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the entire committee, or by a majority of a to whom he refers does undertake to regulate the wants of the entire region. But the theory quorum.

tariff bills as between the House and the Sen- had prevailed there that salt was one of the Mr. CULLOM. That is what I want to ate?

necessaries of life, and therefore no burden know.

Mr. McCARTHY. I understand that he must be imposed upon it. I recollect one of our Mr. MAYNARD. The gentleman from does regulate that matter when he takes into prominent public men used to say, as an illusPennsylvania, [Mr. MOORHEAD,] I am sure, his hands the entire formation of a tariff bill, tration of the doctrine, that the poor man's cow did not so understand the gentleman. It may retaining it until so late a period in the ses- in the mountains of Tennessee consumed more be proper that I should say to the gentleman | sion as to defeat its passage. I understand salt-than the broker in Wall street, and to tax that the bill has the concurrence of a majority that to be this gentleman's power in relation salt, therefore, was an intolerable inequality of of' the entire committee.

to the organization of the tariff; and more burdens. What was the result of that theory? Mr. CULLOM. I was about to say that it than that, the feeling outside in the country is The moment the war closed in upon us and very frequently occurs in committees that only that that gentleman is not a representative of cut off the outside supply the people were a quorum is present when bills are acted on, the manufacturing interest, but of the commer- absolutely famished for the want of that necesand from some remarks that have been made cial interest of the country; that he is ab- sary of life, and a barrel of salt passed in I was induced to believe that it was only a sorbed soul and body by the free-trade interest. exchange for the piano in the parlor. majority of a quorum that ordered this bill to Mr. MOORHEAD. I now yield ten min. There were abundant salt-springs had we be reported to the House and not a majority utes to the gentleman from Tennessee, [Mr. || been in condition to work them. We had of the committee. MAYNARD.]

salines lying below the surface, but it was too Mr. O'NEILL. I would like to ask the Mr. MAYNARD. Mr. Chairman, I do not late then to penetrate to them, to develop gentleman from Illinois if he is a member of rise for the purpose of entering into a discus- them, and engage in salt manufacture. The the Committee of Ways and Means ?

sion of the tariff either in the abstract or in its great salt deposits in Louisiana lay there wholly Mr. CULLOM. No, sir.

details. As a member of the Committee of unimproved, in fact hardly discovered, until Mr. O'NEILL. Then how is it that he Ways and Means I voted in favor of reporting | long after the war began. On the other hand, knows all these points ?

this bill, and I would have been very glad had sugar had been protected and its production Mr. CULLOM. I have not stated that I it been more extended, embracing all those encouraged by our legislation. As a conse: knew anything about it. I asked the gentle | articles which in the legislation of the last quence the South had no lack of sugar, and man from Pennsylvania [Mr. MOORHEAD] the Congress it was thought wise by the Senate until the supply was cut off by the occupation question, because I wanted to know what the and House to include in the change of existing of Louisiana it was cheaper and more abundfact was in reference to it.

law. The fluctuations of trade and the cease- ant than in the other parts of the country. Mr. O'NEILL: presume my colleague less triumphs of industry require a periodical The South furnishes facilities beyond any from Pennsylvania knew what he was doing revision of our system of imposts. I will not other part of the country for manufactures. when he reported the bill, and knew what he || deny that in my votes upon this measure I am All the Alleghany region of country, comwas authorized to do.

actunted to some extent at least by local, not prising the western part of Virginia, eastern Mr. CULLOM. I have no doubt of that. to say sectional considerations. The part of Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western North

Mr. O'NEILL. I supposed that the gen. the country which I have the honor with other | Carolina, western South Carolina, northern tleman from Illinois was a member of the gentlemen to represent is in need of industrial | Georgia, and northern Alabama, abounds in Committee of Ways and Means, and felt out. || quite as much as of political reconstruction manufacturing facilities, its water-power, its raged because he had not been consulted about The war put a stop to our industries, blighted | forests, the productiveness of its soil, its minthe bill. Mr. CULLOM. The gentleman from Illi. ! our prosperity, and has placed us in a condi- | eral wealth, and especially the abundance of

tion where we must start out in the career of coal lying exposed at the surface. Nothing nois simply wanted to know whether a majority

business anew.

The doctrines which prevailed that enters into industrial pursuits except of the whole committee were in favor of the with us for a great many years were what are productive labor and capital to stimulate and bill, and had ordered it to be reported to the called free trade, anti-tariff doctrines; and sustain it is wanting to make that region one House.

they had a fair practical development. Among of the most wealthy and populous of America. Mr. O'NEILL. If my colleague answers in the other teachings of our great war, not the The tariff policy which has done so much for the affirmative, will the gentleman from Illinois least important, perhaps, was the effect of this cold, bleak, sterile, barren New England, which vote for the bill?

so-called free trade upon the public welfare. bas made Pennsylvania to flourish and blossom Mr. CULLOM. No, sir; he will not. I The peculiar industry of that region tended to as the rose, if applied to that region would only wanted to know what the position of the foster that doctrine. Manufactures were not produce there the same beneficent results. Committee of Ways and Means is in regard to fostered; shipping was not fostered. There The change which has come over our counthis bill.

were neither miners to penetrate the earth for try as the results of the war, as yet only parMr. MYEKS. I hope the gentleman is the ores, nor mariners with the daring spirittially felt and observed, necessitates a change satisfied.

of commerce to skin the sea for the produc- in our industries, in our labor, in the general Mr. MOORHEAD. I yield now to the gen

tions of other lands. The agricultural prod. economy and enterprise of our people. I betleman from New York, [Mr. McCarthy.). ucts of the country were kept until enterprise lieve that the policy known as the tariff policy,

Mr. MCCARTHY. Being new in legislation | from abroad came for them, bringing in ex- as that term has been used in our political dia. and not well conversant with the history of it, || change whatever was wanted by the people. lect, will be our building up, our salvation. I I have had occasion to ask how long this office A more injurious and pernicious system of believe it will reward and dignify labor, and of Special Revenue Commissioner has been in political economy I cannot conceive; and we make productive industry not only profitable existence, and I am told about three years. have felt the effects of it.

