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matters confided by the Constitution to the three House not to abandon this doctrine now, or ern extremity of the continent, embracing many branches of the Legislature an act of legislation surrender up this dearest right of the people. valuable islands, one of which, Kodiak, is large will be necessary to confirm these articles, and the House of Representatives, as one branch of the Legis
The Constitution has carefully provided a sys. enough for a respectable sized State, and it lature, are perfectly free to pass the act or to refuse tem of checks and balances which are essen: extends west from the one hundred and fortyit, judging for themselves whether it is for the good tial to constitutional liberty. The powers of first to the one hundred and ninety-third degree of their constituents to let the treaty go into effect or not.
the Government are distributed among the west longitude. Within the limits of this purAgain, in volume nine, page 106, of Jeffer
different departments of the Government in chase there is more of the earth's surface than son's works, he says:
such manner that each one is a check upon there is in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Scot"When money is to be paid, the House of Repre
the other. But, sir, if this unlimited and land, Ireland, England, and Wales combined. sentatives should be consulted previously to con supreme power is conceded to the treaty. Yet some gentlemen honestly and consciencluding the treaty, or the treaty should be made con making department, then the Constitution is a tiously oppose paying the purchase money. It ditional to the sanction of the House."
mockery and a cheat, the President and the is estimated that the area of this territory is Now, sir, in view of this record of the prac Senate constitute the Government, and the over five hundred and seventy thousand square tice of our Government, in view of the provis: people have nothing to do but to submit to the miles, and that the length of mainland coast is ions of our Constitution, and of the expressed despotism thus established.
more than four thousand statute miles. Imopinions of the greatest statesman of the Re 1 shall, Mr. Chairman, offer an amendment perfect as it may be, our Coast Survey shows public, it cannot be claimed by any foreign to the bill, which, if adopted, will remove my | that this whole extent of water front is “inGovernment engaged in negotiations with us objections to it, and it will receive my sup dented by capacious bays and commodious that the law of this country on this question is port; but if that amendment or something sub harbors without number, embracing the peninnot settled and well understood; that a nego stantially tbe same is not adopted, I shall feel sula of Alaska, one of the most remarkable in tiation of this kind cannot be made and con it my duty to vote against the bill.
the world, fifty miles in breadth and three summated so as to bind the Government with: The debate was continued by Mr. BOYER 1 bundred miles in length, piled with mountains, out the consent of Congress, and that until such and Mr. PRUYN. [Their remarks will be many volcanic, and some still smoking, peneassent is given such negotiation is without force published in the Appendix.]
trated by vavigable rivers, one of which is or effect, and that no act of the executive de. Mr. PRICE obtained the floor.
among the largest of the world, studded with partment not authorized by Congress can make Mr. WASHBURN, of Wisconsin. It is now islands which stand like sentinels on the coast, it effective or clothe it with vitality. And I have | getting late, and there are few members pres and Hanked by the narrow Aleutian range no hesitation in saying that the unauthorized ent. As this is a question of great import: | which, starting from Alaska, stretches far and unwarranted act of the President in taking ance I would suggest that the committee now away to Japan, as if America were extending possession of this territory was not binding on rise, with the understanding that the gentle. a friendly hand in trade to Asia." estithe Government, and should have no influence in the investigation of the case or its final de floor, after I shall occupy it to-morrow as was islands, is not less than eleven thousand two cision; and to give such unauthorized acts any influence in the case would be setting a dan.
Me. MAYNARD. If the gentleman from now, as to the value of all this, for its fishgerous precedent for the future.
Iowa does not wish to go on, I would like an eries, furs, timber, ice, agricultural producI come now to the question as to what action opportunity to say something.
tions, &c., we are furnished with abundant sbould be taken by the House in relation to Mr. JOHNSON. I hope I may be allowed proof 10 establish the fact that no waters in this treaty. I, for one, cannot consent to do to submit some remarks to-night.
the world can yield the toiling fisherman so what the Committee on Foreign Affairs ask, to The CHAIRMAN. The order of the House rich a harvest as he may gather in the waters pass this bill making the appropriation without requires that at the close of the morning liour immediately under that northern coast. Oys. any accompanying declaration of the opinion i to-morrow, the floor shall be assigned to the ters, clams, and crabs are found in abundance ; of the House as to the regularity and the legal | gentleman from Wisconsin, [Mr. WASHBURN,] || also an odd species of the herring, and also ity of the acts of the President in relation to and the floor must next be awarded to some the salmon, the herring, the balibut, the cod, the treaty, and as to the rights and preroga.. gentleman on the other side.
and the whale, until all these till and thicken tives of the House in such cases. To do this Mr. HIGBY. I do not know why there the waters. From the lights received upon the would, in my opinion, as I have before stated, should be any objection to permitting the de subject it is not too much to suppose these the be a tacit admission of the power of the Pres. bate to go on to-night with the understanding greatest fisheries in the world. The advau. ident to do the same acts in the future, and that the gentleman from lowa shall hold the tages to the country from the opening of these would be establishing a precedent fraught with floor at the adjournment.
fisheries will be incalculable. It should be danger.
