Εικόνες σελίδας
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση
[ocr errors]

But we are met by the hue andere spennan: Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana

. I cannot

West prove to you as they have been coming principal yet remain as a legacy for our child supposed to be held in Treasury probably up calling for help. You can hear the cries dren. " Raising by taxation enough to pay the $45,000,000 more. Total out of circulation, now, as she feels her life's blood being drawn debt in less than ten years is not my plan of $202,430,099, leaving actual circulation $478,from lier veins and her limbs chased and swol. letting it alone. You might talk of leaving the || 591,299; or $11,399,961 less than the circulalen by the gyves of contraction. In the lan- debt for future generations were it not that it tion in 1861. guage of the honorable gentleman from Mas- is day by day eating up our substance. We No wonder, then, that the giant of the last six sachusetts, [Mr. Butler,] you have not done must have some plan to stop so much interest, 11 years' growth feels the iron cutting into his enough by simply leaving the tourniquet as it and then we can let it alone, and in no other flesh as you attempt to force his limbs into was; you must loosen it, let in more circula

way. And now, Mr. Chairman, come the dan- the iron boots of contraction. tion. Why, pause for an instant and retlect; gerous shoals of our financial course.

My plan is to increase our circulation until $200,000,000 of the life-giving current taken I know that many of the wise patriots and it will be commensurate with the increase of away since the close of the war, and you are no financiers of our land believe they see beneath our country in every other particular. nearer specie payment than when the war every attempt to relieve the people the murky How stood the figures in 1863? From the closed. But, says my hard-money friend, the form of repudiation. For my part the hue | best data at hand the New York banks in three price of gold proves that we have a redund- and cry has no terror to me, as repudiation years inflated their circulation $185,348,631. ancy of money. No such thing; if it did we had can only come when our people are crushed If other banks did the same we then had an less when the war closed than now, for gold was down ; until every ray of hope is gone; only entire inflation of $700,000,000, which, added lower. When Atlanta fell the currency was by keeping up the interest on the bonds pay. to the circulation then out, $535,000,000, reduced, the great cause that made gold go to 280 ing the principal in gold; exempt them from would give us $1,200,000,000. And when, was the fact that there was a doubt in the minds taxation; then contract; reduce the currency | financially, did we ever have a better year of some as to our ability to conquer the South; | -the means of the people, and in my opinion than 1863? No one broke up; and yet to-day not because we had too much paper, but too little you are fast finding the road to universal bank- || you hear the cry of the dead and dying, financonfidence. And this same thing enters into ruptcy, from which may be seen leading repu- | cially, all around you. the price of gold to-day, and any return to a diation. For my part I would issue as many France has a circulation per capita of gold basis before it is settled will be only at greenbacks as the country can carry; how thirty.dollars. England twenty-five; and we, the expense of the people. All values are great that amount may be I will not pretend with our extent of territory and iinprovements, unsettled by it, and could we by any means to say. With these greenbacks I would redeem certainly require more than either, and the return to a specie basis it would only be knock- the five-twenty bonds as they become due; the Government should furnish it. The Govern. ing off one third of the value of every species of balance not so redeemed I would refund at ment credit to-day furnishes the sole basis of property except the debts, public or private. a low rate of interest taxable on its face, if the bank currency. I would remodel the naYou would take away one third of the debtor's not at such a low rate that the people might | tional bank system so as to take away the means, while the creditor, Shylock-like, could see that the bondholder was assisting in carry- | power of issuing bills. I do not propose to claim his pound of flesh because it was so de- ing the burdens of the nation. Bondholders, blot them out of existence, but to take away nominated in the bond.

of course, will cry aloud, but the currency that that branch of their business, once, perhaps, a I have no words of scorn for the bondhold. you force upon our crippled soldiers and the necessity, but now an expersive luxury. ers. They made a good bargain with the Gov- widows and orphans of those who fell that our Mr. BURLEIGH. I would like to ask the ernment, as the most of men would have done

country might live, certainly ought to be good | gentleman a question. under similar circumstances. The blame rests enough for the bondholder. I believe that the The CHAIRMAN, (Mr. Cullom.) Does alone upon that party and those men who business of the country calls for and requires the gentleman yield? decried the public credit; those men who, in more currency, and our highest duty to a suf- Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. Certainly. the forum and on the stump, proclaimed that fering people is to relieve them as far as is in Mr. BURLEIGH. I would like to ask the the nation was “dying, dying, dying," until our power from the crushing load of taxation. gentleman where he obtains his data in regard our neighbors believed the cry and thought the

to the ? dead man's estate would be far from solvent.

favor of . Upon these rests the odium of this bard bar- Our country, as well as everything else, must give the particulars now. I can assure guin. The country needed the money to carry keep pace with our growth as a nation. Al- the gentleman they are correct, and that I have on the war, to buy food and clothing for our ready you can see-Brother Jonathan-like- obtained my information from authorized soldiers, ammunition for our battle-fields. She the extremities protruding far beyond the had no time to wait, her necessities were imme- financial unmentionables of our country. No Now, let me illustrate: A goes to B, and in diate and pressing, and she was compelled to wonder, then, that cold piercing winds cause

order to assist him to pay his debts,says: "Now, make such bargains as she could; but, thank the body-politic to shiver as we vainly endeavor B, you give me your notes for $100,000 and pay God, the “sick man" is recovering; in spite to make upper and nether garments meet upon

me the interest and I will loan you $90,000 of of evil predictions he is still alive and fast our fast-growing body. Expansion is the nat- my notes that your indorsement will make approaching convalescence. There is no doubt ural law of currency and a healthy growth as a good, and you can pay your debts with them.” of our ability to pay; and now comes the great nation.