we;' I mean but respectable. It will infuse a new spirit Now, sir, it strikes me as a strațige condition the population of that part of the country. We into our people and give an altered tone to of things that men who are sent here from dif- felt the effects of this system when we found society. It is for this reason, representing my ferent portions of the country, representing ourselves as a section involved in war.

immediate constituents, that I am at this time different interests, many of them manfactur- don of bayonets on one side, and a rigorous in favor of the legislation proposed in this bill. ing interests, some of them free-trade inter: blockade on the other, hemmed us in from the One of the interests, for example, embraced ests, must necessarily have placed over them outside world, and we were driven to depend || in the bill is copper, It is designed to give a Commissioner to regulate and direct their upon our own resources.

further protection to the domestic copper found organization of a tariff. I see no necessity of We had been fighting the fishing bounties, || in great abundance in various parts of the counany such officer. And so far as I know of the given originally as an encouragement to sea- try, not a little of it lying in my own congresactions of this gentleman, he starts from Wash- men in the hope of fostering a Navy, instead sional district. There are there copper mines ington, he goes through Baltimore, Philadel- of seeking to avail ourselves of those bounties. || already partially developed, producing annually phia, and New York, and lands in Liverpool The navigation laws had been assailed by us not less than two millions of refined copper, or London, being entirely in the interest and from time immemorial, instead of availing our: and giving employment to a great number of under the control and advice of the commer- selves of their benefits and opening up our people, and capable of being extended almost cial interest of the country, and never going three thousand miles of coast to a maritime indefinitely. The copper mines of Lake Suabout visiting the manufacturing interests and commerce that might have equaled the com- || perior and of California are still more productarriving at a practical knowledge of the wants merce of all the rest of the world. Our inlets, ive, the domestic supply being fully equal to of those interests. I understand that to be the our bays, and harbors were, therefore, wholly the demand. Another interest protected by fact. We have a large interest in our section | unimproved and unoccupied except by foreign the bill ts zinc. The increasing demand and of country, and, so far as I know, this gentle- sails.' And when the war came upon us, and value of this metal, both in the metallie state man has not the least idea or knowledge of its we were hemmed in, we had neither ships nor and as a pigment make it important to develop wants. I think the remark of the gentleman seamen. And, for the purpose of opening the the domestic mines. In southwestern Virginia from Pennsylvania [Mr. MOORHEAD] is cor- blockade and getting our supplies from abroad, and in eastern Tennessee there are mines of rect, that while this gentleman may be an we were driven to the ship-yards of England, zinc very promising, which are already beginadvisory officer it is beyond his province or Scotland, and France, and depended upon ning to be developed, and the product of which duty or power to regulate and manage the the sailors of every nation under the sun. is already very large and likely soon to become operations of a tariff bill as between one House I had occasion, during the last Congress, I still greater. Then there are iron mines and and the other.

think it was, to recur to the article of salt, other mineral treasares lying there awaiting Mr. GRISWOLD. I would ask my colleague which our part of the country inight produce development by the investment of capital and if the information is true that the Commissioner Il in great abundance, sufficient to have supplied ll other application of labor. If judiciously

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protected against the undue competition of of the bill before the House as the district I ! eral lands; and for their protection against older and better established works abroad, have the honor of representing here; and I the Indians, Fort Wilkins, on Copper harbor, population will be attracted, skilled industry | deem this an opportune time to place before was in that year established by the Governwill be awakened, a new prosperity win dawn, this honorable body some facts connected with ment and garrisoned by two companies of soland the blessings which always attend well- the history of a section which has not hitherto diers. In this year Mr. Julius Eldred, of Derewarded labor will be ours.

However it may

received that attention its importance justly troit, having purchased the great copper rock be elsewhere, the tariff policy is essentially the merits, trusting, as I do, that it may have some of the Ontonagon Indians, after much labor - true financial policy for the South. Instead influence upon its passage.

and expense removed it to the Sault Ste. Marie, of being satisfied, as hitherto, with producing In the year 1835 a difficulty arose between intending to exhibit it in different parts of the raw material alone, our real interest requires the State of Ohio and the then Territory of United States and Europe, and expecting to us to give it form fit for immediate use. But Michigan concerning their boundary line, and make his fortune by so doing; but information I will not enlarge.

great excitement existed on both sides. Mil. || having reached the Treasury Department, a [Here the hammer fell.] itia were called out and moved toward the

revenue cutter was dispatched from Detroit for Nr. MOORHEAD. I now yield to the gen- disputed territory, which was a strip of about the purpose of seizing it, which was done nottleman from Michigan, [Mr. Driggs.]

ten miles in width, including the mouth of the withstanding the protest of the owner, and the Mr. DRIGGS. Mr. Chairman, like my friend Mammee river and the then village, now city, 1 vessel proceeded with her prize to Detroit, from Tennessee, [Mr. MAYNARD,) who has just of Toledo. There was immediate danger of whence it was sent to Washington. I am glad taken bis seat, I might perhaps admit that in collision and bloodshed, but the dispute was to say that the owner was afterward reimgiving my adhesion to this bill I am somewhat fortunately settled by the interference of the bursed by a special act of Congress, obtained influenced by local interests. But, while mak- General Government. Ohio, baving most principally through the exertions of General ing that admission, I still contend that I am weight and influence in the national councils, Lewis Cass. governed by broader and more national views succeeded in obtaining the boundary line she In the year 1845 a Government mineral of the industrial interests of the country, and claimed, and Michigan was consoled by an im- agency was established at Porter's island in not solely by any local consideration or any mense addition to her natural area, of a com- Copper harbor, for the purpose of registering, peculiar interest in my own district. We have paratively unknown and wild region now known and certifying the permits issued in Washingin the district which I have the honor to repre

Upper Peninsula," lying betweenton, which numbered several thousands. sent two or three large interests, in the develop: Lakes Michigan and Superior.

