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David Sands to R. Jones and H. Cathrall. you of any neglect of duty, it is in not being

more given up to visit the more remote parts of New CORNWALL, 10th of 9th mo. 1781.

the family. And I may say, I have sometimes Dear Friends,,We read, as from the lips of thought ihere appeared too many buts and ifs, our blessed Lord, that blessed are the poor in and these I have feared were sometimes too spirit. I have viewed you as a part of this much given way to, to the hindrance of some number, who have your way through much services that might prove advantageous to yourpoverty, and at times great tribulation, in which selves, and shall I say, to many of the sheep situation I can at present sympathise with you and lambs that the Master has ordered to be in some measure, I having been for some time fed, I shall leave you to find or judge by past in rather a low spot; having had several whom. poor turns as to my health, and I think I find Thus


dear friends and sisters, I shall conmyself under more weakness of body since I left clude with desire for your prosperity every way, Philadelphia than ever before ; having been and remain your truly loving and affectionate much of the time hardly able to sit à long friend, meeting ; . and under these trials my

DAVID Sands. mind seems to be stayed on the Lord, in hope

R. J. to Edward Cathrall. that if it is his will that this earthen tabernacle should be dissolved, I shall, through the merits

PHILADELPHIA, 7th mo. 25th, 1782. and mediation of a Redeemer, gain an admittance Dear Edward,-Since thou left thy father's into those joys that are unspeakable and full of house my mind has many times turned towards glory. I have had to remember you in much thee, sincerely desiring that thou mayst not only affection and nearness, and the many useful little witness preservation from every temptation that hints you occasionally dropped in my hearing, may present to draw thee still further from the as also the letters I received from you at the path of innocence, but that by a steady adherence Western Quarter, and esteem your cares and kind to the quick and powerful Word in the secret ness as the truest tokens of real friendship. I of thy own mind, thou mayst be brought into an believe I should have written to you before now acquaintance with a state of true inward stillness, if I had been at home; · but I thought in which thou mayst be favoured to understand at this time, duty and inclination joined in the things that belong to thy soul's peacestrengthening my hands to take up the pen and which is of the greatesi consequence both to the endeavour to make some small retaliation* for aged and to the youth ; especially when we conthe favours and kindness received ; and withal, sider that our stay in this world is very uncertain, in hopes of drawing some small bill on one or and that, after we have done with things below, both of your pens, as I shall, I believe, always we must appear before a righteous tribunal, be glad of a line from you whenever freedom there to give an account of the deeds done in the and opportunity will admit, and shall endeavour body, whether good or evil. How careful then to make the best remittance I am capable of, ought we to be in our steppings through time; which is but small. I have looked at your how watchful should be our words and actions ! situation as a life of care, and much exercise in Retirement of mind is such an excellent situayour outward employment, as well as in your tion, (I have found it so,) that I cannot but remore public, and, what if I also say private commend it to thee. Mayst thou often retire labours; still I do believe it is by direction of alone, and rather choose to be so, than in such best wisdom, and in providential care for the company as may have a tendency to do thee help and welfare of Friends in the city, both hurt. Young people who are inexperienced, parents and children. Though I believe this are often drawn into things highly improper, if favour, like many others, is too lightly thought not offensive, in the sight of heaven, for want of of by some, yet I believe there is a remnant keeping on their guard in this very spot: preserved in a living sense thereof, unto whom whereas, if they did but love silence, and to you are often made very near. And I have hearken to the monitions of Divine grace in sometimes thought there is abundant cause for their own hearts, they would grow up in good the honest hearted to be encouraged in hope, liking, yea, in favour with God and man. My that though Israel be not gathered according to heart prays for thy preservation, and that thou their desire, yet they are still glorious in the mayst, now in a state of separation from all thy eyes of the Lord, and their God will be their tender connections, be met with by Him who is strength. But notwithstanding what I have said, willing to do them good, and who is waiting to I don't mean to confine your labours within the be gracious to the descendants of those who have walls of the city ; believing that if I have to accuse loved and served Him, as thy grand parents

did. The sense in which this word is now generally used leisurely, it is the language of one of thy best

Keep this letter to thyself, and read it over of returning injury for injury, appears to be a modern application. Its original meaning is a return of like

friends. for like.- ED.