Hume well says:

Now, if A's credit is better than B's he may in question of how we shall pay this debt hanging "It is of no manner of consequence with regard to

this manner get rid of his notes easier. But so heavily over us. For one, I am opposed to the domestic happiness of a Stato whether money be if he is solvent and pays his notes and interest any repudiation. Not one dollar should be in greater or less quantity. The good policy of the taken

promptly, how much has he made by the the nation's creditor; but, on the

magistrate consists only in keeping it, if possible,
increasing, because by that means he keeps alive a

transaction, as he has only borrowed of A other hand, not one cent should be taken from spirit of industry in the nation, and increases the $10,000 more than he returns to him, with this the nation's coffers and given to the creditor stock of labor, in which consists all real power and

difference, that on the total amount of his own riches. A nation whose money decreaso3 is actually more than stipulated in the bond-- the fiesh, at that time weaker and more miserable than another notes he pays six per cent. interest in gold but not one drop of blood." But I need not nation which possesses no more money, but is on the while pays nothing on his notes given in detain the committee to go over the arguments

increasing hand. This will be easily accounted for exchange? Then, as is readily seen, B is pay. so ably adduced on this Hoor to prove that a

if we consider that the alterations in the quantity

of money either on the one side or the other is not ing for the use of $10,000 the interest on the large portion of our bonds, when due, will then immediately attended with proportionable altera- entire $100,000, that is sixty per cent. in gold be payable in the lawful money of the Gov. tions in the price of commodities.”

on the $10,000, and this privilege of loaning ernment, let that be gold or greenbacks.

The workman has not the same employment is rendered a monopoly by restricting the For my part I am willing to leave the con

from the manufacturer and merchant, though amount of bank capital so that only a few have struction of the contract to the courts and am he pays the same price for everything in the this golden opportunity. ready to abide the issue; but to my mind the market. The farmer cannot dispose of his I believe that Government alone should furmost serious point to be considered is the manner corn and cattle, though he must pay the same nish the currency of the country, thereby sav. by which we are to provide the lawful money

rent to his landlord. The poverty and beg. ing millions in interest now paid banks for that is to liquidate these bonds, for a mere gary and sloth which must ensue are easily furnishing a currency that without Government change of name without other reliet does not foreseen. Another Eoglish writer says: indorsement would not be worth a farthing. reach the disease. Our people are burdened with "That the greatest distress among tho laboring And just in proportion as you change the bonds taxes, pressed down by a weight that must be

classes of England was in 1916, when gold was par,
when the new sovercigns lay at the bankers uncalled

into greenbacks have you settled the question lightened or it will grow intolerable. How can for, and whon Spanish dollars sold at four shillings

of taxation of bonds. The greenbacks enterwe best relieve this pressure? Honorable genand three pence.'

ing into circulation can be taxed as so much tlemen say let it alone, and as an argument say How did our currency stand in 1861? To. money on hand without difficulty; and while that the present generation has done enough; tal amount of gold in country $275,000,000; you are reducing the taxes you are increasing let the next pay the debt. I agree with my silver $110,000,000. Total coin $385,000,000. the taxable property. That the bonds are to learned friends as to the argument; but does Held by banks and the Government $97,674,- be taxed either directly or indirectly seems to letting it alone relieve the present generation ? 507; amount of coin in circulation $287,325,- be a foregone conclusion. Whether it is policy Let any of those in favor of the let-alone policy | 493; bank notes in circulation $202,005,767. to tax the people of one State to be paid into but take pencil in hand and solve the problem | Total amount notes and coin in circulation the coffers of another is at least of doubilul when that debt will pay itself in interest alone $487,991,260. How stands the currency to propriety. The retention of one per cent. for at compound interest every six months, with day? Legal tenders and fractional currency, distribution to the State can only result in this. gold at forty, and he will be surprised to find $387,142, 157; bank notes, $293,887,941. To: The States paying the largest share of the that this generation, by letting the debt alone, tal, $681,030,398 ; but to be deducted from this taxes, either by internal revenue or by tariff, will pay it several times in interest and the amount held by banks as reserve $157,439,099; are to be the losers. You can hardly delude


the people into believing that it is right that ence between us is that I believe I will beat my remarks at the point where I was interthe heavy tax-paying communities of the North him when I get to the Supreme Court.

rupted. shall be taxed to distribute to the southern Mr. BURLEIGH. Do the people demand Not a single greenback will be added to the States. Indiana may be allured by the glitter- repudiation of the national debt?

currency under this bill, for greenbacks are ing bait of $900,000 to be paid into her coffers Nr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. The people being daily exchanged for a similar bond and by the General Government; but when she do not demand repudiation, and the only way a preminm paid. The only result arising from finds that this has been drawn from her hard to save repudiation is to make all the property this bill will be this: under the guise of giving earnings, and an additional sum to be paid as of the country pay taxes equally. If that is the country more greenbacks you provide the a bonus to southern States, she will spurn your repudiation, then I am for repudiation. means by which our only chance to pay our offer. You inay compare the tax tables and Mr. BURLEIGH. No doubt of it.

indebtedness in lawful money will be closed prove to them that the older States pay all the Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. If it is entirely and a guarantee given that the bondtaxes, and she will in answer show that we of. proposed to tax a part of the property of the holder will not be taxed. The people will not the West, the consumers, are the ones that people to protect the property of another part || be so easily hoodwinked. You must either after all bear the burden; we may not pay the of the people, then I am opposed to it. tax your new bonds as other property is taxed tax to the collector, but we do to the manu- Mr. BURLEIGH. Did the Government or you must reduce the rate of interest so that facturer and the importer. Every cup of cof- agree to give greenbacks to the man who came it will be plainly seen that the holders of the fee, every draught of tea, the coat worn, and forward in the hour of its need and loaned the bonds are doing something for the Governthe wagons driven, have, by their enhanced Government the gold he had earned and saved? ment. What rate of tax does many on-handvalue, paid the tax that is under this proposition Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. The Gov- notes at interest pay in your several States, and given to the support of the South, and she will ernment made the man take greenbacks who then answer why these bonds should only pay repudiate your plan as equally unjust to the East | risked his lite in its defense, and when they one per cent. For my part four per cent. is as and the West. *You can tax the bonds directly made the pension list they promised him the || high as I can be got to go if you are to exempt more honestly than by this method. And in same they promised the bondholder; and to- tbem from taxation. What is the difficulty ? connection with this point I wish to allude to day they make him take greenbacks. What is | Now, in the West the Government has been the bill lately introduced by my colleague [Mr. the superior merit of the bondholder who took paying too high a rate of interest until all the Hunter] on thus subject.