Explorers, miners, and adventurers of all ment of which we are deeply concerned, and This region was reported to be rich in min- kinds flocked to the country to locate and which are embraced in the terms of this bill. erals and precious stones, but particularly cop- | register their permits. Locations were made One of them is the copper-mining interest. Upon per, as far back as 1636, by the Jesuit mis- at random; and reports prepared by inconcopper there is at present a duty of only about sionaries, who doubtless obtained their inform- petent persons (so-called geologists) were seven per cent. ad valorem, the duty being two ation from the Indians. The first attempt at scattered all over the country. Mining comand a half per cent. per pound on pure cop. | regular mining was in 1770, when an English | panies were formed in the principal cities on per, one and a half per cent, per pound on ores company was formed, the partners being bis the certified permits, and speculation in mining and old copper, making, as copper ranges at royal lighness, the Duke of Gloucester; Mr. stocks was prevalent throughout the country. about twenty-three cents per pound, a duty of Secretary Townshend; Sir Samuel Tuchet, i Stock gambling became the rage, and the only about seven per cent. The committee has | baronet; Mr. Baxter, consul of the Empress result, as might have been foreseen, was to very carefully, and I believe fairly and ably of Russia; and Mr. Cruikshank, residing in injure the confidence of the people in all mining considered this question. They have investi- || England, and Sir William Johnson, baronet; adventures, and especially in Lake Superior, gated all the points bearing upon this great Mr. Bostwick, Mr. Baxter and Mr. Henry, || the site of so many absurd speculations. A All that we ask is simply what was residing in America.

few mining companies continued work, though agreed upon in this House two years ago-an A vessel of forty tons was built above the under the most discouraging circumstances, as increase of the duty on copper from its present Sault Ste. Marie, and miners and supplies the country was covered with dense forests, rate to about twenty per cent. We ask an were sent to the south shore, and work was through which it was difficult to make roads, increase of five cents per pound on pure cop- prosecuted about twenty miles west of the On- and communication with the more settled per imported in ingots, four cents on regulus | tonagon river, for about two years.

The ven

parts was difficult and expensive. and old copper, and three cents on pure cop- ture did not turn out profitably, and the com- Under the system of permits Government per from foreign ores.

pany was dissolved in 1774. The mass of cop- exacted a percentage of three per cent. on the Sir, while I do not desire to injure any inter- per now lying between the War and Navy De. copper mined, which was paid to the mineral est engaged in smelting foreign ore, still I know partments in this city was discovered on the agent; but after a few years it was discovered it to be a fact that unless we have some pro. west branch of the Ontonagon river, about that the expense of collection far greatly tection more than that afforded by our present | 1800, not more than twenty miles from the exceeded the receipts, and the system was laws $50,000,000 of capital invested in the working of the English company. This block | wisely abandoned. “A price was fixed upon production of copper in my own district will or mass is mentioned in most of the works on the land, those occupying under permits havbe lost and the mines will be closed. This is geology and mineralogy as the largest known ing the option of paying so much per acre for a fact; it is no idle tale told here to induce in the world, and was visited at different times a given time; after which all the United States gentlemen to support this measure, but it is by General Cass, Hon. Henry R. Schoolcratt, | lands were subject to entry without any resertrue. and others.

vation of mineral rights. This wise determin. Now, Mr. Chairman, there are some other During the last war with England, or soon ation on the part of the Government, and the important interests in my district. We have || after, Dr. Francis Le Baun, of Plymouth, Eng. passage of a liberal general mining law on the a large interest in iron and salt and lumber, | land, visited Lake Superior, and took with part of the State, gave an impetus to mining, though I believe lumber is not embraced in him a piece of the great copper rock of On and new companies continued to be organized. this bill.

tonagon, which was placed in the British The interruption to navigation caused by the Mr. MOORHEAD. Yes, it is. Museum.

falls of the St. Mary's river, which connects Mr. DRIGGS. I have not investigated After the admission of the State of Michigan Lake Huron and Lake Superior, added very thoroughly the question with reference to

largely to iron; but in regard to copper I know that our regard to the newly-acquired territory, and Dr. section of the country needs all that is asked || Douglass Houghton was appointed State geol. markets; and for several years Congress was in this bill, and that without it we cannot ogist.

flooded with petitions for aid toward cutting a exist as a copper-producing community. There The first proper scientific explorations of the ship-canal of about a mile in length. are about forty thousand people engaged in mineral lands of Lake Superior were made by Steamers and sailing vessels had been hauled this branch of business. And, Mr. Chairman, him while employed as State geologist, and over the Portage at the Saute Ste. Marie, for let me mention an instance of the patriotism subsequently while engaged in a connected the purpose of navigating Lake Superior, from of those people. During the war they sent to linear and geological survey under the direction the head of the falls. All supplies, machinery, Europe and brought to this country hundreds of the General Government. His publications | &c., for the mines arriving from the eastern of Swedes, paying their passage; yet they were annual reports, in which he described the cities were landed at the foot of the falls, afterward allowed these men to be enlisted by geology of the country, and the minerals he hauled a distance of a mile by tram-road or the United States recruiting officers; and in had discovered; but he withheld designations by wagons, and then loaded on the vessels a regiment which I raised myself there was an of localities of metallic veins, of which he was above by means of scows; and the same proentire company composed of Swedes, thus doubtless aware, as he had traversed the region cess was necessary in getting the copper to brought here at the expense of our copper- where they occur. It is supposed that he re- market. This added largely to the expense producing men of the Lake Superior region, served a more full description of the minerals and of working the mines, to say nothing of the who not only paid the expenses of their pas. ores, with the localities, for his final report, | irregularity and delay which was unavoidable. sage to this country, but supported their wives which he unfortunately did not live to rite, In 1853 a grant of seven hundred and fifty and children after the men had enlisted in the as he perished in the field of his labors by the thousand acres of land was made by Congress Army.