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John Drinker to Rebecca Jones and Hannah Few men who reason, but in words allow
Cathrall. Addressed Third month, 1783.

One all creating cause, omniscient,

One omnipresent Lord, omnipotent!
THE CHRISTIAN QUAKER IN ABSTRACT. And yet, how few sincerely thus believe;
Inscribed to the Virgin Sisters.

Sincerely seek to know his sovereign rule,

Commanding silent reverence, awful dread! Wayward th' affections of the human heart; Subduing all things in them to himself! Deceitful maze-perplexing labyrinth!

Most will acknowledge, this the only ground It's secret errors who can understand ?

Of true religion-this, in theory, Who 'loose the seals, and ope the conscious book, Perhaps, can finite wisdom comprehend ; Where hidden things of darkness are reveald ! Yet will that wisdom, through attachment strong, Who there the mystic character can read ? To earth's low joys, perversely still reject, The 3d read hand writing who decypher there? Truth's life-renewilig, efficacious power: The coward fears to enter this profound!

And hence, 181 not many rich, not many wise,' The humbly honest, dares himself to know; "Noi many mighty,” number'd are with those, Dares to pervade these deeps, and pass the vale Who, 19through great tribulation brought, have Of death—for death must be subdued, e'er life

known Rise in dominion! Not by human strength A new creation in them; known their robes Is victory acquired; but faith in Him

Wash'd from polluting stain, cleans’d in the stream Who leads death captive-lo! the Shibboleth, Of the new covenant of love and life! Distinguishing professing infidels

Who feed 20on hidden manna, alpot sustain'd From true believers_5 7 Who will save his life, By outward bread alone; whose life is hid Must lose it;"' but who willingly resigns,

From the gross view of reas'ning pride in man; 6 “Shall save it," and the glooiny veil of night Which sits exalted in the scorner's seat, That 'overspread the temple, shall be rent; Fancying the way of these is 22 Foolishness; The quicken'd mind shall issue from its 8grave, Nor can that 23 vulture's eye e'er penetrate, And know 96 the resurrection unto life!"

Into the wisdom, and the blessedness, 100 ye of little faith! ye slow of heart,

In which those meek of heart pavilion'd are, Reluctant still to understand the Truth,

Their way, 24a mystery, from ages hid; The spirit's breathing language to the Church ; Although a shining light! a way untrod, Why will ye doubt?–1)Ye gates lift up your | 25 By rav’ning beast of prey, or lion's whelp? heads!"

Or reptile venomous-pure wisdom's way! Be lifted up ye everlasting doors!

That wisdom, which proud men count foolishness: And let the King of Glory euter in ;

Not knowing in themselves that appetite And sway his 12righteous scepter-know ye not Which 26 hungers for the life of righteousness : Your proper dignity, ye sons of men ?

That living thirst that ever longs to taste Be still, and know, that " if not reprobates, The 27sincere milk of the immortal Word ! 13Heaven's kingdom is within you’-there en-By which the worlds were made; in whom is life, thron'd

Which life remains to be 2816 the light of men.” In light, the mighty 146 Heir of all things” sits ! O! 1964 full of grace and truth,” in thee alone, Dispelling darkness—156 old things done away, The adoption is; the reconciling power, All things are new; new heavens and new earth, Uniting man to God—3066 Thy kingdom come, In which dwell righteousness” and peace and joy! Thy will be done in earth, as done in heaven: Blest harmony of happy polity!