bonds at forty cents on the dollar that he should surplus is locked up in bonds. Suppose a The first section provides for an issue of a be preferred to the soldier of the war and his farmer wants to borrow a thousand dollars new bond, principal and interest payable in widow?

by mortgaging his farm, he cannot find an gold at six per cent., interest payable semi- Mr. BURLEIGH. I desire to ask the gen- opportunity, for he is niet at every hand annually, one per cent. to be retained and paid tleman this question: the Government having by the response, “My money is in bonds at to the States in lieu of taxes; the holders of taken my gold and agreed to repay me in gold, six per cent. in gold, equal to nine per cent. five-twenty bonds to be allowed to exchange am I to be required to take payment in green- in currency, and no tax. If I take your note their bonds for these, or refusing to do so are backs at forty cents below par?

I will be taxed from two to three per cent." to be forced to take greenbacks. This bond Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. That is ex- No wonder he refuses to change the investis simply a five per cent. bond, interest and actly what I say, that where the Government ment, for many cannot and ought not to bear principal guarantied in coin. If my colleague agreed to pay in gold it will pay in gold; but any such rate. had reflected for a moment he would have where the contract is otherwise it will pay in The last clause of the sixth section of the seen that we had a similar bond already out, the same currency in which it pays the rest of bill under review (Mr. Huxter's] is as folthe ten-forty; and let us see how much the its debts. The Government did not come and lows: bondholder has been obliged to disgorge, bow beg the soldier to go into the ranks; it said, And the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby aumuch he pays for converting a greenback bond " You shall go.

thorized and empowered to collect from duties apon into coin and that coin-boud protected from

Mr. BURLEIGH. I was not a soldier- imports only such proportion of the same in coin as taxation; he is forced to take a bond that now broker or anything of the kind. It was gold

may be necessary to meet the obligations of the

United States which are payable in coin, and the is quoted above par; for by looking at the that I gave, and not soldiers; and the Govern- residue ho shall receive in the lawful currency of the market quotations of bonds in New York you ment agreed to pay me in gold.

United States. will see the five per cent ten-forties above Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. If the gen- And I here enter my solemn protest against par. Should the gentleman be so lucky as to tleman had been a soldier, and had given his | legislating upon the iariff bill in this covert secure the passage of his bill, not a bondholder blood for the preservation of the Government,

Here is a proposition to reduce the in the country but will see that he has achieved he would appreciate the ditference between a tariff just in proportion as the amount so cola glorious victory. He has changed his un- bondholder and a soldier, and he would real- lected should bear to the whole and the price certain bond into coin.

ize the injustice of distinctions in favor of the of gold, in other words, gold now at forty per The bill proposes to settle the dispute as to bondholder as against the soldier.

If one half the customs are collecied in whether the principal of the five-twenties is pay. Mr. BURLEIGH. Mr. Chairman, I under. | greenbacks, it will reduce the tariff on every able in gold or currency by agreeing to pay gold, stand the situation of my friend. He is, as I thing twenty per cent. Now, those manufae. and in return for this the bondholder deducts understand, a candidate for reëlection in his turers who claim that they are only kept alive one per cent. interest. How stands the bargain, State. Hence I will not interrupt him further. || by protection, will by this fell swoop have that taking it for granted that the bonds are pay- Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. The gen- protection taken away; but the West comable in lawful currency? Say the bonds are, tleman is mistaken, as he has been all the way | plains not so much of the tariff, but of the in round numbers, $2,000,000,000 and gold through. I am no candidate for anything. I uvjust discrimination against our western prod. forty per cent., then the gold value of the bonds am only standing up for the rights of the peo- ucts. How will it be with our grain, our pork, would be $1,428,571,428. Then to settle this ple as against a portion of the people who, our beef, now just sufficiently protected as to matter we give $571,500,000 in gold, and to ihrough false pretenses, have, in the late Demo || keep out Canada? By this reduction you open compensate us for this we deduct one per cent. cratic convention, attempted to foist upon us the markets of New York and New England to of the interest. Let us see how much that Seymour and a bondholder's party.

Canada. Articles of luxury, now but little would be. One per cent. on the principal,

Mr. BURLEIGH. Does the gentleman | taxed, instead of being increased, decreased; $2,000,000,000, having fifteen years to run, suppose for one moment that I advocate that all the mistakes and blunders of our present would be $30,000,000 per annum. The present party or its candidate? I would sooner affiliate tariff made more glaring. What we need is a worth of an annuity of that kind would be far with the devil and his host. (Laughter.] reduction of interest, equal taxation, a fair and less than $200,000,000, that is, the Govern- Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. I am glad || judicious tariff, and time will take care of our ment gets $200,000,000 while the bondholder to hear the gentleman say that he does not national debt and solve our financial trouble. gets $571,428,572, the bondholder making by affiliate with that party. I was fearful that he Mr. BLAIR addressed the committee on the the bargain the snug little sum of $371,428,572 had been affiliating with the party that nom- issues of the present political campaign. [His in gold, and he has escaped what the people inated Seymour at the New York convention. remarks will be published in the Appendix.] demand, that the bondholder's property should Air. BÚRLEIGH. The gentleman certainly Mr. ELA. Mr. Chairman, I take this opporshare the burdens of the Government. had no ground for any such suspicion.

tunity, lest I may not get another, to say Mr. BURLEIGH. Does the bondholder Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. I was cer- a word in defense of a vote given on the in this case get more than the Government tainly justified in thinking that the man who resolution of the gentleman from Wisconsin, agreed to pay him for the money he advanced? could stand on this foor and boast that he had [Mr. COBB,) and the bill so ungraciously re

Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. I think he obtained more official appointments at the ported by the Committee of Ways and Means does. I believe the five-twenty bonds are pay.

hands of Andrew Johnson than any other man, taxing the interest on Government bonds ten able in greenbacks. would support that party.

per cent. These bonds now bear comparaMr. BURLEIGH. Then it ought to be cor. Mr. BURLEIGH. Does the gentleman | tively none of the burdens of the country, and rected by the Supreme Court of the United from Indiana boast of anything of that kind? their exemption from taxation causes great States, or by the Congress of the United States. Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. I do not dissatisfaction and discontent which oughi in

Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. If the gen- say who made such a boast. I leave it for the some way to be remedied. They are not tleman had been here when I began my speech, | gentleman to say:

allowed to be taxed under State authority, he would have heard me say that I thought Mr. BURLEIGH. The remarks of the gen. because the right to tax is without limit as to the matter should be left to the Supreme Court. tleman are a fitting commentary on his loyalty rate or amount, and might be used by States

Mr. BURLEIGH. There I agree with the and fidelity. I never made any boast ot that adversely to destroy the whole credit of the gentleman. kind.

Government. Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. The differ: Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. I resume The power of the General Government to




[ocr errors]

tax bonds is unquestioned. The acts of Con- | places to do it, or to repudiate. Bondholders || that slavery had ceased to exist in fact; but he gress only prohibited taxation by or under are interested to the amount of their bonds in at the same time showed the necessity of action State authority. We have taxed the income defeating repudiation. It is therefore for their on the part of the States themselves before it froru bonds for the last six years, and if we interests to have the bonds taxed to reinove could legally cease to exist. His democratic have no right to do so that tax ought to be discontent and dissatisfied agitation, and many | training had instilled this doctrine of the rights refunded. We are proposing no new principle of the heaviest bondholders in my district have | of the States firmly into his mind-rights of by taxing incomes unequally.

urged upon me the justice and necessity of the States, I mean, under the Constitution and The first year of internal revenue taxation their taxation.

within the Union. incomes from Government bonds were taxed Taxing in the form presented in the resolu. The southern people, acknowledging the one and one half per cent., while incomes from tion is in accordance with the precedents both results of the war and wearied with its fearful other sources were taxed three per cent. Sub- here and abroad, and the gentleman from Wis. carnage, appalled by their desolated homes sequently incomes under $5,000 were taxed consin (Mr. COBB] had hardly introduced his and threatened with starvation, hastened to five per cent, while incomes above $5,000 were resolution when the ocean wires flashed to us avail themselves of the opportunity to return taxed ten per cent., which is the amount fixed the information that the debtor nations of to their allegiance-not sullenly, but cheerin this bill to tax interest on these bonds, and Europe were taxing the interest on their debt || fully; so cheerfully that northern people and which is, in my judgment, rather below than in the same manner as he proposed, only at a northern capital towed into their midst and above the amount we ought to impose. much higher rate. By taxing in this form were welcomed warmly. Peace and quiet

All our taxes have been laid unequally, and now much clamor and agitation of the subject reigned supreme where a few months before with regard to whether the commodity to be will be removed from the presidential contest, the dreadtul carnage of war had prevailed. taxed was an article of luxury or necessity, and the necessity of a new loan rendered less This peace and this tranquillity proved the and in proportion to its supposed ability to imperative during that contest. A new loan

humanity, patriotism, and statesmanship of bear taxation. We have taxed shoes and leather involves delay-involves undiminished burdens Andrew Johnson. A man of the people, he two per cent., woolen fubrics two and one half | during that delay-involves the question of knew their wants; a lover of the Constitution, per cent., paper three per cent., cotton manu- paying bonds in coin or paper, and the expense he knew that adherence to its principles would factures tive per cent., and whisky five hun- of negotiation; all of which will be better accomplish the desired end. Would to God dred per

cent. Congress having the right to matured and considered after than during a that his humane, patriotic, and statesmanlike tax, it is confined by no limits but such as jus- | presidential contest.

plan had been adhered to, and that this poor, tice, expediency, and necessity impose.

The bugbear that foreigners will send back bleeding country, North and South, had been Justice requires that the present bonds should | their bonds which pay thein five per cent. or allowed to return to the old fraternal feeling. be taxed that the burdens upon property may more, while the rates of interest, according to Would to God that the same chivalrous feeling be equalized, or that a new bond should be the tables of the gentleman from Ohio, (Mr. which, on the termination of the war, animated immediately issued bearing a low rate of inter- GARFIELD, ) are two per cent. in London, one the soldiers who had fought on both sides, had est to reduce the expenses of the Government. and one hall per cent. in Paris, three per cent. animated our law-givers. Had it been so, we A new bond will not be easily put upon the in Berlin, two and one half per cent. in Frank- should then have challenged the admiration of market. Persons who get six per cent. in goid | fort, three per cent. in Amsterdam, and two the civilized world, and the people of this great will not take less willingly. Those who have per cent. in Hamburg, may frighten the gentle || Republic would have been spared an untold fastened themselves upon the revenues of the man from Maiue, (Mr. BLAINE,] who presented | amount of suffering, country and are sucking its life-blood will not it; but it ought not to prevent the House from No one doubts that it was the desire of release their grasp unless enticed to by the doing an act of justice in providing additional President Johnson that the war should so termsame measures which were taken to entice revenue from a source better able to bear tax- inate. No one doubts that it was the desire State banks out of existence to make way for ation than any other.

of those patriotic Republicans who joined the national banks. Expediency requires that If these bonds come back it is so much the great Conservative party of the country that exemption from taxation, which has already better. It will check importations and give the war should so terminate. No one doubts caused discontent and dissatisfaction and raised additional employment to our own labor. They that it was the desire of the great Democratic the banner of repudiation shall no longer con- ought never to have gone abroad, and did not party that the war should so terminate. No tinue. But few comparatively would repudiate, to any extent until the war was over. We one will doubt, in next November, that the yet the fact that some propose it had better be have received in exchange for them imported || great masses of the people of this country heeded in season. We must bear in mind that || luxuries which our people had been better desire that it shall so terminate. to those discontented we must add those who without, and which have tended to depress Who, then, prevented the consummation of were engaged in the rebellion, who will never our labor while being taxed to pay interest this desirable end? I do not hesitate to say willingly pay for being whipped. Their allies | abroad.