capsizing of his boat, in the fall of 1845, in a to the State of Michigan for the purpose of Now, sir, I hold that no interest will be violent snow storm, and most of his notes and building the ship-canal, and in 1854 the splenbrought before this House that so strongly papers were lost with him. In 1843 explorers did work which now connects the two lakes appeals to us as this one.

and adventurers began to flock to the district was opened, when an immense impulse was Mr. Speaker, probably no portion of the with permits from the Treasury Department given to the mining of both copper and iron. country has so deep an interest in the success or Land Office to examine and locate the min- The product of copper from the first opening

into the Union quite an interest spranga ir plies to the mines, and of copper to the eastern





of the mines to 1854, a period of about eight the majority of them could not withstand the Tennessee, Vermont, and in other parts of the coun

extraordinary offers of the Government recruit- try, aro suffering extreme depression because the Tons. Pounds. ing officers, and were enlisted in the Army and

price of copper has fallen below the cost of pro

duction, and unless they obtain relief in the way of 7,642

moved to the South, thus entailing upon the a fair tariff there is imminent danger of a general 1855 to 1857

miner not only the loss of their advances, but

storpage of copper mining throughout the country. 1858. 3,500

Our recent natiovalstruggle bas necessitated the 1859.

throwing upon them the burden of support of

imposition of such heavy taxation upon the indusry 1860.


the families abandoned by their natural pro- of the country that, with a few exceptional cases, we 1861


cannot compete with foreign products without the 1862. 9,062

aid of protective duties. 8.518

In common justice and fairness, the copper- "This fact has been recognized in regard to tbe 1861.


mining interests should be placed upon some- majority of our industrial products, but owing to the 1865.

.10,790 1,156 1866.

opposition of a few interested parties, (the smelting ,10,375 1,688 thing like an equal footing with other inter

works at Baltimore principally, the article of cop1867 .11,735 552 ests, aside froin the fact that they are adding

per has been hitherto overlooked entirely, although largely to the wealth of the country; and policy those most heavily engaged in mining bare for the Total .99,037 1,396 would dictate that the relief asked for in this past two or three years been begging Congress to have

it placed on something approximating an equal footbill should be afforded unhesitatingly and at ing with other metals, of which they are large conThis copper was shipped to the eastern mar

sumers in their mining operations. ket and sold for over forty millions dollars, The district which I represent is of as much

"The amount of capital actually invested in the contributing this enormous amount to the ma- importance as any other in the United States,

Lake Superior mines and miniog lands is not less than

$50,000,000, and the present market value is less than terial wealth of the country. Unless crushed which the figures following will plainly prove; $10,000,000. The cause of this excessive depreciation down by foreign competition the product will In the year 1867 it produced in pig iron and

is bricfly stated in the fact that the high cost of labor

and supplies and heavy taxes, without any ofl-et be largely increased, as the mines never looked iron ore, 500,231 tons, valued at $3,500,000;

from a corresponding tariff, have prevented even the better; and with the improvements in ma- lumber, valued at $30,000,000; fish, 60,000 richest mines from making adequate returns for capichinery and skill in mining gained by expe- | barrels, valued at $600,000; salt, 450,000

tal invested, and compelled the abandonment of rience, work can be prosecuted much more barrels, valued at $900,000; copper, 9,200

many which formerly promised to be profitable.

"Upon these mines a population of from thirty to effectually, as well as more economically, than tons, valued at $4,500,000; amounting to forty thousand souls dcpend for support, and the heretofore. The number of mines organized $39,500,000.

towns and villages on the lake have been built up by

them. is about one hundred and fifty, of which only My constituents are looking hither hopefully, “These settlements must become depopulated and forty are now working, aud many of these but most anxiously, for the passage of this bill, go to decay, and the lands become a worthless waste, with greatly reduced forces, the present price for on it now rests the question of success or

if the mines are abandoned for want of suficient

protection againt copper produced by foreign cheap of copper ruling lower than it can be produced ruin. If it passes the mines will be able to labor. Already at Portage lake unemployed and for except at a loss. These mines have built resume work, and give employment to a large hungry men demand work to supply themselves and

families with food and fuel, and threaten the worst up thriving towns, such as Houghton, Han population now idle ; if it fails the closing up

features of mob violence unless provision is made cock, Eagle River, Eagle Harbor, Copper of the mines is inevitable, and the prospect of for them. To prevent the destruction of their propllarbor, and Ontonagon, and Rockland, with their ever being worked again doubtlul, as erty several of the mines levied new assessments to

provide means of employment for the men during churches, stores, and dwellings fully equal most of them are of great depth with large

the winter months, though working at a heavy loss. to those of the eastern States. They have || openings.

“During the past twenty years the mines of Lake erected mills for stamping and washing cop- Should they cease work they will be filled up Superior have produced over eighty thousand

tons per ores, and works for smelting which are with water, entailing certain ruin to the pro

of tine copper, thus adding to the material wealth of

the country more than forty million dollars. Tbeir not equaled in the world. They support a prietors. Desolation will then become wide

development has rendered the United States indepopulation of from thirty to forty thousand, spread among the working population, and pendent of foreign countries for this important inetal, who are intelligent, industrious, and law abid- Government must look elsewhere and be de.

and they surely have just claim for protection.