Thine is the power,” 0! teach my heart to feel Than which, 166 no other name," no other power, The force of this great truth!—feel, thence to Can yield secure felicity to man.

arise, Infallibly sufficient to its end,

The voice of melody 316 spring up 0 well! 17 Above all principalities and powers,

" And we will sing to thee" the anthem high, In heaven and earth, this power is over all. 16 God's Power IS OVER ALL." O Fox! by strong philanthropy impellid,

(To be continued.]
To leave thy fleecy care, and as a crook
Of the good shepherd, to collect the strays,
The hungering wand'rers o'er the barren hills
Of dry profession, and of wither’d forms;
To feed within the heavenly Pastor's care,

On Saturday last, several persons witnessed a Increasing strength on pastures ever green:

most striking display of instinct in the brutal How wast thou arm'd with all-subduing love,

species. A tree was felled, adjacent to this To brave the savage, persecuting wolf;

village, which proved to be hollow, and from Deep learn'd, unletter'd, much enduring George ! which a “ Flying Squirrel " came forth. It Oft I remember thy triumphant song !

tarried a few moments, but when an attempt “God's power is over all"--soul gladd’ning truth! was made to capture it, with its usual timidity, True fortitude's firm base, whose high import,

it ran to a tree close by, which it ascended to In holy, humble confidence possessid,

the top with quickness, and sailed off to the Transcends all else which human intellect Can compass of sublime intelligence.

trunk of another, which it also ascended to the

top, and then off to another. It soon returned 1 Rev. v. 1, 2. 2 1 Cor. iv. 5. 3 Dan. v. 5. 4 Judges xii. 6. 5 Matt. x. 39. 6 Matt. x. 39. 18 1 Cor. i. 26. 19 Rev. viii. 14. 20 Rev. ii. 17. 7 Matt. xxvii. 51. 8 Matt. xxvii. 53. 9 John v. 29. 21 Deu. viii. 3. 2 1 Cor. i. 18. 23 Job xxviii. 7. 10 Matt. vi. 30. 11 Ps. xxiv. 7. 12 Heb. i. 8.

24 Col. i. 26. 25 Job xxviii. 7. 26 Matt. v. 6. 1 2 Cor. xiii. 5. 14 Heb. i. 2. 16 2 Cor. xv. 17. 27 1 Peter ii. 2. 28 John i. 4. 29 John i. 14. 16 Acts iv. 12. 17 Eph. i. 21. Peter iii. 13. 30 Matt. vi. 10. 31 Numb. xxi. 17.

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For Friends' Review.

with boldness, and while the log was being cut 3d of Third month, a motion for the appointoff and split open, it loitered about the feet of ment of a committee on the criminal laws, was those present, in evident distress with an occa- made by Sir James Mackintosh, and seconded sional piteous noise, disregarding the danger of by T. F. Buxton ; the latter of whom, made a the falling axe, under which it frequently passed speech on the occasion, which being his first into the log. When the log was opened, there essay in that assembly, placed him at once in a were its bed and two young ones. When all respectable position in the estiination of the were lifted out with care and laid down to her, members. He appears to have made no effort she gathered one with her paws into a round for the display of eloquence; his object was the bulk, seized the gathered part with her mouth, exhibition of facts and arguments in a clear and ascended the same tree she had previously gone Sorcible order. As the facts on which he relied up, and from its top again sailed off to another, proved incontestably the necessity of an enquiry and so on, until she had the young one safely into the nature and operation of the penal code, deposited in a new home. She soon returned, he confined himself principally to them ; provand in like manner took away the other one to ing that the capital code, as it then existed, was the same place. She seemed to lack, however, in an innovation on the ancient common law; and calculation, and returning again, examined the that indeed the greater part of those capital place minutely ; but finding no more of her pro-enactments had been made within the memory of geny, she went the same direction and returned man. “ There are," said he, " persons living, at no more.-Ohio Picayune.

whose birth the criminal code contained less than sixty capital offences, and who have seen the number quadrupled; who have seen an act

pass, making offences capital by the dozen and LIFE OF THOMAS FOWELL BUXTON.

by the score ; and what is worse, bundling up (Continued from page 788.)

together offences, trivial and atrocious—some We have seen in a former number, that upon nothing short of murder in malignity of intenT. F. Buxton's election to Parliament, a letter tion, and others, nothing beyond a civil trespass ; addressed to him by a particular friend and con- bundling together this ill-sorted and incongruous nection, suggested the propriety of devoting a package, and stamping upon it .death without large portion of his attention to the melioration benefit of clergy." His arguments tended to

' of the penal code. This intimation had no doubt establish the conclusion that the existing law, by its influence on his feelings and conduct; and declaring that certain crimes should be punished the attention which he had previously given to with death, declared in effect that they should the discipline of prisons, could not fail to fix his not be punished at all; and thus granted inreflections on the penalties, awarded by law, to demnity to the evils it was designed to prevent. the violators of the peace. The labours of his The consequence was, that a committee was sister-in-law, Elizabeth Fry, to which he was no appointed to inquire into the feasibility of mitistranger, brought into frequent review the condi- gating the penal code. Of this committee Buxtion of persons, many of them females, who ton was one; and he appears to have taken at were condemned and executed, for offences once an active, if not a leading, part in the effort which were the result of weakness and igno- to render the penal code more conformable than rance, rather than deep seated depravity. For it then was, to reason and sound policy. His gery, and the passing of forged notes, subjected opinion was in favour of abolishing the punishthe offender to capital punishment, and it is ment of death in all cases except that of murder. stated, that when Buxton entered upon his par. But the habits of thought which prevailed in the liamentary labours, no fewer than two hundred British Parliament, rendered the task of reformand thirty offences were punishable with death. ing the penal code one of tedious and protracted Sir Samuel Romilly had, ten years before that labour. time, distinguished himself in the House of Com- A kindred subject, in which he had already mons, by his efforts to procure a relaxation of taken an active part, viz. : the improvement of the rigour of the penal code; but his exertions the prison discipline, was taken up by the House were not productive of much, if any immediate about the same time, and referred to a committee, advantage. Yet they probably prepared the of which he was one. way for a more successful effort at a subsequent After much patient investigation of the subject,

When Buxton entered parliament, he had a bill was prepared, conforming in most of its not the company of his predecessor in this cause. parts to the principles advocated by Buxton ; That unhappy statesman, in a fit of insanity, which passed both branches of the legislature ; had put an end to his own life in the autumn of and hy which the character of the English pri1818.

sons was essentially improved. Hence it apT. F. Buxton took his seat in the House of pears, that while he was yet a new member of Commons in the early part of 1819, and quickly the House, he had the satisfaction to find his proved that the energy with which his previous labours in the cause of humanity productive of life was marked, had not deserted him. On the valuable fruit. A new system was introduced,

Here was

and the English jails, instead of being the nurse-instance no less than eleven fold. ries and hotbeds of crime, and the ruin of those an argument not easily answered in favour of a who entered them, became, wherever the im- farther mitigation of the penal code. provements were duly enforced, places where He then adverted to what seems to have been the reformation of the prisoners, the true object the primary object of the bill—the punishment of of punishment, was attempted.