the Radical part of the Republican party. And in syłupathy will pay, if at all, grudgingly. Tax these bonds as they should be, and the for what purpose was this interference? SimThe interests of bondholders require that rates of interest paid by Siates, municipalities, | ply to retain in their grasp the power and bouds should bear just taxation, and an over- and individuals will be lessened, and all State patronage of the Government by the enfrantaxed people require it.

and local taxation will be lessened. If it is || chisement of an ignorant and degraded race. I notice that the press, who are par excellence not done labor and business must continue to By the elevation of this race to the elective the defenders of the bond interest, are free sink and stagger under the enormous load until franchise all obstacles were to be swept from to denounce all who would tax bouds as repu. the evil corrects itself by business reverses and their way to power. The plan, revolutionary diators. They raise the idiotic cry it you financial disaster, strewing their wrecks on as it was, was to be carried out to the desired have the power and right to tax ten per cent. every hand. Then by leaving capital idle and consummation let the consequences be what you have a right to tax fifty or a hundred per labor unemployed the payment of the debt, they might. If a twinge of conscience stole in cent. ; granted. But does it follow that because otherwise certain, will be subject to doubt. the soul of one of their number who still you have the power to do an unjust thing that Mr. JOLIAN spoke on the policy of land retained a vestage of love for the old land. you will therefore do it? We taxed all manu. bounties and in defense of the existing home- marks of liberty, he was to be upbraided with a factures five per cent. We had a right to do stead system. [His remarks will be published taunt that he had “splinters from the ghost of it. Did it therefore follow that we should tax in the Appendix.]

the old Constitution sticking in his kidney." them one hundred per cent. instead of remov- Mr. ARCHER. Mr. Chairman, when the If a general of the Army, like the gallant ing it altogether, as we did when it became civil war between the North and South termin- Hancock, asserted the cardinal doctrine of a oppressive? Am I to be branded as a repu- ated, chaos ruled supreme in the latter. State free Republic, that the military should be diator because I am tired of seeing the sons governments there were literally “ without | subservient to the civil authorities in times of of toil bending their backs to the sun and their form and void,” if those States were to be peace, or that the writ of habeas corpus should faces to the earth, building highways and keep | regarded as subjugated territory, and not a be respected, he was to be dropped from the ing them in repair, and may only look up to see parcel of our common country existing under | Army roll by the passage of a law over the their bondholding neighbor roll by in his and by virtue of our Constitution. That they President's veto. If the Supreme Court dare coach and exempt from that burden? Am I were a part aud parcel of that country, and intimate its intention of maintaining its proper to be branded as a repudiator because I am that they did exist under that Constitution, had dignity by considering the constitutionality of unwilling to see the poor man's children kept never been denied by any one of the three one of their laws, then special legislation was in ignorance and at toil to build school-houses coördinate branches of the Federal Governo to be resorted to for the pupose of depriving and provide schools for the bondholder's chil. ment. Congress, the Supreme Court, and the that court of its jurisdiction. If the President dren, while he makes no contribution to that || Executive bad, time and again, by resolutions, asserted his constitutional prerogative, he, too, object? And worse than that, to pay the police- || decisions, and proclamations, asserted and was to be assailed and hurled from his place, man who stands guard over the bondholder's reasserted that they were within the Union of to make way for some supple tool who would sate, while I have a right to tax him, and am the States and must then remain as States. It bow the pliant knee to their tyranny. following established precedents by doing it. was in pursuance of this doctrine that Presi- In this contest for power the Republican The whole debtor community have had one dent Johnson, soon after his accession to the party resembles in their recklessness Sampthird added to their interest by exemption Presidency, proceeded to restore order where son of old when led into the temple of the from taxation, and high rates of interest on this chaos reigned, by reacknowledging the Philistines. He, blind with fury and hate bonds. It has also vastly increased taxation rights of the States. Occupying the position of against the surrounding masses, who scoffingly by the high rates of interest States, counties, | Commander-in-Chief of the armies, and martial looked upon him and upbraided hin for the and towns have to pay on their indebtedness. law still prevailing, he spoke to those States | loss of power and strength which his own folly If we fail to tax bonds others will take our as Commander-in-Chief when he said to them had destroyed, stood between the mighty pil

40th Cong. 21 SESS. --No. 252.

[ocr errors]