* With a duty of five cents per pound on ingot, pig, ing: In exploring and working these mines, | pendent on foreign countries for its copper. bar, and rolled copper, four cents per pound on pure building the towns, and employing the labor, All, or nearly all, of the ores imported from copper in regulus, and three cents per pound on fine capital has been invested exceeding fifty mil. || foreign countries are carbonates, which require | ing. and pay'a fair return on the capital invested.

copperin ore , lion dollars. For the past two years this import- sulphuret ores to flux them advantageously: Without it there is certainty of a general stoppage, ant interest has experienced unprecedented | Our products are principally sulphurets and entailing immense loss of property, and a vast deal depression, so much so that the present market copper in a native state, and consequently re

of distress among an industrious and hard laboring

population, whose all is dependent on the activo value of its capital is less than ten million dol- quire no foreign ores to create a flux or aid in

working of the mines. lars. The cause of this excessive depreciation | smelting them. This is proved at all the Amer- . Opposition to the passage of the tariff, so sorely is briefly stated in the fact that the high cost ican mines where copper is constantly cast into

needed by copper mining interest, has come from

the sinelting works on the seaboard, who claim to of labor, supplies, and taxes, without any offset | ingots without the admixture of foreign ores. have a large capital invested for the purpose of from a corresponding tariff, has prevented even The argument raised by those engaged in smelt- smelting foreign ores. Aside from the immense the best and richest mines from making any | ing foreign ores that it is necessary to mix

capital invested in the mines, there are smelting

works at Houghton, Ontonagon, and Lac La Bello adequate return for the capital invested, and the same with American ores to smelt them, on Lake Superior; Detroit, Michigan; Cleveland, compelled the utter abandonment of many is simply ridiculous, for the reason, as before Ohio; and Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, which have more

capital employed than those at the sea-board, and which formerly promised to be profitable. stated, that American ores require no admix:

are entirely dependent on bome-produced ores. Great distress prevails in the mining districts ture with imported ores. We admit that they "The estimated consumption of retined copper in owing to the stoppage of some of the mines, need the American ores to mix with the for- the United States is per annum twelve thousand and the reduction of force in others, by which | eign to aid them in smelting the same, but what

"During the past year (1867) there were producedlarge numbers of men are thrown out of em- we contend for is that we do not need the for- From Lake Superior..

....about 9,000 tons ploy. Why is this? Here is an interest of || eign ores at all; that we can produce all that

From Tennessee

...about 1,000 tons national importance endangered, a hard work- is needed for home consumption and exporta

From California, Vermont, and other
points .....

..about 2,500 tons ing population of some forty thousand souls tion if Congress will give us the small increase whose earnings for the best part of their lives | in the tariff we ask. The present duty on for

12,500 tons are invested in their little homes, threatened | eign copper imported pure in ingots is only two "Added to this were importedwith ruin and desolation, and thriving settle- and a half cenis per pound; on old copper, From Chili in ores and regulus, equivments on the verge of depopulation and con- one and a half cents; and on copper ores, five

alent to fine copper ......

1,750 tons sequent destruction! I say, why is this? It is per cent, ad valorem; being about seven per

From England, in ores and regalus, equiv-
alent to fine copper........

500 tons because there is no adequate protection for the cent. all around. The rate we ask in the pend- From Canada, in ores and regulus, equivproducers of copper; and foreign importations | ing bill is five cents per pound on pure copper,

alent to fine copper...

500 tons

From Cuba and other countries, in ores and of copper ores are flooding the country, the four cents on old copper, and on regulus of

regulus, equivalent to tine copper.......... product of Chili and Cuba, of peon and slave copper and all black or coarse copper four labor, and our highly-taxed mines are forced cents on each pound of fine copper contained

3,000 tons to compete with them. Seventy-five per cent. thereịn, and three cents on each pound of fine of the outlay in mining is for labor, and the

"It can be plainly seen from the figures that there copper contained in foreign ores. This, at the

is no doubt about the supply from our own mines balance is for steel, iron, coul, powder, fuse, present price of copper in the market, is equiv- being sufficient for home demand. &c., all of which are heavily protected, while alent to about twenty per cent. ad valorem.

"The passage of a fair tariff will lead to the derelthe product, copper, is alone among metals Many other mineral products of the country

opment of new mines, and the country will export

copper instead of importing it. At present all inadmitted into the country on a merely nomi- are now protected by a tariff nearly three times ported is paid for in gold or exchange on London. nal duty. In the recent national struggle the as great as that which we ask for copper; and

Copper ores pay but five per cent, ad calorem under mining districts came promply forward and

the existing tariff, and the amount of revenue aoeruwhile we are not opposed to this, and while ing therefrom to the Government is comparatively sent fifteen per cent. of their population to the in the present condition of the country we are insignificant in amount." seat of war, and to replace the labor thus lost in favor of protection to every American inter- Mr. Speaker, I do not believe that any memraised a fund of $100,000 for the purpose of est, we respectfully submit to this House and ber of ibis House who has investigated the bringing miners from Norway and Sweden. the country whether it is just that this vast subject, and who knows the facts above stated Arrangements were made to pay the passage interest should be left without any adequate to be true, will oppose this bill; and I hope of these emigrants, whereby their expenses to protection, while many other similar interests || and trust that it will pass and become a lax. this mining region were to be advanced and are so fully provided for. I quote from a me- Unless it does I assure you that the destruc deducted from their earnings. Ships were morial on this subject already presented to the tion of all the mines in my district is no idle chartered and the men with their families House:

tale, but a reality which will speedily follow embarked; but on their arrival in this country "The copper mines of Lake Superior, California, the rejection of this much-needed act of jus



250 tons




tice, and in order to prevent which I earnestly | Chinese wall around the country and prohibit || port all the amendments he may submit, and beg this House and every member within my all importation. I have soinetimes thought to vote blindly and without reason against any hearing to give it their vote.

that the gentleman leans a little too much in amendments that he may not give his assent Mr. GARFIELD. Mr. Chairman, I should that direction. I desire to say I am not that to; and that too, when the bill comes before not have risen at this time but for a single | kind of a tariff man.

the House in the dubious attitude of having a remark which dropped from the gentleman from Mr. MILLER. I would like to ask my doubtful assent of the majority of the very comPennsylvania, (Mr. Moorhead,) and which was friend

mittee that has authorized him to report it; for, seconded by the gentleman from New York, Mr. GARFIELD. I cannot yield.

