroes and mulattoes were poignant regret, that a State thus favoured should too much addicted to mendacity, and too artful in permit its statute book to be stained with enact- concealing their falsehoods from the penetration of ments so irreconcilable with the principles of free judges and jurors, to be trusted to give evidence in government, as the black laws of Ohio certainly are. why were they permitted to give testimony in any
a court of law? If that opinion was entertained, The Constitution of the State was adopted in the case ? or was it deemed less desirable ihat the autumn of 1802, and its avowed object was "to truth should appear when coloured only were conestablish justice, promote the welfare, and secure cerned, than where one or both parties happened the blessings of liberty to themselves and their to be white ? or may we not fear that the object
was to prevent the people of colour from obtaining posterity:" yet as early as 1804, a law was enacted redress for outrages committed upon their persons, which prohibits black or mulatto persons from or property, by unprincipled whites? Whatever settling or residing in the State, unless they should the motive of the legislature may have been; first produce a certificate of freedom from some of our own colour against the just demands of the
whether the act was designed to secure the people court within the United States, attested by the negro race, or whether it was dictated by that clerk of the court. An inhabitant of the State is cruel and ineffable contempt with which the denot at liberty to hire, or in any way employ, a black scendants of Africa have long been regarded, the or mulatto person who is not possessed of such effect of it can scarcely be mistaken. While this
provision stands unrepealed, the coloured inhabicertificate, under a penalty of not less than ten, nortants of the State have little to expect from the promore than fifty dollars; one-half to the informer, tection of law, even in cases of the grossest ouland the other half to the State. The employer rage. And now let us soberly ask, what possible being required, in addition to this penalty, to pay persons of every complexion to state what they
injury could be apprehended from permitting the owner of such black or mulatto, in case an know in courts of law, ard subjecting their tesowner is found, the sum of fif:y vents for every timony to the rigid scrutiny of the bar, to the
For Friends' Review.
explanations of the bench, and the deductions of the month, 1846, he was married to a daughter of jury box? Is it reasonable to believe that more Jonathan and Rachel Priestman, the latter of whom falsehoods could be palmed upon the community became well known to many Friends here, luring and left undetected than now are ?
her acceptable religious labours in our land. His As these people are debarred by the terms of the health had iong been precarious, and he finally Constitution from participating in the choice of sunk under the pulmonary disease which had our legislators, and of course can exercise no con- proved fatal to several members of his family. trol over the laws by which they are governed, a
As the editor of his father's Journal, he evinced situation which we should hardly think equal and considerable ability as well as a just estimate of just, if placed in it ourselves, this circumstance those great doctrines of which that beloved parent furnishes a forcible appeal to our sympathy, and was favoured to be an able advocat e, both in the increases the responsibility of those entrusted with ministry and by a life of remarkable dedication to the legislation of the State. For " he that ruleth the Divine Will. We have no particulars of the over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God." circumstances attending the close of his life, yet If we regard these people as strangers, and not as
we were not willing to withhold this brief notice fellow citizens, we ought to remember that among of one who had participated so largely in the affecthe chosen people of old they were commanded to tion, the counsel, and the trials of a faithful servant have “one law to him that is home born and unto of Christ, and whose departure has left a void in the stranger that sojourneth among you.” And the hearts of those most nearly connected with the cause of the stranger was frequently and for him, which claims our deepest sympathy. cibly recommended to their attention.
The Christian religion has broken down the wall Suddenly, of erysipelas, at East Vassalof partition between Jews and Gentiles, and teaches boro, Maine, on First day evening, the 21st of 5th us to regard every man as our neighbour, whom we month last, in the 430 year of his age, FRANKLIN are commanded to love as ourselves.
Dow, a member of Vassalboro Monthly Meeting. Now, fellow-citizens, let us seriously inquire He was of an amiable disposition, and left a large whether the acts of violence and outrage by which circle of friends to mourn his loss. the coloured population was introduced into the -, Of apoplexy, after an illness of ten hours, United States, have not brought a weight of guilt at her residence in New Garden, Columbiana Co., upon our country which we are bound to expiate, Ohio, on the 22d ult, Hannah, wife of Caspar as far as possible, by according to them a liberal Williams, aged about 55 years. She was a beloved participation in the blessings, temporal and spiritual
, friend, and member of New Garden Monthly which have been poured on our favoured land! Meeting. Can we, as citizens of the United States, and above all, as professors of the benign doctrines of Christianity, give countenance to laws which we should deem unjust and oppressive if subjected to them
I have read the enclosed article in the “New ourselves; which evidently originated in a cruel York Dry Goods Reporter," with much inprejudice, and which are calculated to produce terest. Although somewhat foreign to the design and perpetuate that very degradation of moral and of “ The Review,” yet from its capability of intellectual character, which are urged in their de- general application, not only in regard to busifence."
ness, but also in the education and government
of children, and the management of our domestic In our 41st number we inserted a coinmunication affairs, I am induced to offer it for publifrom a valued correspondent in relation to the life cation, hoping that the perusal of it may awaken and character of Oliver Cromwell, at the close of withholding praise where it is due, and neglect
some who are in the too common practice of which the writer expresses an expectation of com
ing to reprove when needed. A. U. E. municating, on a future occasion, a passage from an
COMMENDATION. eminent author in support of the view which he had given. The expectation then expressed has
In no branch of mercantile pursuits are the been verified, and the passage, extracted from good effects of commendation so plainly evinced Hallam, with some judicious preliminary observa- as in that to which this journal is devoted. The tions, will be found in the present number.
reason we presume lies in the fact that no one branch is so entirely dependent on the personal address and exertion of the merchant's assist
ants. Diep.-On the 24th of the Sixth month, near Bristol, England, DANIEL WHEELER. He was the
These two things are the great prerequisites ; youngest son of our late beloved friend Daniel without them success is problematical at least. Wheeler, and possessed many of those traits of Country merchants who visit our cities, and cus. character which distinguished his eminent father. tomers who throng our retail stores, are wont to Having chosen the Medical profession, he was trade only where stavily of disposition and urpursuing his studies in England, when the series banity of manners characterize the salesmen. of severe afflictions to which the family at Shoos- We all know that high salaries are paid to saleshary were subjected, called him to reside for a time in that in hospitable climate. After the death of men possessing these qualities, because goods his father, he returned to his native land-his sister offered by a clerk morose in disposition and reand himself constituting the only survivors of that miss in his efforts to please, will be neglected, once numerous family circle. In the Seventh no matter at what prices they may be offered.
And while salesmen possessing the qualifications copybook and praised his early efforts. Nature, of politeness of manners and an obliging dispo- true to her course, here re-asserts her sway, and sition, (if combined with a prudence and know- the old man again revels in the remembrance of ledge of their business,) are sought after as assist the days of his youth. Do not rest under the ants, and success, when merchandizing on their belief that business talent will develop itself. We own account, is morally certain; the business do see instances where some giant minds hare qualitications of the morose and unaccommo- burst through the bonds of coldness and apathy dating clerk must be very brilliant, if he is not with which they were surrounded, and stood frequently in want of a clerkship, or is he is suc- before their astonished associates with the cessful when an employer.
strongest claims to talent and respect, their brilWe have been led to these remarks from an liancy rendered more conspicuous by the darkexamination of and reflection upon the causes ness by which they were surrounded; but thonwhich produce these two distinct classes of men, sands of gems lie buried beneath the dark clouds and have come to the conclusion, in our own of chilling indifference, who, had they been minds, that it is owing in a great measure to the placed in their appropriate sphere, would have culpable neglect of employers, in not tendering graced the palace of a merchant prince. to the clerk a word of commendation when cir- The mind of man is sympathetic as well as cumstances will permit, and believe that “ many progressive; it partakes of the nature by which an employer hath erred in that he withheld re- it is surrounded. Example is followed, and to proof-but more have mostly sinned in with a more considerable extent than is generally alholding commendation where it was due.” lowed. This may be amusingly tested by watch
We have noticed two boys, both equal in pro- ing the passengers on a doubtful rainy day. mise, start in life: the one engaged to an em- Two persons will meet, the one with his umployer who accorded to him the meed of praise brella closed, the other with his raised; they when he had acted well his part, and if unsuc- meet each other, and before either passes a block, cessful soothed his chagrin, and encouraged him it is very likely that you will see the one who to try again, following stricily in the belief of a had his umbrella closed raise it, and vice versa. writer who says, “ Wilt thou that one remember Such is the effect of example. What, then, a thing? praise him in the midst of thy advice. must be the effect of this carelessness and moNever yet forgat man the word whereby he roseness upon the tender mind of youth; and hath been praised.” The other thrown into the the mind is never still in anything, it continues circle of one who met his efforts with the freez- to grow more and more misanthropic, until even ing look of indifference, and chilled the fountain life is a burden, and all the social feelings of the of exertion with the sullen frown of dissatis- man are sunk and swallowed in those of the faction. We have traced these two boys' after cynic. life. We find the one who lived under the
say accord to the employee commendation genial sun of judicious commendation, become where it can be done. So shalt thou encourage an ornament to his pursuit, a successful merchant, a fainting heart. Kind words cost no more than and one whose opinions were sought for and harsh words and sour faces; and the coin is far respected. While the other, soured in dispo- more appreciated—beside the feeling that will sition and disgusted with customers who could gladden us in after years, that we have not only not appreciate his real worth, condemned, educated a merchant, but
we have made through the fault of his business education, to friend. fill a subordinate place in a first class house, or accept a situation which added but little to his business prospects.
EXTRACTS FROM THE SPEECH OF SENATOR
DIX. We can trace the beneficial effects of this ap
(Concluded.) preciation of early efforts upon the characters of men in every pursuit of life. It is the greatest
If these conclusions are just, an enlargement spur to exertion, and increases in the youthful of the surface over which slavery is spread carmind that determination and resolution which ries with it, by force of invincible laws, a multienables them to conquer difficulties heretofore plication of the race held in bondage; in other deemed insurmountable. The love of it pervades words, a substantial increase of the number of the breast of all; it is inherent in our natures, slaves. Extension in respect to surface is mulimplanted within us by the Almighty ; it accom-tiplication in point of number. The two propo panies us through all the walks of life; it is the sitions cannot be legitimately separated either mainspring of many of our noblest efforts, and in reasoning or in practice. In this view of accompanies us to the end of our existence. the subject, the extension of slavery is a repro
Take the old man whose head is frosted by duction of the original responsibility of introthe snows of fourscore years, and although he ducing it; and in this respect it has a moral may not remember the events of yesterday, yet bearing, to which the great mass of the he perfectly recollects the stranger who mei him, community cannot be indifferent. when a village school boy, took from him his There is nothing in the history of human
society so calculated to exalt it as the spectacle portion of Europe emigration to the United we present-receiving into the bonds of friend States takes its rise, it brings with it homogeship, and admitting to the rights of citizenship, neous currents. The same blood fills the veins the surplus of the over-peopled and over- of all. If shades of variety exist in the intel
governed countries of Europe. These annual lectual and physical characteristics of the 1 additions constitute an element of no inconsid- multitudes who come among us, it is to be
erable force in the ratio of our progression. traced to the influences which diversities of soil, 1. In the last quarter of a century—about the climate, and government have exerted upon
period we take for a duplication of our numbers them in the different sections of Europe in which - we have received from the United Kingdom their lot has been cast. In the great outlines of Great Britain and Ireland alone, nearly a mil- of this physiognomy, animal, and moral, they
lion of immigrants, and from continental Europe are identical ; and they are distinguishable from 2: we have had large additions. These drains all other races by peculiarities not to be mistaken. -. on the one hand, and accessions on the other, I believe it to be in the order of Providence,
are not only likely to continue, but to increase that the continent of North America, with the in force. A surplus population, provided for exception, perhaps, of some inconsiderable
by emigration, is certain to be regularly produced. districts, is ultimately to be peopled by the same • Europe, therefore, will not be numerically race which has overspread Europe, and made it * weakened by these annual drains, even though what it is in science, in art, in civilization, and they should be indefinitely augmented; and in morals. We may, by a misapplication of
every addition to our numbers from abroad the means at our command, thwart for a season E renders the force of immigration more intense, the divine purpose: we may postpone the
by relaxing the ties which bind to their native consummation of the end we have to accomplish; Es soil the kindred multitudes left behind.
but the deeply-seated causes which are at work For an indefinite period, then, we may calcu- will ultimately triumph over all obstacles.e. late on large and constantly increasing additions Years, possibly centuries, may be necessary to E to our population by immigration; and the complete this process; but it must, in the end,
natural multiplication of our own people, under be completed. the impulse of the powerful stimulants con- I believe it may be satisfactorily shown that tained in a soil of extraordinary fertility, and the free black population in the Northern States
in the superabundant supply of food, will doubt- does not increase by its own inherent force. I - less maintain our past rate of increase, and give doubt whether it is fully reproduced. In four · us, at the close of the present century, a hundred of the New England States—Vermont, New : millions of inhabitants.
Hampshire, Rhode Island and Connecticut-the One of the most interesting and important black population, from 1820 to 1840, materially problems, both for the American statesman and decreased. In New York, Massachusetts, and philosopher, is to determine of what race or Maine, there was an increase during the same races this vast population shall consist ; for on period; but this was, doubtless, due to the the solution which future generations shall give immigration of manumitted blacks from the to it, will essentially depend the prosperity of South, finding their way to the principal comthe community or 'communities they will mercial States. Without these accessions, the constitute, and their ability to maintain such a results in these States, would probably have been form of government as shall secure to them the the same as in the four New England States blessings of political liberty, and an advanced referred to. civilization.
What is the true policy of the country, In a general survey of the races by which looking at its rapid growth and to the steady the earth is peopled, though the varieties are extension of our people over the unoccupied infinite, there are but four grand divisions——the portions of this continent? There is a grave Asiatic, the Caucasian, the Ethiopian and the cause for reflection in the unexampled increase Indian. The whole surface of Europe, with of our population by its inherent force, and still some inconsiderable exceptions, is occupied by more in the vast accessions annually made to the Caucasian race-by the descendants of the our numbers by immigration. The public order energetic and independent hordes, which, from and prosperity depend in some degree on giving the shores of the Caspian, spread themselves to these accessions, foreign and domestic, a over Germany, and ultimately over Western uniform and homogeneous character. We could Europe, and laid the foundations of nearly half not divert the current of immigration if we were the civilization the world contains. From this disposed to do what every dictate of humanity Indo-germanic, or Caucasian race we are our repels and condemns. It is in the vast and selves descended; and we are doing for the New fertile spaces of the West that our own descendWorld what they did for the Old-spreading ants, as well as the oppressed and needy multiourselves over and subduing it—not, indeed, by tudes of the Old World, must find the food they arms, but by the arts of peace. In whatever require, and the rewards for labour, which are
necessary to give them the spirit and the inde- nent. In the latitude of Nova Scotia, which dendence of freemen.
is bound for nearly half the year in fetters of With regard to the policy of peopling this ice, snow on the Pacific does not lie more continent by the highest race in the order of than three or four weeks. In the valley of the intellectual and physical endowment, there can Wilhamette, above the 45th degree of north latibe no difference of opinion.
can tude-the parallel of Montreal-grass grows the hesitate to say whether the condition of this the whole winter, and cattle are rarely if ever continent, in all that concerns its government, housed. Green peas are eaten at Oregon city, morals, civilization, prosperity, strength, and in the same parallel, at Christmas. productiveness, would be most likely to be When I say this is a practical question, I do promoted by peopling it with the race from not rely on reasoning alone. The prohibition which we are sprung, or with the descendants of of slavery in the laws of Oregon was adopted the Ethiop and the Caffre. There may be for the express purpose of excluding slaves. A portions of the Southern States in which the few had been brought in; further importations climate and objects of cultivation require the were expected; and it was with a view to put labour of blacks. I pass by all considerations of a stop to them that the prohibitory act was this character, for an obvious reason. If there passed. are portions of the Union which can only be Shall we, then, refuse to ratify this prohibi- men cultivated by the African race, they are 'em- tion? Are we unwilling to extend to the braced within the territorial boundaries of organ- inhabitants of Oregon a privilege they ask for ized States, over whose domestic condition and themselves? Shall we, by our judgment sorelations the federal government has no control. lemnly pronounced here, declare that the terriThe question concerns only them, and I forbear tory of Oregon shall be open to the introduction to touch it. But admitting the necessity of slave of slaves, unless the people, through their legir labour there, the admission furnishes no argument lative Assembly, re-enact the prohibition ! I in favour of the extension of the African race to might go further, and ask, in reference to a territories in which no such necessity exists. proposed amendment, whether we are prepared
The character of the population, by which to say, against the wishes of the inhabitants this continent is to be occupied, is a subject of that the introduction of slaves into Oregon shall vital importance to every section of the Union. not be prohibited ? The strength of the whole is concerned, and
I desire it not to be understood, in putting with its strength, its security from external ag- these inquiries, that I am in favour of leaving to gression and intestine disorder and violence. the inhabitants of territories the decision of a
It is generally conceded that there is nothing in question, not only affecting them, but of vital the climate or productions of Oregon, which re- importance to the prosperity of the whole con quires the labour of blacks. If this be so, slavery, munity. I have always regarded it as one of the if introduced, would gradually give way in the high duties of the federal government, to give competition with free labour. Notwithstanding direction and shape to the institutions of the this inherent tendency in slavery to wear itself inhabitants of a territory, while preparing them out, in districts to which it is not indispensably selves for admission into the Union. This tem necessary, it will be profitable for a time in new porary subordination was deemed necessary far countries where there are lands to be brought the northwest territory, even though settled under cultivation, and where there is an urgent by the unmixed population of the thirteen demand for labour. But for a temporary purpose original States, trained to self-government and -with the assurance that it must eventually be to the exercise of political rights under institoeradicated—would it not be unjust and unwise, tions of the most faultless character. How much considering the question in its political bearing more necessary is such a supervision now, when alone, to decline to exclude it, and to make the territories are becoming annexed to the Unios
, prohibition absolute ?
inhabited by the most heterogeneous races
, and Gentlemen have said, that slaves will never wholly unused to the enjoyment or exercise ó be taken to Oregon. With all deference to
rational freedom ? their opinions, I differ with them totally. I I conclude by saying for New York, as I think believe, if permitted, slaves would be carried I am authorized to say by her legislative resothere, and that slavery would continue at least lutions, that while she will adhere stedfastly to as long as in Maryland or Virginia. The Pacific all the compromises of the Constitution, and coast is totally different in temperature from the while she will resist all interference with slavery Atlantic. It is far milder. "Lines of equal in the States, as unauthorized and disorganizing, temperature—isothermal lines, as they are tech- she will never consent to its extension to ternically denominated-traverse the surface of the tory in which it does not now exist, and expert earth in curves of varied eccentricity in reference cially where it is now prohibited. On the to the parallels of latitude. These curves are contrary, she will, in every constitutional mode
, nowhere, perhaps, greater than on this conti-Toppose all such extension, as of evil tendency in