forgery--and remarked, that for a number of Although Thomas F. Buxton was disposed to years, every wretch who was overtaken by the favour the abolition of capital punishment, in all law, without regard to age, sex, or extenuating cases except that of murder, he evidently ac- circumstances, was consigned to the hangman.* quiesced in the plan of a gradual relaxation of Did forgeries then cease under such a ter. the criminal law, and took a prominent part in rible method of repressing them? Were the ofsupport of a bill which was introduced in 1821, fence and the offenders exterminated by such by the committee appointed on the subject a year cruel inflictions ? They increased to such an or two before. This was a bill to abrogate the enormous extent, one band of victims was so punishment of death in cases of forgery. On ready to follow another, that they were comthis subject he delivered a speech which excited pelled to mitigate their law, because of the mula considerable interest at the time. He pointed titude of offenders ; because public feeling, and out the inhumanity of the existing laws, and the feeling of the advisers of the crown, rebelled their necessary tendency to induce judges and against such continual slaughter. “Have I not jurors to labour, even at the expense of veracity, then," said he, “a right to cast myself upon the for the acquittal of prisoners. Thus the heavy House, and to implore them no longer to conpenalties prescribed for smaller offences, render-tinue so desperate and so unsuccessful a sysing their application more doubtful, the uncer- tem, and to lay side by side the two cases, tainty of a greater punishment would be less forgery, and stealing from bleaching, grounds; effectual, than the certainty of a less one. After both offences only against property ; both unatproving from unquestionable facts, that in many tended with violence? In ihe one we have tried cases where lenient and rigorous measures for a mitigation of the law, and have succeeded bethe punishment of corresponding offences had yond our most sanguine expectations; in the been tried, the protection of property was more other we have tried severity to the utmost extent, fully effected by the former than by the latter, he and to the utmost extent have failed.

Are we exhibited a striking instance of the result pro- not bound by every principle of reason and duced by the mitigation of the criminal code, on equity; of common sense and common justice, a single point. In 1811 the linen bleachers pe to discontinue a system which has so utterly titioned parliament for a mitigation of the law failed, and to embrace one which has been so against stealing from their bleaching grounds. eminently successful ?" That prayer was cheerfully granted in the House The history of former times furnished similar of Commons, but in the other House, it was de- results. Henry VIII. hanged 72,000 persons termined to punish these romantic petitioners by for robbery alone it yet Sir Thomas More inflicting upon them the penalty of their conceded wondered that while so many thieves were wishes. In regard to the consequence, he ob. daily hanged, so many still remained in the served that he should furnish a comparison of country, robbing in all places. Queen Elizathe increase of crime during the last five years beth hanged more than 500 criminals a year; in which the crime was capital, and the last five yet complained bitterly that the people would years in which it was not, and if it should ap- not carry out her laws; and was obliged to appear that this offence had increased in no greater point stipendiary magistrates to inflict these ratio than other offences, his point, the inefficacy penalties. We find from Strype, that the peoof capital punishment, was proves. But, if he ple would not prosecute, and the magistrates should


further, and prove that while all other would not act. offences had increased with melancholy rapidity, These cases in which the rigorous system had this, and this only, had decreased as rapidly; failed, were contrasted with the happy effects that there was but one exception to the augmenta resulting from the relaxation of penalties by tion of crime, and that was the case in which King Alfred; and in modern times by the Duke the penalty of the law was reduced ; then he had of Tuscany; and by the United States of Amea right to call upon the ministers of the crown, rica. Crimes had increased in England, as comeither to invalidate his facts, or admit his conclusions. He then read the official returns of crimes punished, the execution of Dr. Dodd, notwithstanding

*Of the rigor with which the crime of forgery was committed in the dutchy of Lancaster, from the strenuous and extensive efforts to save him, may which it appeared that previous to the mitiga- be regarded as a striking illustration, and some intion, that crime was as common as other capital stances, perhaps equally melancholy, in humble life, are offences, but that after the mitigation, this offence recorded in the memoirs of Elizabeth Fry:

† As Henry died in the 38th year of his reign, the had diminished two-thirds, while all the capital executions for robbery must have averaged more than offences had increased prodigiously, and in one eight for each working day, during his reign.

pared with every other country, and as coming the efficacy of the criminal law, by abating pared with itself at different periods; and the the rigor of its punishments. But in 1823 the species of crime which had increased, were resolutions proposed by Sir J. Mackintosh were precisely those which were capital then, but rejected, and the advocates of reform were left formerly were not; and which were capital in for several years to contend with a superior England and no where else.

. In the course of his argument he showed by In 1826 Sir Robert Peel coming into office quotations from the codes of the Saxons, Danes, commenced a revisal of the penal code. His and Normans, that their laws were much more efforts were not confined to the subject of forsparing of human life than the then existing gery, for he cleared the statute book of many English code; and asserted that six hundred obsolete and barbarous acts, and consolidated the men were condemned to death, during the past whole body of criminal law. In the progress of year, upon statutes passed within the last cen- this work he introduced, in 1830, a bill for the tury.

consolidation of the laws respecting forgery. After the exhibition of numerous facts, to As he still retained the punishment of death prove the injurious consequences to public in several cases, a strong opposition was raised morals, and the administration of justice, arising both in and out of parliament. Buxton had long from the existing penal code ; and a reference been of opinion that death for injury to property to the opinions of men the most competent to was adverse to the interests, as well as the feeljudge, in the various stations of life, he con- ings of the English commercial community; cluded his speech in the following manner : and he prepared for circulation through the

“My argument then is this. Our system is commercial towns of the kingdom, a petition before us.

The price we pay for our system is, which quickly obtained the signatures of firms the loss of public opinion, and the aid, the best, representing more than a thousand bankers. the cheapest, and the most constitutional, which This petition represented the punishment of the law gathers from the concurrence of public death on account of forgery, as unfavourable to opinion; the necessity of doing that by spies, their interest and protection; and solicited the informers and blood money, which were better enactment of a more lenient law. This petition done without them; the annual liberation of was presented to the House, in corroboration of multitudes of criminals; the annual perpetra- a motion to amend Sir Robert Peel's bill by the tion of multitudes of crimes; perjury ; and the abolition of capital punishment for forgery. This utter abandonment of the first of your duties, amendment being negatived, Buxton informed the first of your interests, and the greatest of the House that a motion of similar import would all charities, the prevention of crime. This is be introduced in a future stage of the bill. A what you pay.. And for what? For a system majority was eventually obtained in the House which has against it a multitude of divines, of Commons against the punishment of forgery moralists, statesmen, lawyers -- an unrivalled with death, and although this decision was rephalanx of the wise and good; a system which versed in the House of Lords, the question was has against it the still stronger authority of prac- so far settled in practice that no execution for tical men, who draw their conclusions from real forgery has since taken place. In succeeding life; a system which has against it the still years, the infliction of capital punishments was stronger authority of the common law of Eng- more and more reduced by the efforts of several land; which if wrong now, is wrong for the individuals, to whose exertions Buxton afforded first time; a system which has against it the his strenuous assistance as long as he remained still stronger authority of experience and ex- a member of Parliament. The crimes punishperiment, in England on the one hand—in able with death by English law amounted, as Tuscany, in America, and elsewhere, on the already observed, to two hundred and thirty, other; and finally a system which in its spirit when Buxton began his parliamentary labours; and temper, is against the temper and spirit of but their number is now reduced to ten or twelve; that mild and merciful religion, which desireth and in point of fact, few, if any, executions now not the death of a sinner, but rather that he take place, in England or Wales except for murshould turn from his wickedness and live.” der or attempts to murder.

This speech was received with marked appro- Most of the laws, in relation to capital punishbation, but when the bill in support of which it ments, now in force have been enacted since the was made, was put to vote, there were 121 subject of this review left the House, and the voices against its passage and only 115 in its great improvement which has been made in the favour. In 1822 an attempt was again made penal code within the last thirty years, may be by Sir James Mackintosh, seconded by T. F. considered as the result of advancing civilization. Buxton, for the mitigation of the penal code. But we may also reflect that light and knowThey succeeded in carrying, by a majority of ledge are increased in the world by the exersixteen, a resolution that the House would in tions of those who are in advance of their age. the next session consider the means of increas- l of those who contributed to the diffusion of


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