when questioned on that very point, he declined [Mr. McCarthy.) I very well remember the Mr. MILLER. Nobody advocates such a to say whether or not it had the assent of the occasion to which the gentleman refers when doctrine as that.

majority of that committee. in the Thirty-Ninth Congress we labored here Mr. GARFIELD. I do not say he does, but Now, sir, for one, I protest that I am not for many hours attempting to secure the pas- I do say there is danger in that direction. Pro- "anti-tariff” man, and I protest that I am sage of a tariff bill and were prevented by the hibitive legislation would, in my opinion, soon not in favor of free trade. A “ free-trade" filibustering efforts of a minority of the House. precipitate us into free trade and all its result- man is a person described by the gentleman I labored with my friend from Pennsylvania ant evils.

himself in one of the extracts he had read toagainst that effort to break down the tariff bill, Mr. MULLINS. Will the gentleman- day by the Clerk; that is, he is a person in and I entirely sympathize with what he said in Mr. GARFIELD. I decline to yield. I do favor of abolishing custom-houses and allowcondemnation of the efforts so persistently not say that any gentleman in this House pro- | ing unrestricted trade, collecting the revenues made to prevent the action of this House on poses a prohibitory tariff in terms, or means to of the country from direct taxation either by the tariff measure which certainly would have propose one, and I hasten to say that I do not means of the internal revenue system, or of passed but for factious resistance.

charge this bill with being of that character; the land tax prescribed by the Constitution. But, sir, I was sorry to hear the gentleman but I do affirm that the tendencies of a very Very likely there are members of this House from Pennsylvania make the remarks he did considerable number of tariff men in this coun- who are in favor of free trade. I do not know in regard to the Special Commissioner of the try are in that direction, and unless they take whether it be so or not. I know that I am not, Revenue. I desire to say to the House that I heed, unless they consent to a rational, con- and I suppose the large majority of the House totally dissent from the opinion he has expressed | siderate adjustment of the tariff such as can are tariff men, perhaps all of them are as conconcerning that officer. Previous to this session only be made by the full light that a careful | tradistinguished from free traders. We have few members of the House have had better statistical study of the subject will bring, I now a tariff which yearly yields this Government opportunities than I have to know the character fear from them more than from any other a revenue of $16,000,000 in gold, and in some and the amount of labor that gentleman has source a reaction which will bring us by and years $180,000,000. It is a tariff of an average of performed for the country; and I do not believe | by into free trade and all its consequences forty-seven per cent. upon all dutiable articles. any man appointed by the Government in the of evil to the manufacturing interest of the One would think that that was a tariff, as Capcivil service has done for this country more country.

tain Cuttle would say, “As is a tariff.” It work and more valuable work than he has. Now, I say these things at this time for the yields the largest revenue and averages the Finance is a science both complex and difficult, || purpose of indicating the ground upon which | highest percentage of any tariff ever upon our and its foundations rest on statistical knowl: I answer the charges made against the Special ) statute-book. Can those of us who are indisedge. The whole subject of the tariff is one of Commissioner of Revenue. I do not believe | posed to disturb such a tariff as that be called the most delicate to inanage properly of any the tariff men of this country will denounce | anti-tariff men? Under what nomenclature that can be considered by a deliberative body. David A. Wells. What I ask is that we shall take || is it that the gentleman from Pennsylvania or Any man who expects with rough instruments into consideration the immense financial facts any other gentleman upon this floor can call to make a tariff machine that will run with any of the situation. We have now

an annual

66 anti-tariff” men. degree of success will be mistaken. He is like | product of our great manufacturing interest, What is this bill which he introduces here one who attempts to mend a clock with a crow- amounting to nearly one million eight hundred as a small bill, to be disposed of in five minbar. The questions entering into a tariff are thousand dollars. That must be guarded, not utes' consideration, in any half hour when the of a most delicate nature and involve the rights by force of arms, not by denunciation and House may turn its attention to it? Is it a and interests of many classes of the commu- clamor, but by careful, prudent legislation, I general bill, in which the great industrial in nity. Now, what we have needed in this country which will not be so extreme as to bring re- terests of this country are considered ? By no more than anything else has been an array action and overthrow. Our manufactures

Is it a bill for the purpose of regulatof carefully arranged facts, gathered from all need stability, permanence, and a steady pol. || ing or increasing the revenues of the country sources and brought to the attention of Con. || icy. I am glad the gentleman from Pennsyl. | under a system which, as the gentleman from gress as the raw material out of which to con- vania [Mr. MOORHEAD) has been successful Ohio [Mr. GARFIELD] has said, has puzzled struct financial legislation. Into the financial in getting this bill before the House, and in the wisest statesmen from the formation of chaos resulting from the war Mr. Wells threw consideration in Committee of the Whole. He this Government to the present time? By no the whole weight of a strong, clear mind, has had my assistance at every step. But I means. It has no pretension of that sort. But guided by an honest heart, and during the last desire to say to him that, in my judgment, it it is a bill which apparently comes from a few three years he has done more, in my judgment, is not the best mode of defending a tariff bill | interests who have got together and persuaded to bring order out of chaos than any one man to denounce every man who does not pro- | the able and intelligent gentleman who present, in the United States. He has furnished us nounce the shibboleth after our fashion as ed it that they are in a suffering condition and what we most needed-classified knowledge of an enemy of the tariff. We have appointed should receive from this Congress pecuniary the subjects of financial legislation.

a Special Commissioner of the Revenue to relief. We are asked here upon the heel of this Mr. MOORHEAD. What has he done to gather facts and report them to Congress, to session, after the House bas voted to adjourn favor the protection of American manufac. | bring out the great considerations that under- on the 15th of July, and when the whole House tures ?

