DIVISIBILITY OF NUMBERS. 161. NUMBERS EXACTLY DIVISIBLE BY 2; BY 21; BY 31; BY 5; BY 10. 1. An integral number is exactly divisible by 2 if the right-hand figure is 0, or if the number expressed by its right-hand figure is exactly divisible by 2. EXPLANATORY Note.-Every integral number that may be expressed by two or more figures may be regarded as made up of a certain number of tens and a certain number (0 to 9) of primary units; thus, 485 is made up of 48 tens and 5 units; 4260 is made up of 426 tens and 0 units; 27562 is made up of 2756 tens and 2 units. But ten is exactly divisible by 2; so any number of tens, or any number of tens plus any number of twos, is exactly divisible by 2. 2. Tell which of the following are exactly divisible by 2, and why: 387, 5846, 2750, 2834. 3. Any number, integral or mixed, is exactly livisible by 2} if the part of the number expressed by figures to the right of the tens' figure, is exactly divisible by 21. 4. Show why the statement made in No. 3 is correct, employing the thought process given in the “ Explanatory Note” above. 5. Tell which of the following are exactly divisible by 21, and why: 485, 470, 365, 472, 38474. 6. Any number, integral or mixed, is exactly divisible by 3} if the part of the number expressed by figures to the right of the tens' figure is exactly divisible by 33. 7. Tell which of the following are exactly divisible by 3į, and why: 780, 283ş, 5763, 742, 80. Divisibility of Numbers. 8. Any integral number is exactly divisible by 5 if it's right-hand figure is 0 or 5. Show why. 9. Any integral number is exactly divisible by 10 if its right-hand figure is 162. PROBLEMS. 1. How many times is 24 contained in 5824?* 163. NUMBERS EXACTLY DIVISIBLE BY 25; BY 33}; BY 12}; BY 16%; BY 20; BY 50. 1. Any integral number is exactly divisible by 25 if its two right-hand figures are zeros, or if the part of the number expressed by its two right-hand figures is exactly divisible by 25. EXPLANATORY NOTE.—Every integral number expressed by three or more figures may be regarded as made up of a certain number of hundreds and a certain number (0 to 99) of primary units; thus 4624 is made up of 46 hundreds and 24 units; 38425 is made up of 384 hundreds and 25 units; 8400 is made up of 84 hundreds and 0 units. But a hundred is exactly divisible by 25; so any number of hundreds, or any number of hundreds plus any number of 25's is exactly divisible by 25. * 24 is contained in 5824 (4 X 58) + 1 times. Why? +3j is contained in 7863 (3 X 78) +2 times. Why? Divisibility of Numbers. 2. Tell which of the following are exactly divisible by 25, and why: 37625, 34836, 27950, 38575. 3. Every number, integral or mixed, is exactly divisible by 33į, if that part of the number expressed by the figures to the right of the hundreds' figure is exactly divisible by 333. 4. Show why the statement made in No. 3 is correct, employing the thought process given in the “ Explanatory Note” under No. 1 on the preceding page. 5. Tell which of the following are exactly divisible by 33], and why: 364663, 2375, 468333, 38900, 46820. 6. Any number, integral or mixed, is exactly divisible by 123, if the part of the number expressed by the figures to the right of the hundreds' figure, is exactly divisible by 121. Show why. 7. Tell which of the following are exactly divisible by 12, and why: 375, 8371, 6450, 4329, 74672. 8. Any number, integral or mixed, is exactly divisible by 163, if. 9. Tell which of the following are exactly divisible by 16%: 4633], 5460, 2350, 37400, 27583į, 254163. 10. Any integral number is exactly divisible by 20 if the number expressed by its two right-hand figures is exactly divisible by 20. Show why. 11. Tell which of the following are exactly divisible by 20, and why: 3740, 2650, 3860, 29480, 3470. 12. Tell which of the following are exactly divisible by 50, and why: 2460, 3450, 6800, 27380, 25450. Divisibility of Numbers. 164. PROBLEMS. 1. How many times is 25 contained in 2450 ? * 2. How many times is 25 contained in 3775 ? 3. How many times is 33} contained in 46663 ? | 4. How many times is 33} contained in 3433} ? 5. How many times is 121 contained in 4737; ? 6. How many times is 124 contained in 3662, ? 7. How many times is 16; contained in 2533į? 8. How many times is 16 contained in 4550 ? 165. NUMBERS EXACTLY DIVISIBLE BY 9. 1. Any number is exactly divisible by 9 if the sum of its digits is exactly divisible by 9. EXPLANATORY NOTE.—Any number more than nine is a certain number of nines and as many over as the number indicated by the sum of its digits. Thus, 20 is two nines and 2 over; 41 is four nines and 4 +1 over; 42 is four nines and 4 + 2 over; 200 is twenty-two nines and 2 over; 300 is thirty-three nines and 3 over; 320 is a certain number of nines and 3 + 2 over; 321 is a certain number of nines and 3 + 2 +1 over. 326 is a certain number of nines and 3 + 2 + 6 over; but 3+ 2 + 6 = 11, or another nine and 2 over. 2. Read the “ Explanatory Note” carefully, and tell which of the following are exactly divisible by 9: 3256, 4266, 2314, 2574. 166. PROBLEMS. 1. 4625 is a certain number of 9's and 2. 3526 is a certain number of 9's and 3. 2154 is a certain number of 9's and over. over. over. * 25 is contained in 2450 (4 X 24) + 2 times. Why? +33; is contained in 46663 (3 X 46) + 2 times. Why? Divisibility of Numbers. 167. PRIME FACTORS AND EXACT DIVISORS. 1. Any integral number is exactly divisible by each of its prime factors and by the product of any two or more of its prime factors. Thus, 30, (2 x 3 x 5), is exactly divisible by 2, by 3, by 5, and by (2 x 3), 6, and by (2 x 5), 10, and by (3 x 5), 15. 2. The exact integral divisors of 36, (2 X 2 X 3 X 3), are and 2, 3, 168. PRIME FACTORS, COMMON DIVISORS, AND GREATEST COMMON DIVISORS. 1. Any prime factor or any product of two or more prime factors common to two or more numbers is a common divisor of the numbers. Thus, the numbers 30, (2 x 3 x 5), and 40, (2 x 2 x 2 x 5), have the factors 2 and 5 in common. So the common divisors of 30 and 40 are 2, 5, and 10, and the greatest common divisor is 10. RULE.—To find the greatest common divisor of two or more numbers, find the product of the prime factors common to the numbers. 2. Find the g. C. d. of 50, 75, and 125. Operation No. 1. Operation No. 2. 50 = 2 x 5 x 5. 5 50 75 125. 75 = 3 X 5 X 5. 5/10 15 25. 125 = 5 x 5 X 5. 2 3 5 5 x 5 = 25, g. c. d. 5 x 5 = 25, g. c. d. 3. Find the g. C. d. of 80, 100, 140. 4. Find the g. c. d. of 48, 60, 72. 5. Find the g. c. d. of 64, 96, 256. |