Mr. WASHBURN, of Wisconsin. If the borne in mind that the cod fisheries of the AtI am willing, under the circumstances of || gentleman from California [Mr. Johnson] lantic coast was for a long time one of the this case, to vote for this appropriation, if, by goes on to-night, the gentleman from lowa chief sources of the development and wealth the adoption of a proper preamble to this bill, (Mr. PRICE) can take his place to-morrow. of the northern States, and was the great or by some accompanying resolutions, the Mr. JOHNSON. Certainly; the gentleman || school in which we trained our seamen and House will repudiate the claim of the Presi from lowa can take my place to-morrow,
made efficient our merchant marine. It was dent to exercise such powers, and assert its The CHAIRMAN. When the gentleman always a paying business; it never failed to constitutional prerogatives and rights in con from Wisconsin has finished his remarks, the yield a profit. Yet this Government thought nection with all subjects which, by the Con Chair will feel obliged to give the floor to some it quite necessary to aid it by subsidies, bestitution, are submitted to the control of Con- | gentleman on the opposite side of the question. cause it was a school for the training of the gress. But, sir, if not accompanied by some Mr. WASHBURN, of Wiscousin. But if | adventurous seaman who carried the American such declaration, I shall deem it my duty to every one assents to the arrangement sug. flag and American commerce over every sea to oppose this bill. I care not how valuable this gested, I do not see why it should not be car. the remotest ends of the earth. territory may be; for it is of far more import- ried out?
The northern Pacific fisheries are probably ance that the constitutional liberties of the The CHAIRMAN. Does the gentleman ten times as extensive as are those on the Atpeople should be preserved than that we should from Iowa (Mr. Price] yield his place to the lantic, yet the Atlantic fisheries employ over acquire wealth and empire.
gentleman from California, [Mr. Johnson?] one hundred thousand tons of shipping and ten Mr. Chairman, we can engage in a reckless Mr. PRICE. If by unanimous consent it thousand men, yielding nearly three millions career for wealth, power, national aggrandize can be agreed that the gentleman from Cali annually. It is a well-known fact that the ment, and the unlimited extension of our ter fornia shall take my place this evening, and Atlantic fisheries are diminishing in yield, and ritory; the temptation is great to do so; the that I shall follow the gentleman from Wis that we must look to some new field in which field is inviting Other republics which have consin to-morrow, I have no objection. to restore to us and keep up that great branch gone before us have set us the example, and
Several MEMBERS. All right.
of maritime and commercial industry. Last
The CHAIRMAN. The unanimous con year alone twenty cargoes, making one thouwould it not be more wise to legislate with a sent of the committee is asked for the arrange sand one hundred and eighty-three tons of view to the liberty, the security, and the hap ment just stated? Is there any objection? dried fish, were brought into San Francisco. piness of the people and the perpetuity of our
There was no objection.
Pay this money, give us a government for the Government?' And it should be remembered Mr. JOUNSON. Mr. Chairman, on account country, and next year San Francisco will that one of the greatest securities for the lib of the deep interest felt by California in the receive ten times the number of tons received erties of the people is in the control given by speedy settlement of all questions of difficulty last year. England, as a wise commercial the Constitution io the House of Representa || concerning the purchase by our Government nation, has always paid a great deal of attention tives over the Treasury of the nation; and that of Alaska, I deem it my duty as a Representa to her fisheries, and in our fostering care of our when that security is taken away and the Presi tive to give my views to the House. The in Atlantic fisheries we have only imitated her dent has unlimited control over the public terest felt by California in regard to this mat example. Last year, as may be seen by the purse, subject only to the consent of the Sen ter does not proceed from uncertain or chance inspector's report, London received through ate, one of the strongest safeguards of the peo hope of profit, but comes from a knowledge of Billingsgate one thousand six hundred and ple against oppression is broken down. the great coinmercial advantages to accrue sixty-six tons of salmon, worth $1,069,015.
It has always been a maxim in connection from that acquisition, a knowledge obtained Now, do not be encouraged to hope this House with liberty in this country and in England by nearly twenty years of intercourse with the is to receive anything through that gate,
" I that all public money is from the pockets of little settlements along the borders of that expect to see the day, however, when Alaska the people, and that it should be expended by territory. This purchase extends up from the salınon will compete in the London markets none but their representatives. I conjure the Il parallel of 54° 40' north latitude to the north with the salmon taken from Welsh waters.
France pays millions a year in bounties to in the country; besides, the want of govern calculable advantages to accrue to the Pacific her hardy' fishermen. She pays nearly one ment prevents thousands from going there to States from this purchase, I still insist that the million yearly in fostering her fisheries in settlemen
benefits will not be local, but extend to the American waters. Canada pays a bounty of Gentlemen are alarmed when they come to whole Union, creating an incentive, in solid four dollars per ton to enable her fishermen consider the expense of an organized govern profits, to the marine of the whole country, to compete with ours, and to train up
young ment in Alaska, but they should not be. No until darkness shall no longer dwell upon the men for the sea, that she may build up and military force will be needed, noue whatever. face of the waters anywhere that an American improve her merchant marine. We need no Two revenue cutters is all that would ever be vessel can float. bounty for our Alaska fisheries. Clear away needed to keep order in that country. Owing It is not a measure for the present alone, but the dilliculties, and in three years we can sup; to the peculiar topographical features of the has much to do with the future permanence of ply the markets of the world with fishi. And coast, two or three light-houses only would our republican Union, and, in a political sense, in addition to this and other advantages, some have to be erected. There should at least be should be viewed with deepest interest. It of which I shall briefly notice, in five years two custom-houses, one at Kodiak and one at removes a foreign flag from the shores of from the organization of government in Alaska Sitka. The civil government may be a very
America, and confines to narrower limits one San Francisco will enter and clear more ton cheap one until the country begins to show its of the great Powers of the earth. It extends page than New York does to-day. But we will importance. A Governor and an Indian agent, our territorial jurisdiction, and greatly lessens by no means rival New York, for her increase who shall be ex officio secretary of the Terri the probability of a consolidation of empire will almost be in proportion to ours. The great tory; a surveyor general, and a register and and an overthrow of our Republican institu. value of the furs of Alaska, as well as its receiver; one judge, who sball sit with jus. tions, a calamity greater than all other evils great abundance, is known to all the world, tices of the peace, and we have a complete that might befall us as a people. As a Repre. and needs but a passing notice. It is admitted system and at little cost. is objected that sentative from California I may be pardoned by all that every animal wearing a fur coat the treaty-making power does not go to the for a particular notice of the advantages to may be found in that country, some of them extent of obliging us to make the necessary accrue to that State by this acquisition. Cali: in great abundance.