lie trade, and to explore the sources of rev- is expecting to get away by the last of this Mr. GARFIELD. I will call my friend's enue. He does not bring us theories but week, to enter upon a new consideration and attention to a single point. Who drew the facts, and while he does that we ought not to be adjustment of this most difficult and important tariff bill which he and I tried to pass, but afraid of the results of his work. For my part, branch of the public revenues for the benefit which was defeated in conseqnence of the I am not afraid to welcome truth and to follow of these few local interests. The first one that efforts made against us in the last hours of the wherever it may lead. To shrink from such | appeals for our assistance is the copper intersession? That tariff bill was prepared from | investigation, is to confess that we have no est. It is the first named in this bill. Well, beginning to end by a special commission, of faith in our positions. I trust every true friend how stands the copper interest? In a depressed which Vr. Wells was a leading member: of protection will welcome and challenge the condition. It asks that you relieve it by rais

Mr. MOORHEAD. I beg to differ with the fullest investigation. I have an abiding faith ing the price of copper by additional duties? gentleman. He did not draw the bill the com- in the principles on which our prosperity rests, That is the first proposition. What is the mittee reported, and that is the one I referred and I should be sorry to think that a full ex- effect of it? Why, in the other end of the to.

The one be prepared was with the pur. hibition of all the facts in the case could en- Capitol the other day a Senator from Michigan pose of killing the tariff.

danger my position. I have no such fear, and stated that one half of the copper produced in Mr. GARFIELD. I beg the gentleman's || I trust the protectionists on this floor will har- this country was consumed by ship-builders, pardon. If the bill reported by David A. Wells | bor none.

and two gentlemen from Michigan upon this and his associates had become a law it would [Here the hammer fell.]

floor [Mr. Blair and Mr. DRIGGS] stated that have been a great improvement on tariff laws Mr. BROOKS obtained the floor, but yielded || if copper was allowed to come in for the use as they ther: existed. The gentleman, I am ten minutes to

of ship-builders untaxed, it would destroy the sure, will admit this. I do not desire to speak Mr. PIKE, who said: I was one who voted great copper interest of Michigan. Then this further on this subject except to say this: I not to go into Committee of the Whole for the proposition which is to be passed now as a matdiffer from my friend in one respect on the purpose of considering this bill. But the gen- ter of great public necessity, is to levy a tax subject of tariif. It is my conviction that one tleman from Pennsylvania, in his remarks, | upon the ship-builders along our whole coast of the worst things that could happen to the spoke of those who voted against going into for the benefit of the copper interest of Michifriends and supporters of American industry Committee of the Whole as if they were " anti- gan. That is the bold proposition before the would be to pass a prohibitory tariff. I do not tariff,” and he calls

upon members of the House. say my friend from Pennsylvania would go House who are 6 tariff: men to stand by this Mr. LYNCH. Will my colleague allow me that length, but there are many protectionists || bill not only in general but in detail, to support to ask him a question ? in this country who would make a tariff bill a not only the bill he has presented, but to sup- Mr. PIKE." I have but a few minutes, and




my colleague must excuse me. I by no means The committee accordingly arose ; and the fallacious. The necessity for an exchanging say that either the Senator from Michigan or Speaker having resumed the chair, Mr. Dawes medium will always be greater in a new and the Representatives from that State were cor- reported that the Committee of the Whole on sparsely settled country than in an old and rect in their statements. I do not place the the state of the Union, according to order, had densely populated one. Extent of territory, consumption of copper by ship-builders at so had under consideration the Union generally, when that territory is peopled by an energetic large an amount as they do by any means. But and particularly House bill No. 1349, to in- business people, adds to the demand. Public I do say that so far as that consumption is con- crease the revenue from duties on imports and improvements, such as railroads, canals, pubcerned, either for the purpose of coppering i tending to equalize exports and imports, and lic buildings, and even private improvements, vessels or for the purpose of bolting vessels, or had come to no resolution thereon.

demand and call for more currency, and it is any other purpose connected with ship-building,

by confining its meaning to the narrow limits this is simply asking a contribution from the

Mr. HOPKINS, from the Committee on

of my first definition that we are apt to make ship-builders of the country for the benefit of Enrolled Bills, reported that they had exam

mistakes in estimating the amount that the the copper producers. ined and found truly enrolled House bill No.

country can carry on demand. Will gentlemen thus array interest against | 938, to authorize the sale of twenty acres of

The notes that the Wabash merchant, under interest, and if you will do it I ask you as the land in the military reservation at Fort Leav

the old régime before the war, gave to his New Representatives of the American people which is the nationalinterest? Is this great interest

enworth, Kansas ; when the Speaker signed York or Cincinnati jobber for the goods he the same.

purchased, were as much a part of the curof commerce that bears our flag to foreign

Mr. DAWES. I move that the House now

rency as are the greenbacks with which he now ports of no consequence to you? Are you dis take a recess.

makes his purchases; not as safe, but neverposed to drive what little remains of it out of

theless currency.

Then to determine the the ocean entirely, and substitute for the stars

The motion was agreed to; and accordingly (at four o'clock and thirty minutes p. m.,) the

amount necessary we must take into considerand stripes the cross of St. George in the few House took a recess until half past seven

ation the area of our territory, extending across remaining ports where our grand old flag still, o'clock p. m.

a continent larger than England, France, and in defiance of your legislation, persists in flying,

Prussia combined, with a net work of railroads and for the benefit of a manufacturing interest

unparalleled anywhere. Soon the great iron of this character? Is it fair? I submit, gen


artery will be spanning our whole country, furtlemen, is it fair here at the very heel of the The House reassembled at half past seven nishing the great through route to China. With session to do that? And am I to be driven o'clock p. m.

everything as yet in its infancy and unfinished out of the tariff church because I object to it? The SPEAKER. The recess having ex- from the cabin in the far West to our magnifi

The next interest that asks relief here is the pired, the Speaker resumes the chair, and in cent Capitol above us, farms to be opened, iron interest. Well, it is nothing new for the the absence of the chairman of the Committee and manufactories building, railroads reachiron interest to be discussed here in connection of the Whole [Mr. Cullom,] will call to the ing out here and there with a rapidity unknown with the tariff. The duty on iron has been chair the gentleman from Michigan, [Mr. || anywhere else, no calculation can tell how run up from time to time, I do not know how TROWBRIDGE.]

much we need or can use.