lars of tbat temple, and rending them asunder nally as managers. The reason for this sudden tinction to this ruinous anarchy that menaees all perished in one vast ruin. As Sampson onslaught upon Miss Vinnie and her helpless our favored land; a land that has been, and seized those pillars even so did the Republican statues, the casus belli, so soon after a solemn may be again, the hope of the world and the party seize upon the two great pillars which treaty of peace, was the fact that she--although terror of oppressors; but most of all, in the are the supports of our temple. I mean the her sentiments are said to have accorded with sacred name of the constitutional republicas Supreme Court and the Executive. By the those of the Republican party—had refused to Government established by our ancestors ; honpower still left in this party they have striven truckle to extreme Radical behests or to work ored by their faithful observance; hallowed and are still striving to uprvot those pillars the wires of the impeachment machinery. To and sealed by their blood; in the name of five from their foundations and overwhelm at one this bold charge these iconoclastic woman- millions of suffering people; their homes desfell swoop the masses of the Amercan people. fighters were unflinchingly led by a doughty olated, hearts crushed, hopes blighted; in the But uot like the Philistines of old do those warrior who has ever shown himself eager for name of all these 1 appeal, through its constimasses stand idly and listlessly by, to see them- such a fray. Although the concussions pro- tuted and acknowledged leaders bere asserselves crushed by a hydra-headed monster. duced on Fortress Freedom by the violent ex- bled, to the great Radical party; a few years Andrew Johnson, placed by his countrymen || plosions of bis wrath, on this occasion appeared | ago unborn from the womb of tiine, but lately as a sentinel upon a watch-tower, sounded the to the veteran sentinels on duty far more start- Titan for strength; breaking from its bonds; tocsin which woke them from their lethargy. ling than formidable; yet poor woman and shaking the land with its strides of progress; Thus aroused, they spoke from the eastern poor art were terrified, and led appalled before knocking fetters from millions and weldig them boundaries of Maine to the western shores of ihe fiendish charge and the brimstone cloud. on double the number; wresting scepters from California to show that "there was lite in the The frenzied and persistent attempts of this sovereign States; sweeping those States them. old land yet." And from that time the mighty great champion of the “woolly-head" to ride selves from existence and blouting out their hosts of freemen of this great Republic have the woolly-horse were not quite so successful; lines in blood. I appeal to this great power been beaving and surging and gathering their || and, unless he beware the former, though more in the land to say where, with those glaring strength for the coming struggle. That strug. docile just now than the mule ridden by a still examples of high-handed usurpation on record gle, sir, will vindicate alike the intelligence, greater general and sometimes bottle-corker for the use of unscrupulous factions, ever the manhood, and the love of liberty which in his strolling boyhood, may throw him at the prompt and eager to avail themselves of preever have animated and ever will aniinate the November races.

cedents in justification of contemplated vilAnglo-Saxon race.

The plan of reconstruction which President | lianies; where and when and how is such We have stood for the last few months upon Johnson proceeded to carry out in May, 1865, | chaotic state to have an end? Do they envy the verge of a precipice, a dark abyss of an- was the identical one previously agreed upon and would they fain perpetuate bere the conarcby yawning at our feet. This giant Re- by Mr. Lincoln and his Cabinet in accordance dition of our wretched neighbors of Mexico? publican party hoped by one last wild effort to with the views then entertained by the Repub- || All hope of peace and order solemnly prothrow off the lite-sustaining restraints of the lican party. The States yielded ready obedi- mised, but indefinitely postponed on each Constitution of our fathers. This was to be ence to the conditions imposed, and up to accession of a new party to power; a chronic, done by the impeachment and displacement of this point all moved smoothly toward restora- mortal anarchy rankling in the nation's heart the constitutional head of our Government. tion. The old constitutional lights, which eating out its very life; pillage, oppression, They would then arrogate to themselves, as an had been dimmed by war clouds and threat- and reeking murder eternally ramping through oligarchy, all the powers of the Government. ened with total extinction, blazed forth again ; || the land. Can such be the condition they In other words, the aim was to establish just | old land-marks loomed up once more in the have in store for this proud people, this model such a power in the Congress as was usurped | hazy distance, and lent their friendly guidance Republic? by the Assembly of France during the reign to wanderers over the benighted waste. But In this gigantic and unscrupulous struggle of terror. But do any of them for a moment the Republican party, just here, snuffed of the Republican party for power thousands dream that, along with the attainment of such || danger. They knew that after the nation's and tens of thousands of whites-most of them a power, they may also reach the fame and long winter of discontent, the fruition of a men of intelligence and education—bave been fate of Danton, Robespierre, and Marat, their

spring-like peace would be to them but bitter, || practically disfranchised in the South, while counterparts in French history?

or, like Dead Sea apples, become ashes on inore than that number of ignorant, imbruted, That power, like that which existed in the their lips. They knew that the scepter of power vagrant, penniless negroes have been suddenly French Assembly, was not attained, is due to must slip from their grasp and pass into the invested with the right of suffrage. And for The wisdom of the framers of our Constitu

hands of their untiring foe, the great constitu- what have this abjeet race been thus clothed tion, who wisely gave us two branches of the tional party of the North. It was at that with new rights, of which their enlightened legislative department. The one to act as a critical juncture that they made a closer league masters have been so ignominously stripped ? check on the other. The Senate, thank God, with the powers of darkness. It was then that Perchance, to reward their loyalty. Did they existed, and stood as an effectual barrier || they concocted the hell-broth of African rule, ll give any appreciable proof of loyalty during against the rushing storm to check the waters and gloatingly stirred it into the political caul: the war? On the contrary, they toiled and wild" of this storm. The Senate saved the dron. They are now dancing, hag-like, around | sweated, if they did not bleed, in aid of the Republic at least for the time. The Senate it as they administer the paralyzing potion rebellion ; aud although numbering two thirds saved a patriot, and in saving him from parti- with no stinted hand to the best, the bravest as many as the whole white population ; san persecution they have made for themselves of the southern people.

although, in numerous instances, inhabiting names which will be revered by generations It has been said that to crush the rebellion sections of country many miles in extent, where yet to come. The Senate, by their verdict, nearly a half million men lost their lives. scarcely a southern soldier was to be seen for bave given peace and quiet to the North, and || Three years of almost uninterrupted Radical months, they never struck a blow for freedom. the people in the coming contest will, by the rule have followed, and thus far with what There was not, throughout the whole war, a election of a Deinocratic President, give such results? Three momentous results, indeed. single instance of even the feeblest attempt at a verdict against the misdeeds of those now We see now a truekling, mongrel platform, insurrection. Thus did the negro falsify even legislating as will revive the desolated South, without an infinitesimal portion of patriotism, || in the “glorious" hourof his emancipation one and she will be again the “ sunny land,' justice, or magnanimity in it, substituted for of the noblest of sentiments, a sentiment with blooming fields and happy homes. She the glorious Constitution of better days; and hitherto accepted by none more cordially than will once more be brought airly and equally while the dark hues of bondage have in one into the sisterhood of States, and cause the

by his present eulogists and vindicatorssense been lightened by the substitution of wealth of Europe, and even of the Celestial white slavery for black, the nation's hopes