With that country in our appropriation to carry out this treaty. I think fornia is a young State, but is mature in all hands, and under a proper government, we it does. If the question of the purchase of that constitutes the elements of a rising and may handle the fur trade with other countries || territory was now up for the first time I should prosperous Commonwealth, Minerva-like, she as we choose. Is it not something to be mas say that the Constitution did not justify it. But sprung out fully developed from the fertile ters of this great branch of commerce? In the is not a new question. It was decided the brains of hier own statesmen. As a commer. partial and limited examinations made it has other way early in the history of our Govern- | cial, agricultural, mechanical, and wealthbeen ascertained that Alaska has deposits of ment in the matter of the Louisiana purchase, producing State, despite disasters from foods coal, copper, and gold; also forests of the best and is not now an open question.
and fires, she has attained a greatness which ship-building timber trees. And if we believe The President, with the advice and consent makes the records of her prosperity appear the official reports we have from there, and I of the Senate, may make treaties of purchase, almost fabulous. Experience has developed do, the climate of that country, particularly and in this purchase they have not exceeded her channels of prosperity, and she stands tu. Kodiak and Sitka, is not worse, but far better their constitutional powers. Now, I under day the most notable example in the world of than that portion of Canada lying north and stand it to be our sworn duty to make appro energy, enterprise, and industry of a people. east of Quebec. That being true, it is safe to priations to carry on the Federal Government Scarce nineteen years ago her bills and plains say that all the hardier grain, such as winter because that Government is the object of the were settled by the best young bloods of our wheat and barley, inay be grown in that coun Constitution which we are bound to carry out country, when she commenced an existence try, in addition to the numerous hardy vege
if we can. If this be correct, and I think it with all the elements to make her an excelsior tables which we know grow and flourish there. will not be denied, then if this purchase is jus. State. A country of such vast extent, with such a tified by the Constitution it is our sworn duty With her first life she was possessed of all variety of valuable productions, should be con to carry the provisions of the Constitution to the advantages of the improvements of the age, sidered of inestimable value to any govern that country for the protection of the people, and did not have to grow into their use by ment having the least hope of maritime great who have a right to the protection of its provis overcoming the prejudices of the past. We
ions. How may this be done? In one way are of the present time, and availing ourselves Sitka and Kodiak are at present the principal only; that is, by making needful rules and of the advantages of the day, and as each ports of the territory. Sitka is a little nearer regulations (laws) for the government of that progressive benefit for the community is deio San Francisco by direct line, but not nearer, territory under the Constitution. And more, veloped, we have incorporated it with our 1 suppose, by the track of vessels. It is also if the reasoning be correct we cannot escape daily life, thus lending vitality, ever to our more difficult of access and has not so good a the duty of making this appropriation. Like young blood and venturesome spirits. Too much harbor ; still the harbor is large enough to all other delits constitutionally contracted by honor can never be done the young men of shelter and protect at anchor eight or ten of the Government, its force on us is a part of the California. Among us are settled young inen the largest vessels. Kodiak is five hundred and force of the Constitution itself.
from every country in Europe. With the lib. fifty miles from Sitka, but nearly in the same I do not desire to argue the question as to eral spirit of the age and our own institutions latitude, being nearly west of that place. It is whether we must make this appropriation; the we have adopted all that is good to the com. possessed of a good harbor, easy of access, national importance of this purchase is so munity from each. Such valuable traits, methdeep water, the best of anchorage, and a con manifestly great that we should first consider ods, and means of future benefit as was con: venient wharf. Numerous cod-fish banks are its advantages to the Republic, and we will sonant with our institutions we have wove found near by; it is also most convenient to the never have to go further. By this purchase into the fabric of our social as well as business whale fisheries, and is the place from whence our sea-board on the Pacific is made greater life, and have thus become more liberal and San Francisco gets its supply of ice, instead of than on the Atlantic, and is extended close up expansive in our views, more progressive in Sitka, as generally supposed. Although further to the borders of Asia. The Pacific sea-board, our exertions. We differ essentially in our porth, it has a much better climate than Sitka, although so extensive, has a much less num manners and customs from other communities cattle doing well upon the island without care ber of harbors than the Atlantic, being mostly which are trammeled by old-fashioned rou: or attention, grass being in great abundance. rock-bound, but in nowise dangerous to navi. tine and by old traditions, and worse, by old Salmon, halibut, and cod-fish are foundin abun- gation, and may be protected easier than any prejudices. We are daring and venturesome. dance around the island. Upon the whole, with similar extent of sea coast in the world. Pay Old fogies would call us daring, extravagant, out going further into details, Kodiak should this money, give us a territorial government, | and, perhaps, reckless, but our course is conbe the capital at present.
and it will be the opening of a new field of en trolled by rules of progress and commerce Unless we intend to have a rupture with terprise to our merchant marine, in its vast which accord with the spirit of the age, and so Russia, and give up the purchase, we should fisheries and fur trade tratfics, which will ne we make our paths of industry broader, brighter, act speedily in this matter and provide a gov cessarily bind us more closely with our China and more inviting than can be found elseernment for that country. The great interests and Japan trade, and tend to consolidate in where. The wants of the community and the of our Pacific commerce require it. At present the hands of our merchants and in our com natural impulse of enlarging the sphere of there are no custom-houses in the territory, merce the greater portion of the mercantile commercial interests--an interest which binds the Treasury Department having an agent at traffic of that section of Asia and its island de together the States of this Union--rationalizes Sitka alone. Vessels clearing at San Francisco | pendencies. The great national advantages in
our progress. for Kodiak are compelled to travel one thou- giving to the United States the jurisdictional We need no better example to illustrate this sand miles out of their way to report to that preponderance on an occan destined to become than the recent change into our hands of the agent before going to the place of their desti the great maritime highway of the future, open trade of China via California, which will eventnation. There is now nothing to prevent Enging to our merchants a certain road to the at ually make San Francisco the center of the lish enterprise, or any other, from sailing up tainment of the largest proportion of the world's commercial world, and place in the lap of her the Strikeen river and bartering whisky and traffic, and placing within our grasp the proud queenly and capacious robes the wealth of fire-arms with the Indians for their valuable distinction of being the greatest commercial Asia, however this may be to the disadvantage furs, which should be poured out through the government of the globe, peacefully taking of England. This is one of the revolutions regular channels of commerce to enrich our and wearing the palm so long
held by England resulting from our progress ; and does it not country. There is not a light-house on the through toil, bloodshed, and the expenditure of reflect equal credit on the commercial entercoast to protect our already important shipping countless millions of treasure, is such a victory prise of the great marts of the Atlantic whose interests there; and without government there of peace and statesmanship that we should not is no protection to those that are now settled hesitate one moment.
interests are so closely interwoven with our While I admit the in
own as to be almost identical. Any benefit
accruing to Californta is a benefit to them in a giving to our artisans and capitalists the oppor flitted two or three years ago across our golden commercial point of view. We are raising up | tunity of covering the Pacific and Atlantic sands. I appeal to honorable members, let us in our youths, as it were, a new nationality, oceans, Japan, China, and Yellow seas, with be just, let us be honorable, let us be great as educated on a scale unknown elsewhere in the our ships, so that each Asiatic port may be this occasion is great, and do ourselves and our Union. The blessings of a free education are alive with our seamen, filled with our ships, country lasting honor. The value of this purnot confined to the channels of English knowl. and canopied all over with the American flag, chase to our country can be better understood edge alone, but the French, Spanish, and which, if we will it, may majestically wave all when we consider the unsurpassed richness of German classics are taught in our public other flags from the sea, and beckon a com California in all that makes up the greatness of schools, as also the fine arts, the law, medicine, manding invitation to the wealth of the world a State. Then, briefly as possible I shall try mechanics, metallurgy, music, and painting, to enter and tarry in our ports. These are to show what California is to-day, leaving genwhile theology is not neglected. We intend considerations well worthy of reflection ; I do tlemen to judge what it may be in the future. that our posterity shall possess the same vigor, not draw an imaginary future when I make California is over seven hundred miles in mentally, that a beneficent God has given them these assertions.
length, having an average width of about two physically; for we are blessed with a climate Yet all depends in a great measure on the || hundred and twenty-five miles. Within the beyond compare and a soil teeming with rich action of this House in upholding our national limits of the State there are about seventy mil. ness, bearing with astonishing prolificacy all credit and honor.
lion acres of agricultural land, and about fifteen the cereals and fruits of the most temperate The greatest enterprise of the age, or any million acres of grazing lands. as well as tropical climates. Our only anxiety | age, the Pacific railroad, had to slumber for California now produces about thirty million is to afford employment to our greatly increas years from lack of faith in its practicability; 1 dollars per annum in gold and silver, and it is ing population, who will dispute every avenue who doubts its success and benefits now. It safe to suppose that this yield will not be mateleading to advancement with our own sons. is erroneous to suppose that all those benefits || rially diminished for fifty years to come. Her We cannot confine them to mercantile, mining, are to accrue to the Pacific States; but while yield of grain will be this year about forty milor mechanical life entirely; they cannot all its benefits will be mutual with the whole coun lion bushels-twenty-three million bushels of become lawyers, doctors, divines, poets, or try those States will be the last to reap the wheat and seventeen million bushels of other literary men. We need a new sphere of action harvest. This may seem illogical, but I hold. grain. In ten years we will produce, perhaps,
We need a mercantile marine of that the various branches of the Pacific rail not less than three times this amount. This our own, to cover the Pacific with our own road will benefit the whole Union primarily by will give us one hundred and twenty million fleets, to advance in the art of ship-building, building up the vast plateau of the Rocky bushels-more than enouglı to feed twelve milnavigation, and commerce abroad by sea. mountaius, as it is termed. The land of the lion people. Our crop of wool last year was
The waters washing the shores of Alaska are red man, the great plains, will be peopled, and over ten million pounds, and in ten years from to be the future fields of these new sources of ll cities, towns, villages, and ultimately States this time it is sate to conclude it will be fifty prosperity. The fisheries, the fur trade, the will grow, and all this long before it will con millions. This will clothe fifteen million people. is fer
I do not know what number of gallons of wine
we produce, but I do know that we produce of our increasing wealth and the development through whose ports and over whose lines of the best grapes that are grown in the world, of new industrial pursuits. We cannot halt in railroad must enter and be transported the and that in a few years, when our young vineour progress; our taste of greatness is too population of the great basin of the continent, 1 yards have matured, we can supply all the palatable for us ever willingly to upset the whose growth into civilization will be as rapid people in the United States with a pure article banquet-tables; our motto is onward and up and astonishing as that of California.
of as good wines as ever gladdened man's ward. Progress cannot retrograde; it must The benefits of such gigantic enterprises are heart or made a soul merry. There is no advance, and it is our duty as legislators to coöperative in their nature, and are scattered country on earth where cattle do better than lend our aid in its behalf.' Give our people broadcast over the whole land. The lateunfor. in California, and sheep and hogs multiply the right to avail themselves of these benefits tunate civil war in our country has severed ties faster there than in any other country on the by honorably discharging a debt honorably and to localities ; change of fortune, the heavy hand | globe. We have fruits of all descriptions, fairly incurred, a debt the non-payment of of misery, the disruption of family ties, all teud unsurpassed in yield and in delicacy of flavor. which affects the national reputē, and it will to add stimulus to a change of locality, to Our State is overflowing with corn, wine, and 110t be many months before the realization of emigration to new scenes where life may be oil, and we must have, we will have, ships to what I portray will gratify and gladden the begun anew, and hope points to the far West carry these good things abroad. And we must whole country.
as that land of promise. The Pacific railroad have the furs, fish, and timber from Alaska to We, having the national credit in keeping, I look upon as the great highway open to such, increase, diversify, and vitalize our commerce, should recollect that our capitalists, looking and as such highway it will carry the people We have at this time seven hundred and upon the purchase of Alaska as a commercial who are to add to our empire, and carry civil fifty-six vessels, with an aggregate of one huntransaction, view the non-compliance of treaty ization into the desert. “We do not for one dred and forty-six thousand seven hundred stipulations as making investments in that ter moment think that every train over those broad, | and eighty-eight tons burden, belonging to the ritory or in its commerce dangerous; and it is | iron roads is to be freighted with men, woman, city of San Francisco; but this is not more than certain that California enterprise cannot have and children for California, Nevada, Oregon, one third the tonnage demanded by our comits full flow and energy in that direction until || and Washington Territory. We expect but merce. Because of our richness and greatness that compliance is had and the treaty honorably our share of the emigration, and are not so the Atlantic States have kindly sent the iron fulfilled. The past has been full of experience, selfish as to desire its monopoly. It cannot be horse on his mission to bring away our prodsad and otherwise, to our people, and through | laid at our door, then, that all those great | ucts, to empty our granaries and our factories the trials of fire that we have been subjected to national works are but for the benefit of our and our warehouses of their rich Oriental fabwe should take lessons of wisdom in finance, sturdy young State, as many allege. Nor is rics. The continued greatness of California commerce, and, in fact, in statesmanship. the vast outlay they cost to be added to our does not depend upon this purchase, but I While we are glorifying our steam communica account current with the Government, for it is believe it will be worth more to her, in a comtion with Asia, it is well to reflect that the pos well known that many look with regretful eyes mercial point of view, than all the gold in all session of Alaska is an adjunct to its success on the favors bestowed on California, and call her hills. Then let us vote this appropriation ; and prosperity,
that State a "petted and spoiled child, extrav for an increase in California's commerce is The course of ocean navigation varies on the agant in her demands and petulant when not || equally beneficial to all parts of the Union. Pacific owing to the prevalence of the trade | gratified,”' a statement wholly devoid of truth, Give us this appropriation and then a terwinds. Six months in the year it traverses to uttered, 'I believe, more as an admonition than ritorial government for Alaska, and the good the south by or near the Sandwich Islands, and as a stigma. We are not prezumptuous enough || this will do us, considered with the benefits to the other six months it is by the north, follow to believe that we are much wiser or greater accrue from the Pacific railroad and our coining the course of the Alaska peninsula and the than the people of other States, and therefore merce with China and Japan, will in ten years Aleutian group of islands which stretch out, we admit it may be well at times to apply the || bring to San Francisco the chief merchants of indicating a past connection with the islands "break” when we are putting on too much the world. From every land we will receive of the China and Japan seas. Coal is essen:
steam.' In the acquisition of Alaska we look orders for our grain, for our woolen goods, tial to the use of our Pacific steamers; this is with an eye to its and to our national import for our fish, and our furs. We will cover all to be found in Alaska. Ship timber is another
the seas with our ships and control the comessential; Alaska abounds therein. So did Give us Alaska as a Territory organized under merce of the nations. Our hills and valleys Maine and so did Washington Territory; but a proper government as one of the Territories will afford happy homes for millions who fail the European Governments, with a keener eye of the United States, and right soon we will in other countries to meet that thrift and prosto future need, have for years been supplying make California so great that you will all boast || perity which always follows industry and fruthemselves from the latter, while we have when you go abroad that you live under the gality with us. The industrious of every land exhausted the lands of the former to such an same Federal jurisdiction that we do. And are invited to take wealth from our inexhaustextent that the interests of our commercial because of our riches, resources, energy, high || ible mines, and to make homes upon our fertile marine demand at our hands as legislators the civilization, and general prosperity, you will all | lands, where they may joyfully spend their lives repeal of the daties imposed on the importa- | be proud to tell that you have brothers, cousins, with peace and plenty in the cool, refreshing tion of lumber from the Canadas. We daily or relatives in that State. And our Speaker, shade of their own vine and fig tree. lament the decadence of our ship building when old and worn out in the public service, With our great future so near at hand as to interests ; let us cease our lamentations and will recount with pride and with glee what he plainly be seen it is hardly possible that this breathe new life into this great interest by saw and heard, his haps and mishaps, as he Alaska purchase, adding so much to our com
of the paper.
mercial importance as it does, can be rejected; Andrew J. Berrian, praying indemnity for dam.
be read unless by a vote of the Senate. The for, as I have already stated, the advancement ages occasioned to his property in Tennessee question is, Shall the paper be read? of California in this particular is the advance ) during the rebellion by rebel soldiers; which The question being put, it was decided in the ment of the whole Union,
was referred to the Committee on Claims. afirmative; and the Chief Clerk proceeded to The other States of this Union, and the Mr. FRELINGIIUYSEN. I present the read the remonstrance. Federal Government which they ordained and petition and protest of the settlers upon the Mr. HENDRICKS. I think the reading established, shall have the history of their great Cherokee neutral lands in Cherokee county, should be suspended. It seems to relate to ness written in letters of gold taken from Cali Kansas, setting forth that the settlers of the executive business, and the paper ought to be fornia's mides. California's "corn, wine, and Cherokee neutral lands settled there under the presented in oxecutive session. oil" shall sooth the wounds of the afficted, conviction that as soon as the Indian titles Mr. CONNESS. I move to lay it on the make joyful the hearts of the oppressed, and were extinguished they would have a right to table, and then it can be read in executive sesdrive away hunger from the poor and needy the benefit of the preemption and homestead sion, where it belongs. all over our land. Will you yield us this pur laws, and that they are now in danger of losing The PRESIDENT pro tempore. Our rules chase for the benefit of our commerce?
their homes and having them transferred to say that when a paper is presented and its readMr. MAYNARD obtained the floor, but railroad corporations; that they believe they ing is asked, and the reading is objected to, it yielded to
are entitled, as soon as the Indian titles are cannot be read unless by a vote of the Senate; Mr. BANKS, who moved that the commit. extinguished, to the benefit of the preëmption and when the Senate have voted that it shall tee rise.
and homestead laws, and that in the name of be read, I suppose it must be read. The motion was agreed to; and the commit. twenty-five thousand men, women, and children Mr. HENDRICKS. I have no objection to tee accordingly rose, and the Speaker having now living on these neutral lands they protest the reading of the paper, but I supposed it resumed the chair, Mr. GARFIELD reported against the selling of any of these lands lo related to executive business, and ought to be that the Committee of the Whole on the state others than actual settlers. I move the ref. presented in executive session. of the Union had, according to order, had the erence of this petition to the Committee on Mr. THAYER. It is a remonstrance against special order under consideration, being House || Indian Affairs.
the ratification of the Osage treaty. bill No. 1096, 1oaking an appropriation of money The motion was agreed to.
The PRESIDENT pro tempore. Perhaps to carry into effect the treaty with Russia of
Mr. YATES presented the petition of Isaac
it belongs in executive session. That may be March 30, 1867, and had come to no resolu. Rutishausen, praying compensation for services an objection. Perhaps it is out of order to tion thereon,
rendered as assistant assessor of the eleventh offer it in open session, as it relates to a treaty. And then, on motion of Mr. GARFIELD, (at | division of the first district of Illinois, the same
Mr. POMEROY. There is no objection to ten o'clock and ten minutes p. m.,) the House | having been withheld on account of his failure
its being read except that it belongs to execadjourned. to take the oath of office; which was referred
Mr. MORRILL, of Maine. Let it take the
same course as the others, and be referred to
the committee. The following petitions, &c., were presented l of New York, protesting against the sections
Mr. THAYER. I do not yield to the force under the rule, and referred to the approprinte | applicable to them in the tax bill now under.
of the suggestion that this paper should be committees :
going examination by the Committee on Fi. presented in executive session. A petition or By Mr. PAINE: The petition of Sarah
The protest is long and particular, a remonstrance is a public matter, and I think Briggs, of Delavan, Wisconsin, for increase of
very instructive statement, I think, and it con may properly be read. I do not, however, pension.
tains numerous objections which the memo insist upon the reading; but the request was By Mr. STOKES: Additional papers in the rialists deem conclusive. I move that the made to me that I should ask for the reading case of the claim of J. A. Brents, of Albany, memorial be referred to the Committee on
I will not ask for its further
reading, but simply move that it be referred to By Mr. TAYLOR: The petition of Anna The motion was agreed to.
the Committee on Indian Affairs. W. Spencer, for a pension.
Mr. SUMNER. I present the petition of
The motion was agreed to.
Mr. ANTHONY. The Committee on Print-
guished citizens of Massachusetts, protesting ing, to whom were referred two resolutions,
one to print ten thousand copies of the report On motion of Mr. HARLAN, and by unani
uct by the Legislature of California giving of the Commissioner of the General Land mous consent, the reading of the Journal of rights to certain persons in the Yosemite val.
Officc, and another from the Committee on ley, asking that it may be kept sacred to the yesterday was dispensed with.
Public Lands, for printing thirty thousand public in all times. I move the reference of
copies of the same in various languages, have EXECUTIVE COMMUNICATION. this petition to the Committee on Private Land
instructed me to report a resolution as a subThe PRESIDENT pro tempore laid before ) Claims.
stitute for them. I should like to have the the Senate a letter of the Secretary of the
The motion was agreed to.
substitute read, and ask for its present considInterior, communicating an estimate from the Mr. THAYER presented a remonstrance of eration. Commissioner of Indian Affairs of appropria H. Williams and forty-three others, citizens of Mr. EDMUNDS. Will it lead to debate ? tion required to pay the damages sustained by Neosho Falls, Kansas, against the pending Mr. ANTHONY. It will take but a minute settlers in Niobrara township, Nebraska, by treaty with the Great and Little Osage tribe of or two. reason of locating the Santee Sioux upon lands Indians, with a prayer for the protection of The PRESIDING OFFICER, (Mr. Pow: owned by them, in the year 1866; which, on the settlers and the school interests of Kansas; EROY in the chair.) The substitute reported inotion of Mr. HARLAN, was referred to the which was referred to the Committee on Indian by the committee will be read. Committee on Indian Affairs, and ordered to Affairs.
The Chief Clerk read as follows: be printed.
He also presented a remonstrance of J. J.
Resolved. That five thousand copies be printed for
the use of the Senate, and two thousand copies for Mr. HARLAN presented a petition of citiKansas, against the pending Osage treaty,
distribution by the General Land Office, of the report
of the Commissioner of the General Land Ottice for zens of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, praying together with the objections of the State super.
1867, without the sketches or illustrations, and with; that a pension be allowed to the soldiers and intendent of public instruction against said out the mape, except the connected map of the United sailors of the war of 1812, and to the widows treaty; which was referred to the Committee States. of those that have died; which was referred on Indian Affairs.
Resolved, further, That an abridgment of the report
of the Cominissioner of the General Land Office for to the Comunittee on Pensions.
Mr. THAYER. I also present the protest 1807, containing such portions of it as may best encourHe also presented a petition of Thomas J. of White Hair, principal chief, and nine other
age immigration, shall be prepared by him without Brooks and others, employés of commissaries chiefs and head men of the Osage nation,
sketches or illustrations, and without maps, except:
ing the connected map of the United States; and of subsistence, asking to be included in the bill against the ratification of the pending Osage that two thousand copies be printed for the use of giving twenty per cent, additional compensa treaty, setting forth the threats and induce the General Land Office, and also that two thousaud tion to clerks and others; which was referred ments held out by the commissioners to secure
copies in English, three tbousand copies in German,
and one thousand copies in Swedish, be priuiled for to the Committee on Appropriations.
their signatures to said treaty, and a declara distribution in Europe, under the direction of tho He also presented a petition of members of tion that the tribe does not want it confirmed. Department of State. the bar of the District of Columbia, praying an Also, that the rest of the chiefs of the nation The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there any increase of the salary of the judge of the are absent on a buffalo hunt, otherwise they objection to the present consideration of the orphans' court of the District; which was would have signed with them. I have been resolution? The Chair hears no objection. referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. requested to ask tbat this remonstrance be read Mr. CONNESS. I desire to make a motion Mr. HOWE presented a petition of Lewis to the Senate.
in regard to it. John, for himself and others, members of the The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The remon. Mr. EDMUNDS. I think it had better go Oneida tribe of Indians, praying that they may strance will be read if there be no objection. be granted bounty for services rendered during Mr. EDMUNDS. I object. I want to save Mr. CONNESS. I move to refer it to the the war of 1812; which was referred to the time.
Committee on Public Lands of this body, and Committee on Pensions.
The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The readMr. MORGAN presented a memorial of lling of the paper being objected to, it cannot
I desire to submit
a very few words in regard to it.
Pri fari op).
LAND OFFICE REPORT.
tor that the object je not to get condiditional The PRESIDENT pro tempore. It can noe
The PRESIDING OFFICER. Does the Mr. CONNESS. That is not my object.
The PRESIDENT pro tempore.
Under our Senator from Vermout object to the consider My object is to save the time of the Senate. new rules a motion to take ip a bill is not in ation of the resolution?
There are a great many facts to be stated order, except by unanimous consent, during Mr. EDMUNDS. Yes, sir. I want it to go which may be considered and collated in the the presentation of morning business. over until to-morrow and be printed. I have Committee on Public Lands, and we may save Mr. HENDRICKS. I am glad of it. po objection to my friend from California mak much time by that course.
The PRESIDENT pro tempore. Reports ing his suggestion.
Mr. ANTHONY. If this resolution be re of committees are in order.
REPORTS OF COMMITTEES.
Mr. HARLAN, from the Committee on the Mr. EDMUNDS. The trouble is that it will of the Senate, and by a law of Congress which
District of Columbia, to whom was referred lead to debate. the Senate cannot suspend, although it very
the bill (H. R. No. 503) for the relief of WilMr. CONNESS. Not at all; there will be often assumes to do so, that report must go
liam B. Todd, reported it without amendment. no debate whatever. back to the Committee on Printing. When
Mr. NYE, from the Committee on Territo. Mr. ANTHONY. I have a word to say; the Committee on Public Lands make their ries, to whom was referred the bill (H. R. No. but not to debate it.
report it must by law go to the Committee on 202) to create the office of surveyor general in The PRESIDING OFFICER. Does the Printing
the Territory of Utah, and establish a land Senator from Vermont object to its present Mr. STEWART. Then I will simply ask
office in said Territory, and extend the home. consideration ?
that that matter lie over until I consult the stead and preëmption laws over the same, asked Mr. EDMUNDS. No, sir. members of the Committee on Public Lands.
to be discharged from its further consideration, Mr. CONNESS. I yield the floor to the Mr. ANTHONY. No, I do not object to
and that it be referred to the Cominittee on chairman of the Committee on Printing first. the reference; I only wish the Senate to under
Public Lands; which was agreed to.
Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN. I move now that Senator has to say about it.
Mr. CONNESS. I wish to say to the Sena. the Senate proceed to the consideration of Mr. CONNESS. That will be on my motion
House bill No. 1129, to refer.
by Committee on Mr. ANTHONY. Well, Mr. President, Public Lands, and that committee will prob
be done, except by unanimous consent, until the this is a resolution from the Committee on ably not take that course, but they will offer, as
morning business is through with. Public Lands which was referred to the Com: they would to day, the amendments that they
Mr. CONNESS. I desire to offer a resolu.
tion. mittee on Printing, and the Committee on will propose. They desire to have the subject Printing reported a substitute for it, and now considered ; that is all.
The PRESIDENT pro tempore. If there be it is proposed to refer it back to the Com Mr. ANTHONY. Very well; let it go.
no further reports of committees the presentmittee on Public Lands. I simply wish the The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The ques.
ation of resolutions will be in order. Senate to understand it. tion is on the motion of the Senator from Cali
EIGUT-HOUR LAW. Mr. CONNESS. The condition of the fornia, to refer this report to the Committee on case is this : there is a proposition to print
Mr. CONNESS submitted the following resPublic Lands. a given number of the report of the Com The motion was agreed to.
olution ; which was considered by unanimous missioner of the General Land Office with cer
consent, and agreed to: ORDER OF BUSINESS,
Resolved, That the President be requested to direct tain maps accompanying that report. Under
Mr. EDMUNDS. I ask the Senate to pro
the heads of the several Departments of the Govthe standing rules of the Senate the proposi.
ernment to promulgate the law limiting the hours tion to print an extra number had necessarily ceed to the consideration of Senate joint res of labor, recently enacted, with such regulations as to be referred to the Committee on Public
olution No. 139, excluding from the Electoral will lead to an immediate compliance with the law. Printing. That committee now report in | College votes of States lately in rebellion which
ORDER OF BUSINESS.
Mr. EDMUNDS. I move that the Senate opinion, not one consistent with the highest
Mr. CONNESS. Let us go through the
proceed to the consideration of Senate joint public interests. I do not mean in saying that
resolution No. 139, the same that I mentioned to make any condemnation of the committee
before. at this time. But it is a question necessarily have this resolution taken up now is that it is
The PRESIDENT pro tempore. That reinvolving high considerations, and I desire, a measure of such a nature that I feel quite quires unanimous consent. and I do not think the honorable chairman of sure it will require at least ten days--not to
Mr. EDMUNDS. Are not resolutions through the Committee on Printing should object to make any offensive or unparliamentary re with? that, that the Coinmittee on Public Lands mark-at least ten days to pass it, after we shall have the consideration of the question. shall have once considered it, and therefore it | know. If there be no further reports of com
The PRESIDENT pro tempore. I do not They can probably report to-morrow or the ought to be acted upon one way or the other mittees the introduction of bills and joint resoday after, and then we can act upon the re
That is all I wish to say.
lutions is in order. port. Therefore, I submit now a motion to The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The Sen Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN. I move that the refer the inatter to the Committee on Public ator from Vermont asks unanimous consent to
Senate proceed to the consideration of House
bill No. 1129.
Mr. EDMUNDS. That requires unanimous gestion to be carried out. I have some amend Senator to allow me to call up a bill of some
consent as much as mine did. ments on my table, and I desire to have those interest, which I have charge of, from the
The PRESIDENT pro tempore. There seems amendments considered by the Committee on Committee on Naval Affairs.
to be no further morning business.
Mr. HARLAN. I desire to submit a motion. I hope it will be referred to that committee, The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The motion || I move that Friday next, after one o'clock, be and they can report it back at an early hour, being objected to cannot be entertained at the set apart for the consideration of business perperhaps to morrow morning, after consultation. present time.
taining to the District of Columbia. Mr. ANTHONY. I have no objection to
Mr. HENDRICKS. I ask the unanimous The motion was agreed to. any disposition the Senate chooses to make of consent of the Senate to take up Şenate bill
ORDER OF BUSINESS. this matter. This is a resolution for printing
No. 486. extra copies of a document which is altogether
Mr. CONNESS. I hope we shall go through Mr. THAYER. I move that the Senate the most expensive document presented to the the morning business first.
proceed to the consideration of House bill No. Senate at this session. The printing of it,
The PRÉSIDENT pro tempore. Is there 780, for the relief of Martha M. Jones, adminaccording to the resolution of the Committee objection to taking up the bill mentioned by the listratrix of Samuel T. Jones. I will then yield on Public Lands, would cost from one hunSenator from Indiana ?
to any morning business for a few minutes. dred to one hundred and twenty-five thousand
Mr. EDMUNDS. I object.
The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The morndollars. The Committee on Printing bave
The PRESIDENT pro tempore. Then it | ing business is not through with. reported, as the Senator from California justly cannot now be taken up:
Mr. THAYER. I ask the Chair to put the says, & very restricted resolution,, cutting it
Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN. Į move to take | motion, and then, if it prevails, I will yield for down, I suppose, at least tenths. Now,
up House bill No. 1129, which is a short bill, the morning business. the proposition of the Senator from California and will take but little time. It is for the Mr. EDMUNDS. The motion is not in is to refer this economical resolution to the relief of the widow of Colonel Mulligan. Il order. same committee that reported the more expens: hope nobody will object.
The PRESIDENT pro tempore. Half a ive one. I have no objection; but I do not Mr. EDMUNDS. I feel obliged to object. || dozen Senators on the floor have submitted want, when it comes up, that the question The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The motion similar motions. We must go through with shall be taken out of the bands of the Com being objected to cannot now be entertained. the morning business. mittee on Printing and given over to the Com. Mr. HENDRICKS. I move to suspend all Mr. DAVIS. There is a report here from mittee on Public Lands. I do not want any. prior orders, and take up the bill to which I the War Office in response to a resolution of · thing done when the Committee on Public || referred, Senate bill No. 486.
the Senate passed some time since. I move Lauds are not aware of it.
Mr. EDMUNDS. That is not in order. that the report be printed.