You have no past high, but it is ever on the ascending grade; and The CHAIRMAN. The House is in Com. to judge from, for nowhere upon the page of now the question is, shall it go still higher? mittee of the Whole on the state of the Union || history do you find the counterpart of ours, Of course we use it largely in ship-building, for debate only. The gentleman from Indiana nor can you institute a comparison with our and every dollar of increase of price will be | [Mr. Washburn) is entitled to the floor. past. During the last ten years of our history paid partly by ship builders, wbo are poor as Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. Mr. Chair- take, for instance, the item of postage. Five poverty itself compared with the great iron man, believing that the great and overshadow- times as much postage is paid to-day as was manufacturers of the country. Is it the policy | ing question of reconstruction is progressing paid ten years ago, consequently five times as of the House to make the poor still poorer? | fairly and certainly toward the consummation much of a circulating medium to transact this

I have no cause of quarrel with iron-workers. so anxiously wished for by the loyal men that little item of business as previously needed. I would give them ample protection, but I do saved our nation from the parricidal hands Glance at the table of the honorable gentleman claim that consumers have some interest in that would have blotted from the roll of from New York, [Mr. Barxes,] showing how this matter as well as manufacturers, and that nations the name of our fair country; believ- New York stands. this difficult and delicate matter of adjusting ing, as I said, that the great question whether New York may be taken as a representative the relative necessities of the two should not those who thus endeavored to destroy, by every || city of the United States. The business of be decided now at the heel of the session and means in their power, should again hold the that city for the past eleven years, as repreunder the authority of the gentleman from places of trust in that Government, or those sented by the business of the banks, has been Pennsylvania, who is to give the word of com- | who in its hour of dark disaster stood by the as follows-I give the average per day for mand and vote in or vote out propositions as flag of our fathers, has been decided in favor || three hundred and thirteen days of each year: he may dictate, and without regard to what of the latter, I shall to-day, Mr. Chairman, in

$23.278.009 others think of their merits. the few minutes allotted to me, discuss the

30.905.U Iron is used by everybody, and we should question of the currency, that life-blood of


20.807.000 adjust the tariff upon it in general consultation every nation; and I do this with diffidence,

23.401.01) and upon a general bill. I have no idea of following in the wake of so many able finan

19.274.00 aiding anybody in crushing out this great | ciers of this House. And I now frankly con

22,337,00) interest, even if it were possible to do so, as fess that I have no new facts or figures, and

77.91.4%) it is not; nor do I wish it to crush out the should any gentleman fancy that he sees his

81.715,00 interests of those I represent. own facts or figures in my argument I trust


93.511.00 Salt is another of the favorites of the gen- be will here accept my apology, as this ques

93,101,00 tleman from Pennsylvania. In this bill he tion has been discussed by the statesmen of It will here be seen that the business of the increases the duty, already exceedingly large, their respective cras during the past centuries. country last year was four times in excess of thirty-three and a third per cent, while lum- And in order that we have a clear idea of our that done in the great speculating year of 1857, ber, which my constituents produce, and position let us look for a moment at the defi- six times in excess of 1858, five times greater which, no doubt, they would like to have pro

nition involved when we say currency, "expan- than in 1861 ; that it reached the exact point tected, is left at the modest rate of something sion of the currency,”' &c., and a clear under- in 1802 which it occupied in 1856; that in 1863 like twenty per cent., the only change made | standing of what enters into and makes the increased over one hundred per cent.; in being from ad valorem to specific duties. I currency will settle many of the vexed points | 1864 near seventy per cent.; in 1865 ten per do not complain of the lumber adjustment, now troubling us.

cent. ; in 1866 ten per cent. but it illustrates the scale of favor which the The definition used and quoted for long Many believe that the war has largely exleading pursuits of my people get as compared years until its familiarity has given it much | panded the currency. I cannot and do not with the favored elsewhere.

force, is as follows, namely: "Coined gold, sil- subscribe to this theory. By the war gold and There is no expectation that this tariff meas- ver, and copper, and notes issued by banks or silver are no longer currency, simply bullion ure, even if it should pass the House, will be the Goverment, payable on demand." This merchandise. The system of long credits has considered in the Senate, and it seems but a definition comes far short of my idea of cur. gone, I hope, never to return. Previous to waste of time to discuss it now. We can more rency, which is nothing more nor less than any the war the merchant of my district purchased profitably turn our attention to other matters article used to facilitate the exchange of com: his goods from the eastern cities on long cred. which it is possible for us to consummate | modities, and I will adopt the definition of its ; these goods were again sold by him to his before we finally adjourn.

Mr. Pitt, “That it consists in anything that customers on a credit ; the notes of these dit: [Here the bammer fell.]

answers the great purposes of trade and com- ferent parties entering into and for a tine Mr. BROOKS resumed the floor.

merce, whether in specie, paper, or any other forming part of the currency, in extent equal Mr. PIKE. If the gentleman will yield I || term that may be used."

to all the rest. Previous to the war we had in will move that the committee now rise. It is Under this definition, then, or even under circulation gold, silver, bank notes, checks, about time for the committee to rise, consider. || the one first quoted, how much currency do notes, &c., to an amount I have no means of ing that we are to have a night session. we as a nation require? In answering this ascertaining, but I believe far greater than our Mr. BROOKS. I will yield for that purpose. question we settle most of the great questions | present circulation.

Mr. PIKE. I move that the committee of finance, and to answer it by a comparison You have forced the growth of the last ten now rise.

made between this country and the older years of our country back into its old size, and The motion was agreed to.

countries of Europe, must necessarily be as with what results let the groans of the great

1856. 1857.. 1859. 1859.. 1860. 1861 1862. 1863. 1864. 1865



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