“Who would be free, himself must strike the blow.” Empire, to flow into our coffers, and tbence have been thereby most hideously darkened. Was it done for the Union, for which this into the hauds of our laboring artisans. It has been customary with those in authority race cared not, and never will care, & copper's

As "straws show us which way the wind to refer for guidance to the acts of their pre- toss? Far from it; in truth, the very reverse blows,” so the recalling of one or two little decessors. With wbat degree of safety to the of this. Their real aim, as is now well underoccurrences here may serve to illustrate the liberties of the people, to the observance of stood by all and pretty generally conceded by intensity of the hatred entertained by the im- constitutional guarantees, or to the stability themselves, was to keep the country in a state peachers against the President. Foiled in their of the Government, can future parties, as they ) of disruption until their party might be able to plot of ruiving him, they immediately cast about come into power, regard as guiding precedents secure permanent control. Instead of investthem for minor objects on which to wreak their the congressional acts of the last two or three || ing those half million negroes with the right to long pent-up vengeance. A few days since, years? Why, each party, as soon as it obtained by resolution of the two Houses, a room was

vote had they doubly enfranchised as many sway, would, were such examples followed, | intelligent whites of the North by giving eacá furnished and fitted up in the Capitol that an throw everything into chaos; and, although one of them two votes it would have been, for accomplished woman might there, without dan. the people might rise each time in their boasted decency's sake, far better, and would bare ger of interruption, pursue her noble and enno- majesty and vote them out and a new party in, || accomplished their fell purpose quite as effect bling profession in the interest of the nation. it would be, at best, but exchanging one chaIn the inidst of her quiet labors, although

ually. Would the northern people have er otic condition for another-the Radical for the dured this? And yet the wrong inflicted there guaranteed by Congress against disturbance, Democratic, or the reverse, as the case might by on the remaining voters of that section and

by “

be; the void and formless inonster would still the shock to good government would not have gallant brothers the old' -im

been one whit greater. peachment clique, supposed to be more capa- In the name of justice and peace and na- To show how insatiable is their lust of power ble of conducting this sort of campaign than tional prosperity ; in the name of good govern- and to what a fearful length it goads them on the kind in which they had just failed so sig. ment, ay, of any government in contradis. for spoils, a recent occurrence may be briefly

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Sehold her charged upon most furie sily being brood above the waters.

referred to. A prominent member of the Rad- Now, seeing the danger which impends this cannot possibly, in consistence with truth, refer ical party in answer to a direct query put to him great charter, let us inquire what is the object to the Radical party, it is, in every respect, during debate, declared, without shame or even of the Constitution, (of all constitutions, in applicable to their opponents. hesitation, that the condition imposed by his fact,) or, rather, what was its object, since it Paragraphs ninth and eleventh are simply a party for the removal of disabilities from south- is to be, at least for a little while, a thing of bid for the foreign vote, with a swagger and a ern whites was, virtually, that they would vote the past? It cannot be designed for the pro- shaking of the fist in John Bull's face; for, the Radical ticket. Now, as to the admission tection of the majority, for they are self-pro- with all the powers of the Government in their of the African race to a prominent share in the tecting. It is to shield the weak against the hands, they have done nothing. The eighth conducting of our political affairs, this outrage strong Take away this guarantee, and the is such a wide plank and occupies such a conhas been blindly consummated in the face of cer- | minority have no earthly appeal from oppres. spicuously central position in the platform as tain disastrously resulting experiments made by sion. It is then a mere mob that rules. But to necessitate the belief that it was constructed pseudo-philanthropists and ignorant, wretched, the Republican party have found a precious | by some one whose vindictive wrath had been vicious fanatics. The tottering relics of these though it seems a rather fluctuating substitute foiled, or whose chances for political prefermiserably abortive governments, the fruits of for the Constitution. That substitute is any ment had been hopelessly blasted by the sudthese experiments, still stand; yet they stand platform (amended, altered, and juggled to den collapse of the impeachment bubble, only as a butt for satire, for true philan. | suit immediate and pressing party necessities) || pricked by seven Republican free-lancers. It thropy a warning beacon, for civilization a re- by which they may hope to retain their su- sounds like the last growlings of a baffled fiend proach. They are a stench in the nostrils of

premacy. Their cardinal doctrine is that the il when he has failed to drag down to perdition the world, and if such absurd innovations of majority may, without any curb or check what. an innocent victim, whose high estate be envied, mongrelism here, such wild ingraftments on soever, do even as they will. As was done in on whose ruin he has built his hopes, and our political stock, be not speedily receded times of full Puritanical sway, they virtually gloatingly set his malignant heart. The con. from, the repetition of Jamaica and St. Do- resolve, first, the world is the Lord's and the certed growl of their sanction, as it rang around mingo must needs be upon us; and the black fullness thereof, (which most probably means the walls of the menageries when read to them, incubus that now weighs so horribly on the the “ spoons

" of office ;) secondly, what is may be better imagined than described. PresSouth must soon cause her to sleep the "sleep the Lord's belong to His saints ; and thirdly, ident Johnson is therein denounced as a villain that knows no waking.' we are His saints.

of the deepest dye. He is called a usurper, With the same object they gagged the judi- Now, let us examine the platform which, if a traitor, a wholesale dealer in corruption, and ciary, and wrested from the Executive the the Radical party be continued in power, is to a dabbler in moral filth generally. Such are clear constitutional right of selecting the heads supersede the Constitution. To the most of some of the vituperative and indecent expres. of Departments, who are not only his coun- it the sarcastic utterance of a great French- sions applied to the great head of the nation, selors, but his agents, for whose acts he alone man is peculiarly appropriate. “The object | merely because he will not debase himself to is held responsible, and have aimed in various of language," said he, “is to conceal our their level or be molded to their sinister other ways to curtail and abolish his rightful | ideas." Some portions of it, had it not been designs. And these foul-mouthed maligners powers. Why should they tamper thus by | adopted in solemn conclave, might well be are the same, or cordially indorsed by the same, degrees with the Constitution and the Govern. regarded as ironical, and might have enabled who have lately arrogated to themselves, with ment? Why not at one fell blow destroy them it to pass as one of the grandest jokes of the sanctimonious bypocrisy, to inculcate upon both, then merge the three branches into one- age. Take the first paragraph:

others the use of what they are pleased to style a result to which all their acts have lately "We congratulate the country on the assured suc- " decorous language." There surely should tended-loy legislative enactment, and dub that cess of the reconstruction policy of Congress, as have been a special paragraph inserted recom

ovinced in the adoption in the majority of the States one the Congressional oligarchy of the free lately in rebellion of constitutions securing equal

mending that this exceedingly courteous style and independent States of America ?” civil and political rights to all," &c.

of theirs should henceforth be adopted as a The most solemn obligations imposed by the Now, even the Republicans themselves-at | model of decorum in all communications beConstitution are no longer regarded when expe- || least such of them as are not either fanatical tween the three great coördinate branches of diency demands their infraction; and, for all or demented, or utterly unhumanized-must | the Government. that Constitution can ever avail the country feel in their hearts and consciences, whatever This eighth paragraph also professes that while under Radical rule, it may as well be at poliey may prompt their tongues to say, that they, “ profoundly deplore the untimely death once buried away out of sight. But let the with two exceptions there is not a gleam of of Abraham they just about undertakers of this melancholy sepulture per

paragraph. of

as form it with a solemnity befitting the moment.

at this time; ous occasion. Perhaps some suppressed” congratulate the country; but it is just as the latter having simply endeavored to carry judicial ermine inight be obtained as a shroud. though one individual might congratulate out, in good faith, the pledges to which the The coffin might be appropriately made of another on having been robbed by him, deli- whole Radical party, with Abraham Lincoln slivers from the charter-oak, or the parch- cately suppressing the fact that he is soon to at their head, had, time after time, committed ment of poor habeas corpus, if there is no be also hung, or destroyed in some other way. themselves. For, with the recent history of further use for it, or the door of the Woolley || The other exception is that constitutions were that party before us, no one can doubt that bastile. Let the pall-bearers be the district adopted in a majority of the States lately in had Mr. Lincoln persisted in executing the satraps, both past and present, with a few of rebellion'--adopted in the States, not by them. then fully indorsed reconstruction measures the Republican leaders from the Capitol here, Mark that well ; it speaks volumes: adopted of his party, which there is every reason to if, indeed, they have respect enough left for the in the States by carpet-baggers and vagabond believe he would have done, the blot of in. deceased to accord a decent burial, or sym: negroes ; even the unscrupulous Radicals, famy attempted to be affixed to his name would pathy befitting the sad office. Let the chief then, have not the hardihood to contend that have been of as deep and damning a dye as in mourners be the southern States, (for heaven these infamous constitutions were adopted by the case of his successor. knows they have chiet cause to mourn this those States but only in them.

The tenth paragraph says, “Of all who were illustrious dead,) and let them be represented Paragraph the seventh abounds in the same faithful in the trials of the late war,

there were at the grave by as many sad-faced maidens species of sarcasm. The assertion that “ cor- none entitled to more especial honor than the draped in the habilimenis of woe. The bor- ruptions call for radical reform,” emanating, | brave soldiers and seamen.". Now, the ironder States might follow these, their tweeds as it does, from that incorruptible source, is ical man, the traitor in the Chicago camp, has not quite so black; then the great throng withering; the play upon the word radical, been along here, too; the mark of his slimy of the sorry and indifferent, the glad and and its juxtaposition to reform, is quite inimit. trail is visible all over this plank; there is the gay, mixed and merged, like all fune- || able.

one little word among those just quoted which ral crowds when the great have departed. Let In the twelfth paragraph, where the con- is unmistakably in the interest of their oppothe solemn cavalcade then pass beneath the vention declares its sympathy with all op.

nents. “There were none, " the sentence shadow of the Bunker Hill shaft, where it is pressed peoples," and in the last, where it reads, “entitled to more especial honor than no longer likely Mr. Toombs will call the roll recognizes " the great principles laid down in the brave soldiers and seamen. We are jus of his slaves. Let them pause there a while, the Declaration of Independence as the found- tifiable in inferring from this that although and call a far different roll, that of the great ation of democratic government,” the irony | there were none there are some entitled to fathers of the deceased Constitution and of becomes so glaring that the wonder is the con- more honor than the soldiers and sailors; but those famous signers who hurled defiance at vention did not organize some of its trained they are not content that we shall merely infer King George, and hear or imagine their answer ferrets into a “smelling committee” to spy out this; for a few days since, in an election held from the spirit world. Let them then wind whether there might not be a traitor in their | under the very shadow of this Capitol, they through the inevitable hub of the Juggernaut, camp in the person of the member—whoever gave us a substantial illustration of it by ex. whose wheel has so horribly mangled the de- he might be—that drafted the platform. Was | cluding from the count all the soldiers' tickets ceased, and proceed to Plymouth Rock. Out he not endeavoring to “ sell'' them? The more on which, as they slid them into the ballotof this a sarcophagus might be hollowed for especially should they have suspected this as box, they had slily scratched, with their hyena its reception, and some of the “loyal” New there is another fine piece of pleasantry per- claws, an “ear-mark" of infamy by which they England clergy-some of the far famed "three | petrated here, and this time upon the word were identified as soldiers' votes when the thousand" —Might be induced to read the burial | democratic, as before upon the word radical: | counting commenced. These soldiers had service, and offer up a "petition" (this time to The great principles laid down in the Declar. || been duly registered, and the recognition of Heaven, and not to Congress) as earnest and ation of Independence are the foundation of this “ear-mark” afterward was sufficient to no doubt as sincere as the old one, that the democratic government." How scathing to cause the rejection of every ticket so branded. defunct may rest in peace and never rise. them who adopted the platform for while it The truth is they were thought to be Radicals

exceptions is that the contentionereal these de sincerely as they would "* deplore the bad



« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »