Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

10

cori

118 we

HOW TO ARRIVE AT SPECIK PAYMENTS.

CONCLUSION.

ernment refuses to take up its notes, and others cable only to future contracts, as the parties It shonld be understood in advance, so that do likewise. These things cannot be without mutually agree. Every citizen in this respect business may adapt itself to the change. Once a shock to public morals. Honesty ceases to would be a law to hinself. If he chose in his understood, it must be pursued wisely to the be even a policy. Broken contracts prepare own business to resume specie payments, he end. I call attention to a few of the expedithe way for crime, which comes to complete could do so. There would be a voluntary ents by which this contraction may be made. The picture.

resumption by the people, one by one. Bit 1. Any holder may have liberty to fund his Our foreign commerce is not less disturbed, this influence could not be contined to the greenbacks in bonds, as he inay desire, so that, for here we are brought within the sphere of immediate parties. Beyond the contagion of as coin increased, they would be merged in the other laws than our own. Gold is the standard its example, there would be a positive neces; funded debt and the currency be reduced in of business throughout the civilized world. sity on the part of the banks, that they should orresponding proportion. Until it becomes again the standard among | adapt themselves to the exigency by the sub- 2. Greenbacks when received at the Treas

are not, according to the familiar stitution of proper commercial equivalents; || ury may be canceled, or they inay be redeemed phrase of President Lincolo, “in practical and thus again we take another step in specie directly, so far as the coin on haud will perrelations' with the civilized world. We are payments.

mit. States out of the great Union. Our currency Thirdly. Another measure of practical value 3. Greenbacks may be converted into comhas the stamp of legality at home; but it is is the contraction of the existing currency, so pound-interest notes, to be funded in monthly worthless abroad. In all foreign transactions as to bring it on a par with coin, dollar for installments, running over a period of years, we are driven to purchase gold at a premium, dollar. Before alluding to any of the expe. thus reaching specie payments within a brief or to adopt a system of barter, which belongs dients to accomplish this precious object, it is period. to the earlier stages of commerce. Corn, important to arrive at some idea of the amount 4. Another expedient, more active still, is wheat, and cotton are exchanged for the prod. of currency of all kinds required for the busi- the application of the coin on hand to the ucts we desire, and this traffic is the coarse ness of the country. To do this, we may look payment of greeubacks at a given rate, say substitute for that refined and plastic system at the currency before the rebellion, when $6,000,000 a month-selecting for payment of exchanges which adapts itself so easily to business was in its normal condition. I shall those holders who present the largest amount all the demands of business. Commerce with not occupy space with tables, although they are of five twenties for conversion into the long foreign Powers is prosecuted at an incalculable now before me, but content myself with re- bonds at a low rate of interest, or shall рау

the disadvantage. Our shipping, which in times sults. From the official report of the Treasury, highest premium on such bonds. past has been the pride of the Nation, whiten- it appears that, on the 1st of January, 1860, I mention these as expedients, calculated ing every sea with its sails, is reduced in num- the whole active circulation of the country, to operate in the same direction-without vio. ber and value. Driven from the ocean by || including bank circulation, bank deposits avail- lent change or spasmodic action. Under their pirate Bags during the rebellion, it cannot able as currency, specie in bank, specie in

mild and beneficent influence the currency struggle back to its ancient supremacy until Treasury, estimated specie in circulation, and would be gradually reduced, so that the final the accustomed laws of trade once more resume deducting reserves, amounted to $542,097,264. step when taken would be hardly felt. With their rule.

It may be assumed that this sum total was so great an object in view, I do not doubt its

the amount of currency required at the tine. accomplishment at an early day, if the Nation There are few who will deny the transcend- From the same official tables, it appears that, only wills it. “Where there is a will there is ent evil which I have set forth. There are on the 1st of October, 1867, the whole active a way," and never was this proverb truer than few who will advocate inconvertible paper as circulation of the country, beginning with on this occasion. To my mind it is clear that, currency. How shall the remedy be applied ? || greenbacks and fractional currency, and includ. when the Nation wills a currency in coin, then On this question, so interesting to the business ing all the items in the other account, amounted must this victory over the Rebellion be won; and good name of the country there are theo- to $1,245,138,193. Thus from 1860, when the provided always that there is no failure in those ries without number; some so ingenious as currency was normal, to 1867, some time after other things on which I have also dwelt as the to be artificial rather than natural. What is the suspension of specie payments, there was conditions precedent of this final victory. natural is simple; and I am persuaded that

an increase of one hundred and thirty per our remedy must be of this character.

cent. Omitting bank deposits for both years How vain it is to expect financial reconstrucThe legal-tender note, which we wish to ex- the increase was one hundred and forty-six tion until political reconstruction has been compel from our currency, has two different char- per cent. Making due allowance for the in- || pleted, I have already showr. How vain to acters; first, as mere currency, for use in the crease of population, business, and Govern- expect specie payments, until the Nation has transactions of business ; and, secondly, as ment transactions, there remains a consider- once more gained its natural vigor, and it real value from the assurance that ultimately | able portion of this advance, which must be has become one in reality as in name. Let this it will be paid in coin, according to its promise, attributed to the abnormal condition of the be, and the Nation will be like a strong man, These two different characters may be senten: currency. I follow various estimates in put- in the full enjoyment of all his forces, coping tiously expressed as availability and converti- || ting this at sixty or seventy per cent., repre- with the trials of life. bility. The notes are now available without senting the difference of prices at the two dif: There must also be peace within our borders, being convertible. Our desire is to make them ferent periods, and the corresponding excess so that there shall be no discord between Presconvertible; in other words, the equivalent of of currency above the requirements of the ident and Congress. Therefore, so long as Ancoin in value, dollar for dollar. On the 1st of country. Therefore, for the reduction of prices, drew Johnson is President, the return to specie June last past these notes were $388, 645, 801

there must be a reduction of the currency ; payments is impossible. So long as a great in amount.

and this must be to the amount of $300,000,000. party, called Democratic, better now called Discarding theories, however ingenious, and So it seems, unless these figures err.

Rebel, wars on that political reconstruction, following nature, I call attention to a few prac. Against the movement for contraction, which which Congress has organized, there can be no tical points before reverting to those cardi- is commended by its simplicity and its tend- specie payments. So long as any President, nal principles applicable to this subject, from ency to a normal condition of things, we or any political party, denies the Equal Rights which there can be no appeal.

have two adverse policies; one the stand-still of the freedman, it is vain to expect specie First. The present proposition for funding is | policy, and the other, worse yet, the policy payments. Whoso would have equity must do an excellent measure for this purpose, being at of inflation. By the first the currency is left equity; and now, if yon would have specie pay. once simple and practical; not that it contains in statu quo--stationary—subject to the influ- ments, you must do this great equity. The rest any direct promise for the redemption of our ence of other conditions which may operate to will follow. When General Grant said, “Let currency, but because it places the national debt reduce it. Better stand still than move in a us have peace'' he said also, “Let us have on a permanent footing ata smaller interest than wrong direction. By the latter the currency is specie payments." Among all the blessed is now paid. By this change three things, es- enlarged at the expense of the people-being at gifts of peace there is none more certain. sential to financial reconstruction, are pro- once a tax and a derangement of values. You Nor must it be forgotten, that there can be moted; economy, stability, and national credit. pamper the morbid appetite for paper money no departure in any way from the requireWith these once established, specie-payments and play the discarded part of John Law. ments of Public Faith. This is a perpetual cannot be long postponed.

You blow up a bladder, without thinking that obligation, complete in all respects and just as Secondly. Another measure of immediate it is nothing but a bladder, ready to burst. As | applicable to the freedman as to the bondvalue is the legalization of contracts in coin, the volume of currency is increased the pur- bolder. Repudiation in all its forms, direct so that henceforth all agreements made in coin chasing power of each dollaris reduced in pro- or indirect, whether of the freedman or the may be legally enforced in coin or its equiva- portion. As you add to the currency you take bondholder, must be repudiated. Both aro lent. This would establish specie payments from the dollar. You do little more than mark under the same safeguard, and there is the wherever parties desired, and to this extent your goods at higher prices and imagine that same certain disaster from any repudiation of begin the much-desired change. Contracts in they have increased in value. Already the either. Unless the Public Faith is preserved, coin would increase and multiply, until the price is too high. Do not make it higher. you cannot fund your debt at a smaller interexception became the rule. There would for Already the currency is corrupted. Do not est; you cannot convert your greenbacks; you a time be two currencies; but the better must corrupt it more. The cream has been reduced cannot comply with the essential terms of gradually prevail. The essential equity of the to skimmed milk. Do not let it be reduced to reconstruction. Amid all surrounding abunnew system would be apparen'; while there chalk and water. Let there be national cream dance you are poor and powerless, for you are would be a charm in once more looking upon for all the people.

dishonored. Do not say, as an apology, that familiar faces long hidden from sight, as the Obviously any contraction of the currency all should have the same currency. True as hoarded coin came forth. Nor can any pos- must be conducted with caution, so as to inter- this may be, it is a cheat when used to cover sible injury ensue. The legalization is appli- Il fere as little as possible with existing interests. dishonor. The currency of all should be coin,

а

Pardon me,

and you

should lift all the national creditors to this solid platform rather than drag a single citizen down. A just Equality is sought by leveling up instead of leveling down. In this way the national credit will be maintained, so that it wiil be a source of wealth, prosperity, and renown.

if now, by way of recapitulation, I call your attention to three things in which all others center. The first is the Public Faith. The second is the Public Faith. The third is the Public Faith. Let these be sacredly preserved, and there is nothing of power or fame, which can be wanting. All things will pay tribute to you, even from the uttermost parts of the sea. All the sheaves will stand abont, as in the dream of Joseph, and make obeisance to your sheaf. Good people, especially all concerned in business, whether com: merce, banking, or labor-ourown compatriots or the people of other lands—will honor and uphold the Nation which, against all temptation, keeps its word.

EXECUTIVE SESSION. Mr. TRUMBULL. It is manifest that we cannot get through with this bill to-day, and as it is desirable to have an executive session I move that the Senate proceed to the consideration of executive business.

Mr. SHERMAN. Why not let us proceed with this bill a little longer ?

Mr. TRUMBULL. It is after three o'clock on Saturday afternoon; and there is some business that ought to be done in executive session.

Mr. SHERMAN. We can have an executive session later in the day, say at half past four.

Mr. TRUMBULL. We cannot get through the executive business by beginning the executive session at half past four.

The PRESIDING OFFICER, (Mr. An. THONY in the chair.) The motion is not debatable.

Mr. SHERMAN. I ask for the yeas and nays. We might just as well go on a little longer with this bili.

The yeas and nays were ordered; and being taken, resulted-yeas 33, nays 6; as follows:

YEAS- Messrs. Anthony, Buckalew, Cameron, Cattell, Chandler, Cole, Conkling, Conness, Davis, Edmunds, Ferry, Fessenden, Fowler, Harlan, Howard, Howe, McCreery, McDonald, Nye, Osborn, Patterson of New Hampshire, Patterson of Tennessee, Pomeroy, Ramsey, Ross, Sumner, Tipton, Trumbull, Van Winkle. Vickers, Willey, Williams.and Yates-33.

NAYS-Messrs. Morgan, Morrill of Maine, Morrill of Vermont, Morton, Sherman, and Stewart-6.

ABSENT – Messrs. Bayard, Corbett,Cragin, Dixon, Doolittle, Drake, Frelinghuysen, Grimes, Henderson, Hendricks, Norton, Rice, Saulsbury,Sprague, Thayer, Wade, Welch, and Wilson-18.

So the motion was agreed to.

After more than two hours spent in execu. tive session the doors were reopened.

MESSAGE FROM THE HOUSE. A message from the House of Representatives, by Mr. McPherson, its Clerk, announced that the House had passed the joint resolution (S. R. No. 139) excluding from the Electoral College the votes of States lately in rebellion which shall not have been organized, with amendments, in which it requested the concurrence of the Senate.

The message also announced that the House had disagreed to the amendments of the Senate to the bill (H. R. No. 1284) to change and more effectually secure the collection of internal taxes on distilled spirits and tobacco, and to amend the tax on banks, asked a conference on the disagreeing votes of the two Houses thereon, and has appointed Mr. R. C. Schenck of Ohio, Mr. SAMUEL Hooper of Massachusetts, and Mr. W. E. NiBlack of Indiana, managers at the same on its part. ELECTORAL VOTES OF LATE REBEL STATES.

On motion of Mr. EDMUNDS, the Senate proceeded to consider the amendments of the House of Representatives to the joint resolution (S. R. No. 139) excluding from the Electoral College votes of States lately in rebellion which shall not have been reorganized.

The amendments were read. They were in

lines four and five, to strike out the words teenth article; and then, in order not to include
"and which States are not now represented Tennessee in that, which was admitted before
in Congress ;'' in line fifteen, to strike out the with a constitution formed prior to the 4th of
word "and" and insert “nor, and 10 add to March, 1867, the proviso is added. I do hope
the resolution the words, Provided, That that on this mere question of form we shall not
nothing herein contained shall be construed | laggle with the House of Representatives, but
to apply to any State which was represented concur in their amendments at once.
in Congress on the 4th day of March, 1867 "} The question being put on concurririg in the
so as to make the resolution read :

House amendınents; there were, on a division-
Resolved, dc., That none of the States whose ayes 20, noes 12.
inhabitants were lately in rebellion shall be entitled Mr. WILLIAMS. Mr. President-
to representation in the Electoral College for the Mr. TRUMBULL. I should like to have
choice of President or Vice President of the United
States, nor shall any clectoral votes be received or

the yeas and nays on concurring in the House counted from any of such States, unless at the time amendments. i think an imnortant principle prescribed by law for the choice of electors the peo- is involved. ple of such States, pursuant to the acts of Congress

Mr. EDMUNDS. It is too late. in that behalf, shall have, since the 4th day of March, 1867, adopted a coustitution of State govern- Mr. TRUMBULL. I do not think it is too ment under which a State government shall have late. been organized and shall be in operation, nor unless such election of electors shall have been held under

Mr. EDMUNDS. After the vote has been the authority of such constitution and government, taken and announced ? and such State shall bave also become entitled to Mr. TRUMBULL. If the Senate does not representation in Congress, pursuant to tho acts of Congress in that behalf: Provided, That nothing

want to give me the yeas and nays, be it so. herein contained shall be construed to apply to any

Mr. EDMUNDS. I should not bave thought State which was represented in Congress on the 4th

of suggesting that objection if the Senator had day of March, 1867.

not been so exceedingly nice. I withdraw the The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The ques. | objection. tion is on concurring in the amendments of

Mr. TRUMBULL. If the Senate will not of the House of Representatives. Mr. TRUMBULL. It seems to me that the give me the yeas and nays, be it so.

The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The Senaamendments put the resolution in a shape tor from Oregon addressed the Chair. which the Senate several times voted down.

Mr. WILLIAMS. I was about to make & The objection to the resolution as it originally

motion to adjourn; but if the Senator from stood was that it embraced States which had

Illinois wants the yeas and nays, of course I already been admitted to representation. That shall not make the motion now. was the point upon which the discussion arose

Mr. TRUMBULL. I think we had better
in the Senate, and the Senate repeatedly voted have the yeas and naye.
down this very proposition.

Mr. EDMUNDS. I make no objection.
Mr. DRAKE. No.
Mr. TRUMBULL. Yes; I think, in sub- || taken, resulted-yeas 19, nays 15; as follows:

The yeas and nays were ordered ; and being
stance, the very same thing. The Senator
froin Nebraska (Mr. THAYER] made a motion

YEAS–Messrs. Anthony, Cattell, Cole. Cragin,

Drake, Edmunds, Harlan, Morrill of Vermont, which saved the States of Arkansas and Flor- Morton, Nye, Osborn, Ramsey, Ross, Stewart, Sumida by providing that the resolution should ner, Tipton, Wade, Williams, and Yates-19.

NAYS-Messrs. Buckalew. Conkling, Davis, Ferry, apply only to those States not now represented. Fowler, Henderson, Hendricks, Howe, McCreery, The Senator from Nebraska moved the amend

Morgan, Patterson of Tennessee, Thayer, Trumbull, ment eo as to confine the resolution to those Van Winkle, and Vickers-15.

ABSENT-Messrs. Bayard, Cameron, Chandler, States not represented; and that was satisfac. Conness, Corbett, Dixon, Doolittle, Fessendep, Free tory to the Senate. The very difficulty we had | linghuysen, Grimes. Howard, McDonald, Morrill of in this body was that the original resolution Maine, Norton, Patterson of New Hampshire, Pomereflected upon States already represented in

roy, Rice, Saulsbury, Sherman, Sprague, Welch,

Willey, and Wilson-23.
Congress, and it was making a distinction,

So the amendments were concurred in.
which many thought invidious, between the
States of Arkansas and Florida and the States Mr. WILLIAMS. I move that the Senato
of Illinois and New York and Nebraska; and do now adjourn.
hence the amendment of the Senator from The motion was agreed to; and the Senate
Nebraska was adopted by a very decided vote || adjourned.
of the Sevate. Now, the House of Represent-
atives has stricken out that very provision HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
which made the resolution satisfactory to the

SATURDAY, July 11, 1868.
Senate. As there was so much trouble about
it, I think it would be best to non-concur.

The House met at twelve o'clock m.
'Mr. CONKLING. I was going to make that when, on motion of Mr. BOUTWELL, the

The Journal of yesterday was partially read, suggestion, that we non-concur and ask for a conference.

further reading was dispensed with. Mr. TRUMBULL. I move, if it be in order, UNITED STATES COURTS IX VIRGINIA. that we non-concur in ihe House amendments

Mr. BOUTWELL, by unanimous consent, and ask for a conference. I think that will be

from the Committee on the Judiciary, reported the better way, and then we shall arrive at a | back, with the recommendation that it do pass, conclusion.

the bill (H. R. No. 1370) to fix the time for Mr. EDMUNDS. A motion to concur has holding the terms of the United States district precedence, and I make that motion. I have

court in Virginia. looked at the amendments of the House. Aside

The bill was read. It provides that the from the feeling of my friend from Illinois who

terms of the United States district court for has had it all the time-it has been chronic

the district of Virginia shall be held as herewith him ; and therefore it is to be expected that he will continue it-I think the resolution terms in Staunton shall be held on the second

tofore at Richmond and Norfolk, and that the as amended by the House of Representatives | Tuesday of April and October, and at Wythecomes nearer to harmonizing all the views that

ville on the fourth Tuesday of April and October the Senate had than any other would. It leaves

each year. out the names of these States just as they were left out last night, and makes the sweeping | read a third time; and being engrossed, it was declaration that none of the States which have || accordingly read the third time, and passed. been in rebellion shall be considered as having Mr. BOUTWELL moved to reconsider the been restored out of the rebellion so as to vote

vote by which the bill was passed ; and also until they shall have reached the point through moved that the motion to reconsider be laid the instrumentality of our reconstruction meas

on the table. ures where they will be entitled to admission ;

The latter motion was agreed to. that is, until they shall have adopted their new

LEAVE OF ABSENCE. constitutions under the authority of Congress, submitted them to Congress for approval, have Mr. CAKE asked and obtained leave of them approved, and then have ratified the four- absence for two days.

e in the man was ordered to be engrossed and

a

COURT OF CLAIMS--ARKANSAS.

which was wrecked in our waters and aban- fund, and that all special funds held under tho ser. Mr. WILSON, of Iowa, by unanimous condoned; but it does not come under the provis.

eral Departments of the Government and not covered

into the Treasury of the United States, be forth with sent, reported back from the Committee on ions of any general law by which an American transferred and charged to the commissioner of the the Judiciary, with a substitute, a joint resolu

owner of the vessel can obtain an American sinking fund, for the purposes thereof. tion (H. R. No. 310) to extend the provisions register. The Committee on Commerce had

MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE. of the act of July 4, 1864, limiting the juris

before them a letter from the Secretary of the diction of the Court of Claims to the loyal Treasury explaining all the facts, and after

A message from the Senate, by Mr. GORHAM, citizens of the State of Arkansas. examination the committee agreed unanimously

its Secretary, announced that that body insisted The substitute, which was read, provides that I should be allowed to report this joint upon its amendment to the bill (H. R. No. 344) that the provisions of the act of July 4, 1864, resolution to the House.

to incorporate the Washington Target-Shooting entitled "An act to restrict the jurisdiction of

Mr. SPALDING. I will not oppose the

Association in the District of Columbia, disthe Court of Claims," is hereby extended to passage of this joint resolution. What I object | agreed to by the House, asked a conference on loyal citizens of the State of Arkansas, any. to is the Committee on Commerce singling out

the disagreeing, votes of the two Houses thing to the contrary notwithstanding in the one or two cases where any of their own num

thereon, and had appointed Messrs. Harlax, act to declare the sense of an act entitled "

CONKLING, and Vickers conferees on the part ber are interested and excluding others. Some "An

of the Senate. act to restrict the jurisdiction of the Court of of us have introduced applications for registers

The message further announced that the Claims, and to provide for the payment of | of yessels as favorable as this can possibly be, certain demands for quartermaster's stores and we hear nothing from them. I have noth

Senate had agreed to the amendment of the

House to the joint resolution (S. No. 107) in and subsistence supplies furnished to the Army ing further to say except that I shall vote for of the United States," passed February 19, the resolution.

relation to the Maquoketa river in the State

of Iowa, 1867.

The SPEAKER. The Chair will state that The substitute was agreed to; and the joint if there should be a morning hour to-day the

Also, that the Senate had passed without resolution, as amended, was then ordered to Committee on Commerce will be called for

amendment the bill (H. R. No. 1099) for the

relief of Wait Talcott. be engrossed and read a third time; and being

bills of a private nature. engrossed, it was accordingly read the third Mr. ELIOT. I ask the gentleman from

Also, that the Senate had passed a joint resotime, and passed. California (Mr. AxtELL) to yield to me for a

lution and a bill of the following titles, in which Mr. WILSON, of Iowa, moved to reconmoment that I may say a word in reply to the

the concurrence of the House was requested:

Joint resolution (S. No. 139) excluding from sider the vote by which the joint resolution

gentleman from Ohio, (Mr. Spalding.) was passed ; and also moved that the motion

Mr. AXTELL. I yield to the gentleman.

the Electoral College States lately in rebellion to reconsider be laid on the table.

Mr. ELIOT. I wish to say to the gentleman

which shall not have been reorganized; and

A bill (S. No. 589) to establish certain post The latter motion was agreed to. from Ohio [Mr. SPALDING] that if he will at

roads.
any time bring before the Committee on Com.
BRIDGE OVER MISSOURI RIVER.
merce a case similar in principle to that now

WASHINGTON TARGET ASSOCIATION.
Mr. CLARKE, of Kansas. I ask unanimous reported by the gentleman from California it The SPEAKER. If there is no objection
consent to have taken from the Speaker's table will probably receive the same favorable con- the House will reciprocate the request of the
Senate bill No. 355, authorizing the construc-

sideration that this has received. I will say Senate for a committee of conference on the tion of a bridge across the Missouri river upon

that the cases which have been submitted to disagreeing votes of the two Houses on the the military reservation at Fort Leavenworth, the committee by the gentleman from Ohio are amendment to the bill (H. R. No. 344) to Kansas.

not cases deserving the favorable consideration || incorporate the Washington Target-Shooting No objection was made; and the bill was of the committee ; and so long as such cases Association in the District of Columbia. taken from the table and read a first and second come before us, and so long as the Committee No objection being made, it was so ordered ; time.

on Commerce shall be constituted as it now is, and Messrs. BALDWIN, WELKER, and GlossThe question was upon ordering the bill to the gentleman from Ohio must expect that BRENNER were appointed conferees on the part be read a third time.

adverse reports will be made. The case now of the House. Mr. CLARKE, of Kansas. I yield to the reported is one which would fairly come within

ELECTORAL COLLEGE. gentleman from Missouri [Mr. Loan] to offer the provisions of the act of 1852, if the vessel

On motion of Mr. FARNSWORTH, by an amendment. had been wrecked on our coast. In point of

unanimous consent, the bill (S. No. 139) exMr. LOAN. I move to amend the bill by

fact, much more than the amount called for by cluding from the Electoral College States fately adding to it the following:

that statute has been expended upon the vessel, in rebellion which shall not have been reorgan. SEC. And be it further enacted, Tbat it shall be which was an abandoned vessel, not a wreck.

ized was taken from the Speaker's table, and lawful for the St. Joseph and Denver City Railroad In other respects, the case would fairly come

referred to the Committee on Reconstruction. Company, a corporation created by the laws of the within the purview of that statute. State of Kansas, to build a bridge over and across the Mi-souri river at St. Jos ph, Missouri; and all the Mr. SPALDING. In reply to the gentle

MILITARY PEACE ESTABLISHMENT. rights and privileges conferred by sections one, two, man from Massachusetts [Mr. Eliot) I will say

The SPEAKER. The House now resumes four, and five, of this act are hereby extended, so far that I cannot tell whether the cases which have the consideration of the business unfinished at as they are applicable to the St. Joseph and Denver City Railroad Company, and the restrictions, limita

been referred by me to the Committee on Com. the adjournment last evening, being the bill tions, and conditions contained in said sections are

merce deserve the favorable consideration of (H. R. No. 1377) to reduce and fix the military hereby made applicable to said company.

that committee; but I do say that they deserve peace establishment. Tbe amendment was agreed to.

the favorable consideration of all men of patriot- The pending section was the following: The bill, as amended, was then read the ism and good sense.

SEC. 5. And be it further enacted, That no vacancy third time, and passed,

Mr. ELIOT. In the judgment of my most

sball hereafter be filled in the office of brigadier genMr. CLARKE, of Kansas, moved to recon. excellent and excitable friend from Ohio.

cral until the number of brigadier generals shall be

less than eight, and thereafter there shall be but sider the vote by which the bill was passed ;

The joint resolution was passed.

oight brigadier generals. and also moved that the motion to reconsider

Mr. AXTELL moved to reconsider the vote

The pending question was upon the amendbe laid on the table.

by which the joint resolution was passed ; and ment offered by Mr. Paine (renewed by Mr. The latter motion was agreed to.

also moved that the motion to reconsider be | Logan) to the amendment of Mr. Butler, of

laid on the table.
HAWAIIAN BRIG VICTORIA.

Massachusetts.
The latter motion was agreed to.

The amendment of Mr. BUTLER, of MassaMr. AXTELL, by unanimous consent, re.

SINKING FUND.

chusetts, was to strike out all after the enacting ported from the Committee on Commerce a joint resolution (H. R. No. 331) to authorize

Mr. PHELPS, by unanimous consent, sub

clause and insert the following: the issue of an American register to the Ha- mitted the following resolutions, which were

There shall be but six brigadier generals; and tho

officers who shall retain their commissions as such waiian brig Victoria ; which was read a first

laid on the table, and ordered to be printed : shall be designated by the General of the Army withand second time.

Resoloed, That the Coinmittee of Ways and Means out regard to seniority; and all others shall be musThe question was upon ordering the joint

are bereby instructed to report for the action of the tered out of service on the 1st day of January next. House a bill to carry into immediate effect the fifth

The amendment of Mr. PAINE was to sub. resolution to be engrossed and read a third section of the act of 1862, February 25, providing that time. the coin received for duties on imports shall, after

stitute for the amendment of Mr. BUTLER, of The joint resolution, which was read, directs

paying interest on bonds and notes, be applied to the Massachusetts, the following:

purchase or payment of one per cent. of the entiro the Secretary of the Treasury to issue an Amer. debt of the United States within each fiscal year, to

There shall be but six brigadier generals after the ican register to the derelict Hawaiian brig be set apart, with the accruing interest, as a sinking 31st day of March, 1869; and the officers who shall fund.

retain their commissions as such shall, after the 10th Victoria, said vessel being now owned by a

2. That the said committee are also instructed to day of March, 1899, be designated by the President of citizen of San Francisco, California.

provide in said bill for tho establishment of a board the United States without regard to seniority, and all The joint resolution was then ordered to be of commissioners of the sinking fund, to be composed others shall be mustered out of service on the 31st

of the Secretary of the Treasury, the Vice President day of March, 1869. engrossed and read a third time; and being

of the United States, and the Speaker of the House of engrossed, it was accordingly read the third Representatives, whose duty it shall be, without addi

Mr. PAINE. I wish to submit a modificatime.

tional compensation, to make from tinie to time such tion of my amendment. I have only changed The question was upon the passage of the

lawful rules and regulations as may be necessary for the phraseology and not the substance.

the management of said sinking fund. bill.

3. That said committee are further instructed to Mr. LYNCH. I hope some reason will be

provide in said bill that all money which may accrue Strike out all after the enacting clause, and insert

from taxes that may be inposed upon the bonds or the following: given why this joint resolution should be passed.

coupons of the public debt shall be, from time to After the 3ist day of March, 1869, there shall be Mr. AXTELL. This is a Hawaiian brig time, appropriated to the increment of the sinking only six brigadier generals; and the President shall,

to The Clerk read as follows:

a

within ten days preceding said date, designate, with- bers.” I have heard that plırase before. We be elected it will become his duty, and no gen. out regard to seniority, the best six brigadier gene- have been told that we conquered the South tleman upon this floor can characterize this rals to remain in commission; and the others shall beinustered out of the service of the United States

by the "brutal force of numbers.'' We estab- amendment as partisan iu spirit. And let me at said date, or within ten days thereafter.

lished great political right of freedom to all men say further, that while I desire this reduction Mr. GARFIELD. I trust that amendment by the brutal force of numbers,'' and by the of the Army and believe that it should be made will be voted down; and I will say a few words,

brutal force of numbers I trust we are to pro- as promptly as it can be made, I am satisfied as a good many members are now here who tect ourselves from unnecessary expense. It || that this difference between my amendment were not present last evening. The purpose is agreed that these oflicers are not needed now, and the amendment of the gentleman from of the committee is not to strike down abso- yet this bill provides that they shall remain in Massachusetts, which postpones the inuster-out lutely any Army officers. The amendments their places useless so long as they and each || for three months, is not a fault, but is rather a proposed by the gentleman from Wisconsin of them shall live, because it is invidious to merit in my amendment. I hope, therefore, Mr. Paise) and the gentleman from Massa- make any discrimination among them.

the House will accept it, not as a compromise chusetts [Mr. Burier) muster out officers ab- Now, the amendment of my friend from Wis. | between the commitiee and the gentleman from solutely, reducing them to a greater extent consin, which I am bound to renew, but which | Massachnsetts, but as a measure which on the perhaps than the Committee on Military Af- I hope will be voted down, puts that over till whole will come nearer to meeting the views fairs deem necessary, beginning with major

next March for the action of the President who of all Representatives of both parties on this generals and going down to the lowest grade. shall be chosen. That is speculating on the || floor, and will at the same time secure to the It seems to me it we undertake this kind of chances of the election. Now, I propose that greatest degree practicable one object which policy we will inaugurate invidious legislation. these men shall be mustered out after six the committee themselves have in view, by It puts it upon the President of the United months and that the General of the Army shall avoiding undue rigor of treatment toward the States to take the list of ten brigadier generals, select those who, in his judgment, are the best officers mustered out. some of the most distinguished generals ever officers. Every general in the Army has had Mr. GARFIELD. By agreement last night in our Army, and select four who are not the to do this very thing during the war. We had it was arranged that a vote should be taken best and order them to be mustered out abso- to consolidate regiments, and there were sent to-day on the amendment of the gentleman lutely. That is an invidious and difficult task down orders mustering out the supernumerary from Massachusetts [Mr. BUTLER) to the fourth to impose upon any President of the United officers. It is invidious, I agree, but it is ne- Section, to reduce the number of major genStates. Every one mustered out is to be mus- cessary to get rid of these officers in some way, erals from that provided in the bill. I suggest tered out upon the express condition that he is and I know no better way than this to do it. that we go back and take that yote now, be. not ranked among the best brigadier generals [Here the hammer fell.]

cause our determination on that will probably in the service. It puts a stain, and it cannot Nr. PAINE. I renew the amendment. influence the vote of the House on this question. be otherwise, upon the name and honor of The SPEAKER. The Chair will state that Mr. PAINE. I must object. We can go every man who is mustered out.

If the present

it requires the consent of the House to with. back and reconsider if it shall become neces. President should be in power, and he should draw an amendment. If there is no objection sary. act on political grounds, then this side of the the amendment will be considered as with- The SPEAKER. The Chair would state to House would have good reason to feel aggrieved drawn, and the gentleman from Wisconsin [Mr. || the gentleman from Ohio that as the House is at his action. If, on the other hand, a Presi- || PAINE) will now renew it.

considering the bill in Committee of the whole dent should be in power who was a Republican, Mr. PAINE. I quite agree with my friend a motion to reconsider is not now in order, and should do the same, this side of the House from Massachusetts as to the main principles When the bill is finished it will then be in the would feel justly aggrieved. I am unwilling | involved in his amendment; that is to say, same condition as if reported from the Com. to go into these political distinctions. I am that there should be a reduction in the Army, mittee of the Whole, and then the motion to unwilling to put upon the President of the carrying along with it a reduction of the num. reconsider will be in order. A motion to reconUnited States a task so invidious as to declare ber of brigadier generals. But I differ with | sider is not in order while the bill is being per: who are not the best brigadier generals in a hin on three points, for ny amendment con- fected in Committee of the Whole. list of ten. Therefore, I trust the amendment tains three points which distinguish it from Mr. PAINE. I withdraw my objectiou 10 will be voted down. his.

the suggestion of the gentleman from Ohio Mr. PAINE. I withdraw the amendment. In the first place I intrust to the President that a vote shall be taken first on the amend.

Mr. BUTLER, of Massachusetts. I renew of the United States the power and impose ment to the fourth section. it. Now, Mr. Speaker, this is a very import- upon him the duty of selecting the four briga- The SPEAKER. Then if there be unauiant matter, and I ask the attention of the House dier generals who shall be mustered out of the mous consent the vote of last night agreeing for a moment. The whole question is, shall service ; whereas he intrusts that power to and to the amendment to the fourth section will be we reduce the Army, or shall it not be reduced ? | imposes that duty upon the General of the reconsidered. Is there objection? The Chair The bill of the committee provides that there || Army,

hears none, and the question recurs on the shall be no reduction in the number of gene- In the next place, by my amendment, I ex. amendment of the gentleman from Massachu. rals until it is accomplished by death or resig. tend the period of time for which these officers setts (Mr. BUTLER] to the fourth section, to nation, or by dismissal for cause. I am very shall hold their commissions three months strike out all after the enacting words and anxious there should be a reduction of this beyond the time allowed by his amendment. insert what the Clerk will read. Army, and I wish to begin with the generals. In the third place I require the President of The Clerk read as follows: The amendment I offered puts it in the hands the United States to select as those who shall There shall hereafter be but three major generals; of the General to select. I am content it shall be retained, the best officers of this grade. and the officers who shall retain their commissions be done by lot, if you please, or in any other Now, to begin with the last distinction. I am

as such shall be designated by the General of the

Army witbout regard to seniority, and all others way to justly and fairly get rid of them when surprised that the chairman of the committee shall be mustered out of service on the 1st day of they are not wanted by the country. They should make this a ground of objection to my January next. cost, each one of them with his complement, amendment. Why does he desire that the Mr. PAINE. I desire to offer an amend. $20,000 every year; and they are to be im- President should be authorized and required ment to the amendment, wbich I send to the posed upon the country when the committee arbitrarily to select these brigadier generals Clerk's desk. themselves say some of them are useless, and continue them in the Army without ref- Mr. GARFIELD. I make the point of because they provide in their bill for less than erence to their qualifications or merits? Is order that an amendment to the amendinent is eiglit; and the House last night agreed to the he unwilling that this question of qualifica- not now in order. Last night it was agreed amendment to strike down the major generals tion and merit shall be examined? Does he that the amendment of the gentleman from to three out of five. This is in exactly the say that it touches the honor of these officers Massachusetts (Mr. BUTLER] should be voted same proportion. I say again I am willing that they should be mustered out on an adverse on to-day, but I do not uuderstand that it is they should be struck oui by lot; but I thought decision as to their qualifications? Will he amendable. it was best to allow the selection to be done have them retained simply because they are Mr. PAINE. The gentleman seems to have by the General of the Army.

senior in rank? Why, sir, I am amazed at the forgotten what he asked the House to assent Now, sir, when you pass this so-called bill to principle involved in that objection to my to. The amendment of the gentleman froin reduce the Army you pass what, in myjudgment, amendment. It strikes at the root of the effi. Massachusetts was adopted last night. is an “electioneering dodgeand nothing else. ciency of the Army. I can conceive of no Mr. GARFIELD. With the understanding Talk about reducing! Why, sir, you have not more salutory provision on this subject than that the vote should be taken this morning reduced a man until you come to the privates, one which requires the President to select the because there was not a quorum. I desire to and you do not in fact reduce any there. The best men among these generals and continue know if it is in order for the gentleman from simple question is, are we in earnest? If we them in office.

Wisconsin now to offer to amend the amend. are not then we will vote to keep these men in. Sir, I believe that it would appear invidious; ment which was to be submitted to a vote of Otherwise strike them outin some way or other, that it would have a partisan aspect if we the House this morning. because the committee agree they are should intrust this matter to the General of Mr. PAINE. I make no such proposition, wanted and the country agree they are not the Army. It would impose upon him a duty | except as I supposed in accordance with the wanted. The question is, is there any way to which we ought not to require him to perform. suggestion of the gentleman. I understood get rid of them?

If, on the other hand, we impose the duty upon the gentleman to desire an amendment of this I want for a moment to recur to what was the President of the United States, to be per- kind to be offered to the fourth section at this said by the chairman ofthe committee last even- formed after the next presidential election, time, because it comes before the fifth section. ing on this topic. He said he would never con- then if one candidate shall be elected it will be If the gentleman objects to the amendment I sent to do this by the mere brutal force of num- come his duty, and if the other candidate shall have offered I will withdraw it.

not

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

Mr. GARFIELD. I understood the gen- of Mr. Paine to the amendment of Mr. Bur. | logical sense-all these officers from the rank tleman to move to amend the pending emend. LER, of Massachusetts, to the fifth section. they now hold. ment to the major general section. It is upon Mr. GARFIELD. This is the same amend- Mr. BUTLER, of Massachusetts. Ungrade. that amendmeut to the amendment that I make ment in principle as the one just adopted to Mr. GARFIELD. It proposes to reduce my point of order.

the fourth section relating to brigadier gen- by one grade all these eight officers now holdThe SPEAKER. The Chair will state the erals instead of to major generals.

I will ing the rank of brigadier general. The gentle. condition of this question. Last night, the therefore not oppose this amendment.

man made a mistake in saying that prior to House being thin, the gentleman from Ohio The amendment to the amendment was then the war none of these officers were of the grade [Mr. GARFIELD] asked consent that the vote agreed to; and the amendment, as amended, of brigadier general. The Quartermaster be taken upon the amendment of the gentleman was then agreed to.

General was, in 1860, a brigadier general, as from Massachusetts (Mr. Butler) to the fourth The next section was then read, as follows:

will be seen by the Army Register for that year. section when the House was full. The Chair

Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That any vacancies

The statement is correct as to the others. I beresponded to that suggestion that a motion to which may hereafter oocur in the office of Adjutant lieve that since the Mexican war the Quarter: reconsider could be made, bringing the whole General Quartermaster General, Commissary General master General has held the rank of brigadier subject again before the House. The matter

of Subsistence, chief of ordnance, chief of engineers.
Paymnaster General, Surgeon General, or Bureau of

general; but during the late war, from time to passed over on that statement.

Military Justice, shall be filled by the appointinentor time, the laws authorized the increase of rank; Mr. PAINE. Then I insist upon any amend. assignment of an officer who shall have the rank, pay, so that these eight departments are now, in acment to the amendment.

and allowances of a colonel of cavalry. And all laws
The SPEAKER. The Chair has not con-
and parts of laws authorizing the appointment of any

cordance with law, filled by officers holding officer of a higher grade than colonel in any of said the rank of brigadier general. cluded his statement.

offices shall cease and determine on the occurrence The Committee on Military Affairs thought Mr. PAINE. I beg pardon; I did not intend of a vacancy in each respectively.

that in this regard we ought to go back to the to interrupt the Chair.

Mr. BOTLER, of Massachusetts. I move practice which prevailed before the war, and The SPEAKER. This morning, by unani- to amend by striking out aller the word “that" provide that hereafter no vacancy in any of mous consent, the vote by which the amend- where it first occurs the words “any vacan- ihose eight offices shall be filled by the apment to the fourth section was adopted was cies which may hereafter occur in; and by pointment or assignment of any officer higher reconsidered. The fourth section, therefore, adding at the end of the section the following: || than a colonel. We placed the proposition in is again before the House, and like every other Providert. That in the offices abovenamed the that form so as not to degrade or dismiss any section is open to amendment. And the gen. present incumbenta inay continuo tberein at the last- officer now in service, because the persons who tleman from Wisconsin [Mr. Paine) proposes

inentioned rank and pay; and the whole number of
officers serving in the abovevamed staff depart-

now hold those positions received them for to amend the substitute offered by the gentle- ments shall be reduced one half, the officers retained meritorious service. The principle which the man from Massachusetts, [Mr. Butler,] by to be designated by the General of the Army.

committee designed to introduce into the bill striking it all out and inserting what will be So that the section will read, as follows: was that no officer should be mustered out of read by the Clerk.

That the office of Adintant General, Quartermaster the service or degraded. The House, it is true, The Clerk read as follows:

General, Comwissary General of Subsistence, chief has indicated its perference for a different
That after the 31st day of March, 1869, there shall

of ordnance, chief of engineers, Paymaster Gen-
eral, Surgeon General, or Bureau of Military Jus-

principle in regard to the single question of be only three major generals, and the President shall,

tice, shall be filled by the appointinentor assignment mustering out those officers. But the princiwithin ten days preceding said date, designate with

of an officer who shall have the rank, pay, an i allowout regard to seniority the best three major generals

ple which the gentleman asks us to adopt is ances of a colonel of cavalry; and all laws and parts to remain in commission; and the others shall bo

that these officers shall remain in service, but mustered out of the service of the United States on

of laws authorizing the appointment of any officer

of a higher grade than colonel in any of said offices shall be put down one grade from that which said date, or within ten days thereafter.

shall cease and determine on the occurrence of a they now hold. That is a new principle, one Mr. GARFIELD. I move that debate on vacancy in each, respectively: Provided, That in the this section be now closed. offices above named the present incumbents may con

never before adopted in American legislation, tinue therein at the last-mentioned rank and pay;

and I shall be sorry if it is adopted now. AlThe motion to close debate was agreed to. and the whole number of officers serving in the though the House has followed the gentleman The question was then taken upon the amend

above-named staff departments shall be reduced one from Massachusetts in his proposition in regard

half, the officers retained to be designated by the ment of Mr. Paine to the amendment of Mr. General of the Army.

to major generals and brigadier generals, greatly BUTLER, of Massachusetts; and it was agreed to. Mr. GARFIELD. I ask the gentleman to

to my regret, I trust the House will not follow The question was upon the amendment, as withdraw for the present the last clause of his

him in this. This proposition is inconsistent amended. amendment, reading as follows:

with the previous sections already settled in the Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois, and Mr.

bill. Why did not the gentleman propose to

And the whole number of officers serving in the BUTLER, of Massachusetts, called for the above-named staff departments shall be reduced ono

reduce the rank of the major generals to that yeas and nays.

half; the officers retained to be designated by the of brigadier general and of brigadier to that of The yeas and nays were ordered. General of the Army.

colonel? The proposition would have been The question was then taken; and it was The committee propose to offer hereafter a too bold when applied to such men as stand decided in the affirmative--yeas 79, nays 43, not new section regulating in detail this whole sub- on the list of our generals. voting 76; as follows:

ject of the staff corps. If the gentleman will Mr. PAINE. I am opposed to the amendYEAS-Messrs. Alison, Ames, Arnell, Axtell, Ba

waive for the present that part of his amend- ment of the gentleman from Massachusetts, ker, Banks, Beatty, Benton, Boles, Brooks, Benja- ment we can, if it should be necessary, return and I am inclined to think if lie will wait until min F. Butler, Sidney Clarke, Coburn, Cook, Cullom,

to this section. Dewcesc, Donnelly, Ela, Eldridge, Ferriss, Fields,

the amendments proposed by the committee French, Getz, Glossbrenner, Golladay, Grover, Ham

Mr. BUTLER, of Massachusetts. Very | have been read to the House, so he could unilton, Hopkins, Iulburd, Hunter, Johnson, Alex- well; I will withdraw for the present the last derstand them, he would not himself insist ander H. Jones, Judd, Julian, Kelsey, Kitchen, Knott, Koontz, George V. Lawrence, Williain Law

clause of my amendment.

upon his amendment. I will state to the House rence. Loan, Logan, Loughridge, Marshall, McCar

Mr. Speaker, the amendment I have offered what the effect of these amendments is. in thy, McClurg, Mckee, Miller, Moore, Morrell, Mul- is designed to bring down, if we can, all these the first place section six provides in these ling, Mungen, Niblack, Paine, Perham, Peters,

several staff bureaus for the reduction of the Price, Roots, Ross. Sawyer,

Scoticid, Shanks, Smith; | brigadier generals to the rank of colonels, so Stokes, Taber, Taffe, Thomas, Lawrence S. Trimble, far as their pay and allowances are concerned. I grade or rank when vacancies occur in the Trowbridge, Upson, Van Acrnam, Burt Van Horn, Before the war there never was any brigadier office. With the consent of the chairman of Van Trump, Ward, Henry D. Washburn, Welker, William Williams, John T. Wilson, and Windon-79.

general in the office of Adjutant General, Quar- the committee I have prepared an amendment NAYS-Messrs. Anderson. Archer, Delos R. Ashley,

termaster General, Commissary General, chief which provides when vacancies occur in any Baldwin, Blair, Boutwell, Boyer, Bromwell, Cary, of ordnance, chief of engineers, Paymaster | of the staff departments the officers appointed Churchill, Cobb, Dawes, Dixon, Driggs, Eliot, Garfield, Griswold, Hawkins, Higby, Hooper, Chester

General, Surgeon General, or in the Bureau or designated to fill such vacancies shall have D. lIubbard, Mallory, Marvin, Maynard, O'Neill, of Military Justice. In the present establish- the rank and pay of the cavalry grade next Phelps, Pile, Plants, Poland, Pomeroy. Raum, Rob- ment these officers are all brigadier generals. below that fixed by the act of 1866; the comertson, Schenck, Sitgreaves, Spalding, Starkweather, Stewart, Stone, Twichell, Elihu B. Washburne, Wil

This amendment is designed to bring them mittee propose to muster out a small number liam B. Washburn, Thomas Williams, and James F.

down to the rank and pay of colonels. If the of these staff officers. Wilson-43.

amendment should be adopted another amend. Mr. GARFIELD. If the gentleman will NOT VOTING-Messrs. Adams, James M. Ashley, Bailey, Barnes, Barnum, Beaman, Beck, Benjamin,

ment will be necessary to bring down the col. permit me to correct him, it does not muster Bingham, Blaine, Broomall, Buckland, Burr, Rod. onels in the same manner; and such an amend. out absolutely erick R. Butler, Cake, Chanler, Reader w. Clarke, ment has already been prepared by the gentle. Mr. PAINE. I am mistaken about that. Cornell, Covode, Delano, Dodge, Eckley, Eggleston, Farnsworth, Ferry, Finney, Fox, Gravely, Haight,

man from Wisconsin, (Mr. Paine.) But it is Mr. BUTLER, of Massachusetts. I move Halsey. Harding, Hill, Hinds, Holman, Hotchkiss, first necessary to bring down these eight briga- || to strike out the last word. Mr. Speaker, if Asahel W. Hubbard, Richard D. Hubbard, Humphrey, dier generals to the rank and pay of colonels. possible, let me state the exact difference Ingersoll, Jenckes, Thomas L. Jones, Kelley, Kerr, Ketcham, Laflin, Lincoln, Lynch, McCormick, Mo

Mr. GARFIELD. The amendment offered between myself and iny friend from Wisconsin Cullough, Mercur, Moorehead, Morrissey. Myers, by the gentleman from Massachusetts (Mr. || and the gentleman from Ohio. It is this, I Newcomb, Nicholson, Nunŋ, Orth, Pike, Polsley, BUTLER) is somewhat different in principle propose to "ungrade" not degrade certain Pruyn, Randall, Robinson, Selye, Shellabarger. Aaron F. Stevens, Thaddeus Stevens, Taylor, John Trimble,

from any other of the propositions which he officers. I propose this ungrading, so far as Van Auken, Robert T. Van Horn, Van Wyck, Cad- has offered. It provides in effect that these | rank and pay goes, shall take place now. The walader c. Washburn, Stephen F. Wilson, Wood, eight officers, now holding the grade of briga committee and my friend propose it shall not Woodbridge, and Woodward-55.

dier general, according to law, may all continue take place until these men resign, and as a So the amendment to the amendment was

in office, provided they shall hereafter be only rule they will not resign until they die. That agreed to.

colonels." In other words, it proposes to de. is the difference between us. The question recurred upon the amendment grade-I use the word of course, in its etymo- Mr. PAINE. I ask the gentleman from

40Th Cong. 20 Sess.—No. 249.

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »