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when registered, and it was cheerfully done; more profitable to their greedy pockets. What addition to having filled the land with mouruwhen they came to vote, however, their politics more effectual means than these could be con- ing, bas fastened upon the people an enormous were suspected and their iickels were marked; cocted by the evil brain of the great adversary debt, a debt incurred to preserve the unity and and as soon as they were known to have been himself to crush out all manliness from the life of the nation, and which must be paid. cast in the opposing interest, and that their || rising generation in the South? The best men Mr. Chairipan, although the sacrifice of huexclusion from the count was absolutely neces- are daily bullied, and the loveliest women in- man life was great, and the expenditure of the sary to secure the election of the Radical can- sulted with impunity by this inferior race, who | people's money was enormous, I believe that didates, they were unhesitatingly excluded. prowl around their homes, pillage their prop- ihe band of Providence, for a good purpose, The veteran soldiers are thus denied, without erty, shriuk from honest labor, and reek with guided us through the thick smoke and burrithe slightest investigation, all share in the filth as a luxury. Reared amid such revolting cane of battle. I believe that the heroic deeds government of the nation's capital, which they scenes, their high-spirited fathers and mothers and patient suffering and death of our soldiers, saved from destruction; while the bloated compelled to submit tamely, what short of a and the lofty self-denial and patriotic grief vagabonds of Africa are allowed to hold the miracle can prevent every particle of manliness of our wives and mothers was not in vain. I city's destinies in the hollow of their band, and from being finally extinguished in the children? || believe that the defeat of our enemies was the burning infamy indorsed by Congress! Theireducation, too, isofdire necessity, sadly designed for their ultimate good! And, above How appropriate, then, how consistent for subjected. Excelsiors are becoming fainter in all, I believe that we are to have broader, once, were these Jacobins in substituting the their souls, and must soon die into an echo. grander views of the destiny which awaits as past tense for the present; for soldiers are Many who might have been stars of the first as a nation. And that we are now making a verily with them among the things that were. magnitude, far up in the national zenith, are new departure in the race of progress for the Is it not well known that the President has been fated now to grope along the dim horizon of protection of life and liberty, and for the develfoiled times without number by the Senate in ignorance, Thousands, before in afluent cir- opment of processes and means by which labor his efforts to appoint to office such men as the cumstances, are so constantly engaged in strug. is to reap its richest reward. To the American gallant Slocuin, the dashing Blair, and re- gling to supply their mere physical necessities, people is confided the greatest and grandest nowned McClellan, who had bravely fought to that their is neither time nor money, even if subdivision of the earth upon which to work put down the rebellion; men whose only offense there were opportunity, to advance the mental out the problem of perfect human goverbwas that after conquering ten States they were condition. Still, despite all these efforts, many ment. Let us endeavor to be equal to the epoch not willing to make of them pandemoniums, are suffering for the plainest food. But their in which we live, and by wise legislation accelwhere dark-skinned fiends and white faced, physical wants and sufferings, urgent as they erate the wheels of progress and secure to our white-livered vampires miglit rule and riot on are, are as nothing compared with the inental whole people prosperity, union, liberty, and the little blood they could still suck out by torture, the burning consciousness of degra- justice. fastening on helpless throats, but were anxious dation. Not long since Rev. Henry Ward Mr. Chairman, I have stated that the war to restore them to their pristine status in the Beecher said in a speech that just before the debt of this country, incurred for the preserUnion, that they might prove al source of hap- war commenced “the crust between the South vation of the Union, must be paid. But how piness to themselves and of glory as well as and hell was only an inch thick." Iam rather it shall be paid and when it shall be paid are profit to the nation so nearly crushed by finan- inclined to think the reverened gentleman's | profound questions for American statesmancial burdens, not the least formidable of which assertion was, in the main, correct, so far as it ship, whose successful solution will require have arisen out of the very acts wherewith this went. But he, characteristically, stopped short the exercise of the most comprehensive wisparty affect to be seeking the restoration of the of the whole truth. The legislation of the dom. This debt, Mr. Chairman, is a first Union; but which instead is still further em- Opposition has broken through that crust, and mortgage upon the present and prospective bittering and estranging the two discordant is fast making for the Anglo Saxon race a hell wealth and labor of the country, and must be sections. of that part of our once sair domain.

paid and will be paid with the fruits of labor. God forbid that the party now in power Trusting, however, in the virtue and intelli- And, sir, in the development of the productive here, represent fairly a majority of their con- gence of the people, I believe a few months industry and commerce of our country will be stituents; for if that constituency indorse more will sound the death knell for those who found the true means for the solution of this (which, however, recent elections forbid our have so misruled us, and that in the coming great problem. believing) oae half the diabolisin displayed in success of the great Democratic party the true The great triumph of this age is the inventheir treatment of the South malignant, indeed, intelligence and virtue of the couutry will be tion of machines and processes by which labor must they be. It were enough to harrow up in the ascendency, and so save our temple of is not only economized in the production of the gristly heart of a fiend. Not content with constitutional liberty: And that pure patriot, articles of commerce, but in their distribution inflicting on a brave but now prostrate people Horatio Seymour, will stand at our helin of throughout the world. And, Mr. Chairman, the retributive tortures of a few months, while state and guide us to the haven of rest. He, like in my judgment the great strife among the the hot blood engendered by the strife was Cincinnatus of old, has been sought out and pations during the next half century will be to still careering through their veins, they keep brought forth from his quiet home, and the secure to freight and passengers cheap and up a studied infliction in cold blood for years, acclamations wbich greeted his nomination in rapid ineans of transportation ; for, sir, we although the pecuniary maintenance of this New York will be reëchoed in November next. have arrived at that point when the value of a black inquisition threatens to bankrupt the

days' lador is not to be estimated so much by

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT. nation. And what manner of people are they

what it will produce as by the facility with torturing on this gigantic rack which they have Mr. RAUM. Mr. Chairman, the people of which the article produced can be transported erected, covering half the land? Vainly will this country have but recently emerged from to market. I lay it down as an axiom, that you search the earth for their superiors; may. a long and bloody war in which patriotism the value of artieles of industry is regulated 1, not say their equals? Brave, generous, triumphed over treason; and the perpetuation by the facilities with wbich such articles can kind-the noblest of a noble race. What sol- of free government became an assured fact in be placed upon the market. diers in war, what captains to lead them when the United States. In the midst of that tre- And further, that the production of articles they deemed their rights imperiled! What a mendous struggle, when millions of men rushed of commerce depends upon the same law; such galaxy of statesmen and orators in peace! to the grim edge of battle ready to die for production being stimulated and increased in What happy hours were theirs-happy now no their country, and where hundreds of thou- exact ratio to the increased means of cheap more! How favored their clime, how soft sands fell to rise no more, save in response to and rapid transportation. Thus, sir, we find their breezes, fragrant their bowers! How the final trump of God, the cry upon every that since the application of steam to vessels lovely their women, at all times warmhearted patriot lip, and which was responded to by | and railroads a complete revolution bas been

a and true, gentle in their luxurious hours; yet, every patriot heart, was that all the blood and brought about in the production and commerce amid perils and wrongs, how spirited ! But treasure necessary to save this great nation of the world. I must confess, sir, that I was now, no more can

must be freely poured out by the people. This greatly startled when I came to examine sta"The light foot rove

sacred impulse became an enthusiasm, moving tistics showing the tremendous increase in the Safe through the orange grove.

the heart of the nation, and lasted to the end, trade of the world during the past thirty-six These Jacobins, instead of welcoming back giving us victory at an enormous sacrifice of years. And, sir, it is a curious and interestinto the temple of tbe Union such a country life, and an unheard-of expenditure of money; | ing fact, that in all the commercial vations and a people endowed with these noble char- But our troops were paid and fed and clothed whose trade has materially increased, railroads acteristics, the very highest elements of a na- and cared for in health and in sickness as no have been extensively constructed; and what tion's greatness, which can adorn in times of other troops were cared for before; the people is more interesting, the increase of trade has quiet and prove a mighty bulwark against a individually and as a nation accepted as a holy || been in exact ratio to the increase of railroads, foreign foe, they prefer to be guilty of national trust the duty of providing for the wants of so that the commerce of a country can now be mayhem. One portion of a great people are that mighty host of patriot heroes who marched safely approximated from year to year from deliberately maiming the other into absolute and fought for liberty and Union, for the sup- || figures already known if the increase of railimpotence. After desolating the southern port of their widows and orphans, and for the road construction is given. And, sir, the in. States, they have converted them into one vast interment in national cemeteries of the sacred crease of production and trade in a country is prison-pen, where bayonets gleam at every remains of those, who, consecrating their lives | limited only when such country bas no fertile

They have set over them an abject, to their country, died that their country might region throngh which to build railroads, or half-savage race, which the northern people live, and made death beautiful and glorious no new market to reach by the same means. themselves erewhile thought it no sin to hold by the freedom of tbe sacrifice, the grandeur I ask the indulgence of the House for a short as slaves, or sell like brutes, according as the of the cause.

time while I present a few figures showing the holding or selling thereof was prospectively the The war through which we have passed, in progress of railroad construction and the in

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18.)).. 1860).

crease of commerce in some of the great pro. your attention to the fact, Mr. Chairman, that i trade of $2,500,000,000, India has a yearly ducing and trading nations of the world ; and the Netherlands constructed no cousiderable trade of $595,000,000, making a grand total I will begin with

extent of railroads until as late as 1856. And of $3,095,000,000.

that she possessed vastly superior advantages The United Kingdom has about four thou: over Belginm in the way of water commuvica- Mr. Chairman, I now come to examine this sand miles of navigable waters. For a num.

tion, by means of her extensive canals and by subject with reference to our own country. her of years prior to 1893 the exports and

the river Rhine, commanding the trade of Ger- The people of the whole civilized world recog: imports of that country had averaged about many:

nize the fact that no nation in the 'tide of time': four hundred million dollars; but during the Years.

Total Exports and Imports. has ever made such grand material progress

$53.000.000 seven succeeding years lines of railroads were

Belgium 1835

as has the United States of America. The Netherlands.

105,000,000 constructed, which have been added to from

Belgium. 1839


people of this country know that we owe much year to year; and the construction of railroads


139.000.000 of our prosperity to the construction of railand increase of commerce is shown to be as

Belgium ....

roads, but many persons, no doubt, have not Netherlands.

289.000.000 follows:



examined the statistics of commerce and railMiles of Total emports


322,000,000 road construction, to mark bow steadily the Years.

railrond. and imports. 1810..

trade of this country has kept pace with the 1,200

This enormous production and interchange

$591,000,000 18.15.


659,00),000 of wealth is the result of the labor of a population increasing facilities for internal communication. 1850..

6,7333 810,000,000 of a little more than four million five hundred Following, I give a table showing the progress 18.15. 8,334 1,227,000,000

of railroad construction and commercial devel. 1860.

10,433 1,832,000,000

thousand, on a territory of eleven thousand four 1865.


hundred and two square miles, Belgium being opment in the United States: 1807. 2,500,000,000 in fact but little larger than the State of Mary- Years.

Miles of railroad. Totul exports Thus it will be seen that the commerce of laud.

and importe. Great Britain, which had increased but little

$160,000,000 IS 10. 2,197.

239,236,000 for many years, received a new impulse from Mr. Chairman, I now propose to detain the 1815.


252,000,000 railroad development, and from $100,000,000 House for a short time while I examine very 1850.



17,398. in 18:33 reached the enormous sum of $2,500,- | briefly the progress of railroad and commercial

536,625,00 28.771

762,300.000 000,000 in 1867. developinent in the distant and almost unknown 1006.


1,003,000,000 British province of India. Thatvast, fertile, and Let us now see what effect the construction

Here we see the commerce of the United populous region has for more than a century | States, which in 1830 amouvted to $100,000,000, of railroads has had upon the commerce of been under the domination of Great Britain, France, whose people are blessed with about

reach the enormous sum of $1,003,000,000 in and is now controlled by a Governor General,

1866. And while Great Britain, India, France, seventy-seven hundred miles of navigable who, in the name of the Queen, under the in:

Belgium, and the United States bad a total waters,

structions of a secretary of state for India, The following figures will show the progress makes and administers the laws for one hun:

commerce in 1840 of $1,471,000,000, in 1866 of commercial development in connection with dred and fifty million people.

their commerce reached the startling sum of railroad construction in that country:

The climate and productions of a considera-

An examination of prior statistics, shows tbat
No. miles
Total cxports

ble portion of India are very similar to those
railroud, and imports. of our southern States, and it has long been

this marvelous growth of commerce is far in $103,000,000 the earnest wish of British statesmen to stim

excess of the increase of population in those 1845.. 475,000,000

countries, and can only be accounted for upon 1830..

1,807 500,000,000
ulate the production of cotton in that distant

the self-evident proposition that productive
3,315 815,000,000 | province so as to compete with our country in
the growth of that great staple. As long ago

industry is developed and stimulaied by an 1965. 8,130 1,432,000,000

increase of cheap and convenient means of 1807.


as 1819 the British Parliament incorporated | transporting the fruits of labor to market. liere it will be seen that coinmercial prosrailroad companies for India. For many years,

And now, Mr. Chairman, let us explore this perity kept pace with railroad construction ; however, very slow progress was made under

great maze of figures, and ascertain, it possible, so that from $ 103,000,000 in 1840 the exports the lead of private enterprise; in 1856 about

the law which has governed the growth of auch imports of France increased to $1,440,two hundred and twenty miles of railroad had

enterprise, industry, and trade in the coun000,000 in 1867. been completed, and it is probable that under

tries I have named. I affirm that production the same management five hundred miles of

and commerce in Great Britain, France, India, railroad would not have been completed at I will now bring to the attention of the IIouse this day. British statesmanship, however, con

Belgium, and the United States—the leading the reinarkable effect that the construction of ceived the grand design of securing the con

commercial nations of the world-has kept railroads has had upon the trade of the two

pace with the progress of railroad construcstruction of five thousand miles of railroad in busy little States of Beigium and Netherlands. that vast empire by Government aid. Eight of exports and imports of those countries siuce

tion. I give the figures of the pro rata increase While under the Government of the United

great companies were incorporated, and the Netherlands their commerce reached a point Government guarantied the payment of $366,

1833, for each mile of railroad constructed, as

follows: of considerable importance; but at the time 000,000 five per cent. bonds to aid in the conof their separation in 1830 the total exports

Yearly exports and imports

Countrier. struction of the roads. The rebellion in this

per mile of railroad, and imports of the Netherlands were nearly country causing a great dearth in the cotton Great Britain

.$110,000 treble those of Belgium, resulting mainly from


69,000 markets of the world greatly stimulated the conthe fact of superior means of transportation


65,000 struction of these India railroads. Early in


33.000 by canals and by sca ; but in 1835 "Belgium 1863 the India cotton regions were penetrated, United States

25,000 commenced the construction of a wise system and the crop of that season was brought to the As I have just shown, the total exports and of railroads, so as to give her an outlet into coast by rail

, and to-day a net-work of four imports of those countries iocreased from 1840 Germany, Austria, and France.

thousand nine hundred and forty-four miles of to 1866, a period of twenty-six years, $4,532,Immediately production and trade received railroads is about completed in that country. a powerful impulse, and with the progress of

000,000, while the increase of railroads during Let us see what effect the construction of these

the same period was sixty-three thousand and her railroad system the commerce of Belgium | railroads has had upon the commerce of India. eighteen miles, which gives an average increase increased in a ratio unparalleled by that of any The following are the figures :

of $71,000 of commerce for every mile of railother nation on earth; the soil was more skill.

Year. Imports. Erports. Total. fully tilled; valuable mines were opened ; fur

road built. And, sir, startling though these 1838. .$151,000,000 $135,000,000 $289,000,000 figures appear, I challenge an investigation as naces and work-shops were erected, and the 1859.

172,725,000 152,660.000 335,355,000

to their correctness. And I affirm that for little State, insigniticant in point of territorial 1860

203,110.000 144,415,000 317,555,000

186,360,000 185.000.000 371.360.000 every mile of railroad constructed in the United extent, outstripping her neighbor, the Nether


215.705.000 244,850,000 460,555,000 lands, has taken a first-class position as a pro

States our exports and imports are increased 1864. 250,510.000 331,175,000 585,015,000

to the extent of $25,000 ; and assuming that ducing and commercial people. The follow

247,570,000 317,430,000 595,000,000

$10,000 of this sum is composed of articles pay. ing figures may prove interesting as showing The following figures show the value of the king a duty of thirty per cent., we find that the the progress of commerce in Belgium in rela- exports of raw cotton for a series of years: tion to railroad construction and the manner

annual revenue of the Government is actually 1859.

$20.000.000 | increased to the extent of $3,000 in coin for in which she outran the Netherlands in the race


27,000,000 of progress:



every mile of railroad constructed. And, sir, 1862.

107,000,000 the experience of the last thirty-six years Year8. Miles of railroad Total eeports 1803.

163,000,000 demonstrates the fact that this increase of comconstructed. and imports. 1801.

183,812,000 1835. $53,004),000

merce produced by railroad construction is not 1839..


77,000,000 The enormous expansion of British produc- ephemeral, but enduring, and that it enlarges 130,000,000 tion and trade at home and in India is really from year to year with the permanent improve232,000,000

ment of the country. 1960

one of the marvels of this great age of progress, .1.037.

352,000,000 ..1,180.

380,000,000 and is to be attributed to the wise development And now, sir, I come to the consideration ...1,350.

475,000,000 of their railroad systems. Let us contemplate of House bill No. 847, entitled “A bill to aid I now wish to compare the figures showing for a moment tliese amazing commercial re- in the construction of the International Pacific the commerce of those two countries, calling Il sults. The United Kingdom has a yearly railroad, from Cairo, Illinois, to the Rio Grande




1815. 1853


1902. 180t.


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river; to authorize the consolidation of certain land through Missouri and Arkansas. In 1866, that Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kenrailroad companies, and to provide homesteads the grant being about to expire by limitation, tucky, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, and Olio for the laborers on said roads," which I had was renewed and enlarged by act of Congress, are deeply interested in the speedy construc. the honor of introducing on the 3d day of March upon the recommendation of the honorable gen- tion of this great thoroughfare. last, and which was printed, referred to and tleman from Indiana, [Mr. JULIAN,] the chair- Another consideration which should press has been considered by the Committee on Roads man of the Committee on the Public Lands, || heavily upon the ininds of gentlemen is the and Canals.

and to-day nearly two million acres of land in fact that the construction of this railroad would This bill, Mr. Chairman, contemplates the Missouri and Arkansas are withheld from salc | greatly cheapen the cost of living through the construction of continuous lines of railroad to aid in the construction of the road.

North and East by causing a reduction in the and telegraph from the Mississippi river, op- That the construction of this road would price of beef. At this time there are five milposite Cairo, Illinois, through the States of | permanently secure the reconstruction and lions of cattle in the State of Texas, the value Missouri, Arkansas, and Texas, to the Rio development of Arkansas and Texas and place of which will not average four dollars per bead. Grande river, in the direction of San Blas, them upon the high road to prosperity, I pre. There is absolutely no market for the millions Mexico, on the Pacific coast, and to connect sume will not be doubted by any gentleman on of fine fat beeves this immense herd contains with such railroads as may be built in Mexico this floor. Those States are great outlying, in consequence of the inadequate means of from the Rio Grande river, either to San Blas undeveloped Territories, with rich soil, admi- || transportation from that State. There is no or the City of Mexico. rable climate, and capable of supporting ten

reason why the price of beef in our cities and The bill proposes that the United States million inhabitants. With the exception of

large towns should not be reduced from thirty shall aid certain companies heretofore char- her frontage on the Mississippi river, Arkan- to fifty per cent. by the introduction of Texas tered by the Legislatures of Missouri, Arkan- sas has no reliable means of travsportation. cattle by means of railroad transportation sas, and Texas to build said railroad, loaning || She had thirty-eight miles of railroad in 1860, and at the same time increase the value of the bonds of the United States to said com- and she has the same to-day, with little hope | cattle in Texas from one to two hundred per panies upon a second mortgage on said rail- of increasing the amount except through the

Texas is now the most extensive and road—the bonds to be issued as sections of generous aid of Congress.

best grazing country in the United States. I the road are completed, $10,000 per mile from The condition of Texas is but little, if any,

am satified that she could furnish half a milCairo to Little Rock, and $16,000 per mile better. From her coast-line a few short roads lion of beeves annually twenty dollars per head from Little Rock to the Rio Grande. The point to the interior, but are not being ex- cheaper than similar stock is now sold in our bonds to run fifty years and to bear currency tended for want of funds. There are four hun- city markets ; thus by the construction of the interest at the rate of six per cent. per annum, dred and ninety-six miles of railroad in Texas, International Pacific railroad” would the the interest to be paid by the railroad com, none of them having connections beyond the consumers of beef North and East save milpanies. At the end of ten years the railroad State. So utterly insufficient are these rail- lions of dollars annually by the reduction of companies are to create in the Treasury of roads for the convenient transportation of the price of that article, and the value of the the United States a sinking fund of two and freight that a large proportion of the products | stock of Texas would be increased from the one half per cent. per annum of the total debt, of the soil are transported in ox wagons from nominal sum of $20,000,000 to an actual value so that the debt will be paid by the railroad two to five hundred miles to market. The of $50,000,000. companies at maturity.

natural result of this condition of affairs is, Another consideration I desire to bring to The bill also provides that the lands hereto- that in both Arkansas and Texas production

the attention of the House is the paramount fore granted by the United States to aid in the is at the very lowest possible stage, and labor | importance of making the most ample provisconstruction of that portion of the road that is absolutely without hope for remunerative ions for the hundreds of thousands of landless, Jies in Missouri and Arkansas, and known as returns.

homeless poor persons, white and black, in the the Cairo and Fulton railroad, amounting to Another consideration which weighs heavily || States of Arkansas, Texas, and contiguous about two million acres, and the lands granted upon my mind is the great importance of fos- || States, whereby they may secure homesteads. by general law in Texas, which will amount to tering and encouraging the cultivation of sugar As previously stated, about two million acres about seven million acres, in all about nine and cotton, both necessaries which enter largely of land in Missouri and Arkansas were granted million of be sold by the rail. into daily

to aid in the construction of the proposed rail

road. These lands are now withheld from per whobeing laborers almost abandoned during the war, and while market, and constitute some of the best lands on said railroads, may wish to purchase any the growth of cotton has been resumed with in those States. By the laws of Texas about part of said lands. The bill also provides that partial success the production of sugar is in a seven million acres of land will inure to the in the construction of the road preference shall very languishing condition. It is a matter of proposed railroad as constructed. be given to persons wishing, in whole or in part, absolute necessity to the whole country to

Upon these nine million acres of land one to buy land for their labor; and the bill also stimulate the production of sugar and cotton

hundred and fifty thousand homesteads or three provides that the Commissioner of Refugees in the southern States.

quarters of a million of inhabitants can be and Freedmen shall supervise the contracts 1. That the importation of sugar may be

located where they can till their own lands by made with freedmen, and aid them insecuring reduced.

day and sleep under their own roofs by night homes along the line of said road by the pur- 2. That the exportation of cotton may be in peace and prosperity. By the passage of the chase of lands from the railroad companies. increased. For by these means the balance of

bill under consideration the railroad companies The bill also provides that the railroad com- trade now largely against this country will be are required to sell their lands at the maximuin panies shall have authority to borrow inoney changed in our favor.

price of $2 50 per acre to all persons who, in upon a first mortgage to an amount equal to 3. That the prices of these articles may be whole or in part, wish to pay for land in labor. the Government loan; also that the United reduced to the benefit of our whole population. Under the provisions of this act thousands of States shall at all times bave preference in 4. That the labor of the sugar and cotton persons would secure valuable homesteads sending dispatches and transporting troops and growing regions

may be prevented from per- along the line of this great thoroughfare and munitions of war, and that all the earnings of manently engaging in the production of bread. pay for them in labor, reserving enough froin the railroad companies for transporting the stuffs and provisions, thus securing to the great their daily earnings to support themselves and mails, troops, munitions of war, and Govern- West and Northwest a home market for all families. ment freights and forwarding telegraphic dis- their productions; for be it known, Mr. Chair. And, sir, by the passage of this act an impatches, shall be retained by and accounted for man, that at no time have we been able to find mense land monopoly will be prevented by semi-annually by the Secretary of the Treasury, a foreign market for more than five per cent. requiring the sale of these lands at a fair and to be applied exclusively to the payment of of the grain produced in the United States. fixed valuation ; for Mr. Chairman, the legisinterest on the Government bonds issued to And

well did the honorable gentleman from lation of Congress in respect to the public the railroad companies, any surplus of semi- | Pennsylvania, [Mr. Kelley,) in discussing the lands of the country should be to prevent as annual earnings to be paid to the railroad coin- tax bill the other day, raise the note of warn. near as may be the aggregation of large bodies panies.

ing to the West of the danger that the South of land for speculation in the hands of indiThe bill also provides that the railroad com- || would soon be able to monopolize the foreign viduals and corporations, and to secure to actual panies shall have authority to consolidate their grain trade, to the exclusion of the West; but settlers and cultivators of the soil homesteads corporate powers by virtue of State laws under I call the attention of that gentleman and of free of cost or at a price within the reach of the corporate name of " The International Pa- the House and the country to the fact that the poor; for sir, there is no curse to any cific Railroad Company."' The companies are if the South is encouraged to return to the country so great as the ownership of the lands required to make a full and complete report || vigorous production of sugar and cotton, the

in the hands of the few, and for the husbandto the Secretary of the Treasury annually of grain growers of the West will find a better man to be a tenant and not the owner of the their condition and business. market at home tban abroad.

soil he cultivates. Sir, the landless poor of These, Mr. Chairman, are the material pro- And fifthly, Mr. Chairman, I insist that it this country are children of the Republic, and visions of the bill, and to their earnest consid- is necessary to stimulate the production of should be encouraged by the most liberal legiseration I desire to call the attention of Con. sugar and cotton in the southern States as a lation to secure homesteads for themselves and gress and the country. There are many reasons, means of securing prosperity, happiness, and their posterity. sir, why this railroad should meet the hearty || peace to the people of those States.

Mr. Chairman, I desire that Congress and approval and aid of Congress. In the first And who among us, I ask, does not desire the country shall also examine this subject place, the construction of a railroad southwest

to see peace and prosperity abound from ocean from the stand-point of economy; for I athrin, from the mouth of the Ohio river was seconded to ocean and from the lakes to the gulf? It sir, that as respects the economical adıninistra: by Congress as long ago as 1856 by a grant of is hardly necessary to state, Mr. Chairman, tion of public affairs in those States and cou.

road companies at the maximum

price of sz 56 The production of both of these articles was

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tiguous Territories that the United States can happy. We would penetrate the very heart of this Republic; progress in civil government; well afford to aid in the construction of this | Mexico by twelve hundred miles of railroad, progress in the recognition and protection of railroad. We all understand that millions of and thus secure a monopoly of her trade by the rights of men ; progress in education, dollars are annually expended for the trans- lines inaccessible to foreign countries.

morality, and religion ; progress in the arts portation of troops, military and Indian sup. Her people would want our agricultural and and sciences; progress in industıy; producplies to our distant ports by the slow and mechanical implements and manufactured tion, and trade; progress in multiplying faciliexpensive means of mule and ox teams. goods, and would pay for them mainly in the ties and overcoming obstructions to commerce;

Now, sir, at the military depot of San precious metals. A new and profitable field for progress in spreading the self-evident truths of Antonio alone our disbursing officers pay an. commerce would be opened to our people. The free government, not by bloodshed and war, mually more than a million and a quarter of products of the inines of Mexico, amounting but by the humane process of peace. And, dollars for the transportation of supplies in now to some fifteen million dollars annually, oh! what a field is here spread out for human wagons from Indianola to San Antonio and would at once be diverted to this country, and thought and human action, stretching from other points, these same supplies having first the amount augmented to $50,000,000 within ocean to ocean, a distance of three thousand been iransported from New York by sea or a few years. And, Mr. Chairman, reaching | miles, and extending over seventy-five degrees from Cincinnati, Louisville, Jeffersonville, or the Pacific coasi by this shortest and best of of latitude: with a climate varying from perpetSt. Louis to New Orleans by river, thence || all routes, may we not look down upon the ual spring to perpetual winter; with produce across the Gulf. And, sir, the disbursements west coast of South America and out upon the tions to suit all climes; penetrated by imat San Antonio do not cover more than one half islands of the sea and hope for a rapid exten: mense rivers, worthy the name of inland seas; of the sum expended annually by the United sion of trade; and may we not look out and bordered by navigable lakes, and indented States for wagon transportation to our military | beyond those islands to that distant Asiatic with bays and gulfs unequaled in size and posts in that distant region. I think, sir, that clime known as the “ East, whose trade for beauty; traversed by giant mountains filled it is safe to assume that $1,000,000 per annum three thousand years has been the prize of com: with precious ores; diversified with hill, valwould be saved to the Treasury by the con- merce, and which in turn enriched Tyre, Jeru- ley, and plain ; timber land and prairie ; with struction of this railroad by cheapeving trans- salem, Palmyra, Alexandria, and Constanti- soil of unsurpassed fertility; with mountains portation.

nople, and which by the genius of Vasco de of iron and measures of coal four times greater Mr. Chairman, this railroad, extending a || Gama was brought around the Cape of Good in extent than those of all the world beside is Thousand miles ibrough the fertile lands of Hope to fill the coffers of Lisbon, London, and the land committed for development to Amer. Missouri, Arkansas, and Texas, where there the whole of Europe; and extending our com- ican freedom, American genius, and Amerare no means of transportation save by wagons merce over shorter lines divert into new chan- ican statesmanship. Here the fierce baton miserable roads, would operate like an nels across this continent a trade which has tle of liberty was fought and won, and here enchanter's wand in the development of pro. enriched every country controlling it, and which every man is free. Hence has gone forth the duction and trade along the entire line; a new is now separated by the diameter of the earth | grand political and religious truths which are field would be opened for the energies of our from the point of distribution, and which is a now revolutionizing and christianizing the people and a new market for the production of rich prize now within our grasp, and may, by world. Here the downtrodden and oppressed, our manufactures. And, sir, this railroad would enterprise and energy, be secured to this coun- of every nation, tongue, and clime, save one, bave the same effect upon our foreign trade that try as an eternal heritage by the building of have found refuge and repose. And even they, other railroads bave had; our exports and this proposed railroad aud others in process of sons of Africa, although held in chains and imports would be increased $25,000 per mile | construction.

slavery, have here, here in America, learned to for the entire length of road, amounting to Mr. Chairman, it is my opinion that the forget their instincts and practices of barbar$25,000,000 per annum; and the duties paid United States is about to make a new departure || ism. And, sir, may it not be the Divine purinto the national Treasury upon dutiable im. upon the road to prosperity; and as the Repub- pose out of the crime of slavery to bring a ports would amount to at least $3,000,000 per lican party is likely to remain in power for a great good; may it not be, when these children annuin. These conclusions are inevitable and

series of years, and will be responsible for the of misfortune shall have learned the principles cannot be escaped; they are deducible from the legislation ot' the country, I take this occasion of liberty and justice, that, turning their eyes statistics of the country, running back through to say that it is not enough that we shall be the to the home of their ancestors, inspiration may the past thirty-five years, and are entitled to champions of liberty and union; we must also lead them to seek it as their inheritance, where the attention of Congress and the countr be the champions of such legislation as will christianizing and civilizing their kindred they

develop industry, production, and trade, so as may grow up to be a great and a free people. Having demonstrated the importance of this to bring about that degree of universal pros. And, sir, hither have come children of the railroad to our own people, and the economy | perity which will make liberty enjoyable and celestial empire, with their quaint costumes of the United States aiding in its construction Union a thing to be loved by all. Therefore and quainter religious rites. Bringing their tron Cairo to the Rio Grande, I now come to I say, sir, that we should, without unnecessary habits of industry, sobriety, and economy, they the discussion of the subject with reference to delay, devise a just and wise system of inprove- || have found homes, protection, and employche influence it will have upon the future of ments, in whole or in part at public expense, ment. Mexico, and the trade of this country with to stimulate production, and to cheapen and And, sir, catching the inspiration of free gov. that republic. The republic of Mexico bas a facilitate the iransportation of the products of ernment and guided by the genius of American population of eight million. Her capacities || labor, thus securing to the producer the great; statesmanship the rulers of the Empire of the for the development of industry and trade are est possible sum for the fruits of his toil, and Sun have sent hither an embassy, distinguished surpassed by few countries; her mineral wealth || thereby largely increasing the capability of the mainly by being led by one of the sons of our is absolutely inexhaustible and fabulous. The country to sustain the heavy burden of taxa- Republic. They come to announce the readirevolutionary tires which have untortunately || tion pressing upon it. And it is in view of ness of that singular people to open wide their enveloped that country for the past thirty the conclusions just given, and the considera- gates and to throw down the “Chinese wall” years have about burned out, and it is hoped | lions heretofore mentioned, that I earnestly which for three thousand years has made them that the Liberal Government will be able to impress upon Congress and the country the a separate people. They offer us their trade, inaintain itself agaiust all its enemies.

vast importance of the speedy construction of which within eight years has grown under Mr. Chairman, I aim that the people of the International Pacific railroad.

American influences from $80,000,000, to the United states are interested in the perma- For the construction of four thousand nine

$300,000,000, and which is capable of indefinent establishment of the Republic of Mexico hundred and forty-four miles of railroad in India nite extension. Shall we not reach forth and and in the prosperity of its people. And, sir, the British Parliamentguarantied $366,000,000, grasp it? Yes; with our iron arms, spanning I express it as my deliberate opinion that and has actually paid $65,000,000 interest there- a continent will we bring it to our embrace. nothing would more conduce to secure these To aid in the construction of the Interna. And, then, sir, Asia, the birth place of manends than the construction of a system of rail- tional Pacific railroad, one thousand miles long, kind, awakened from her dark slumbers by roads connecting the two countries. I propose,

about fourteen million dollars in bonds will be America, will receive our merchants, artisans, sir, that the United States shall aid in building required. Thus we can secure a railroad one school-men, and missionaries, and through a railroad to the Mexican border; and by filth in length of the India railroads at one thir- American influence and American civilization friendly ollices encourage the construction in tieth the cost. During the construction of the will march forth with newness of life to receive Mexico of two railroads, the one to the Pacific road the railroad companies are rrquired to pay the Divine truths of the Gospel for her five and the other to the city of Mexico. To say the interest on the bonds. When the road is com- hundred million souls. that the construction of such a system of rail. || pleted the payments by the United States for And now sir, thanking the House for the roads would advance the interests of both coun- the transportation of mails, troops, and sup- | courtesy of its attention, I close by repeating tries is stating the matter tamely; for, sir, the plies, will far exceed the interest on the bonds, a sentiment already uttered, that to the Amerimagination can scarcely conceive the wonder- and thus obviate the necessity of appropria- | ican people is confided the greatest and grandful advantages which would inevitably result tions from the Treasury for that purpose. The est subdivision of the earth, upon which to to both peoples. Mexico would at once awake sinking fund provided by the bill will be ample work out the problem of perfect human Govfrom her lethargy and enter the lists in the race for the payment of the principal; and thus, ernment. Let us endeavor to be equal to the of progress; her liberal Government would without cost to the national Treasury, a work | epoch in which we live, and by wise legislation become a fixed fact; new fields would be tilled, enduring as time, the importance of which the accelerate the wheels of progress and secure new cities built, and the riches of her mines most sanguine imagination can now scarcely to our whole people prosperity, union, liberty, would be laid bare. Industry, production, | foreshadow, will be secured to this and future and justice. and trade would increase, and her people l generations in perpetuity.

Mr. JONES, of Kentucky, obtained the would become contented, prosperous, and Mr. Chairman, progress is the watchword of || floor, but yielded to


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Mr. HIGBY, who moved that the committee


slight amendment. I suppose under the rules, rise. The motion was agreed to.

The PRESIDENT pro tempore laid before

strictly, it should go to the Committee on. the Senate a letter of ihe Secretary of the In

Printing again, but I conclude that the Com. The committee accordingly rose; and Mr. Higby having taken the chair as Speaker pro terior, communicating information relative to

mittee on Printing will concur in this recom the third article of the treaty of April 28, 1866,

mendation. tempore, Mr. CULLOM reported that the Comwith the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians,

Mr. ANTHONY. It is not necessary to send mittee of the Whole on the state of the Union

it to the Committee on Printing again, but I and an estimate for $15,000 with which to having had under consideration the Union gen

should like to know what the amendment is. meet the requirements of that article ; which erally, had come to po resolution thereon. was referred to the Committee on Indian Affairs.

Mr. POMEROY. The amendment is to And then, on notion of Mr. GETZ, (at nine

Mr. CONNESS presented a petition of citi

allow one thousand copies in French. We cono'clock and forty minutes p. m.,) the House zens of Los Angeles, California, praying Con.

curred in the recommendation of the Commitadjourned. gress to establish a district court of the United

tee on Printing with the exception of allowing States for the southern district of California to

one thousand copies in French, which the CoinPETITIONS, ETC. be located at Los Angeles; which was referred

mittee on Printing did not agree to.

Mr. ANTHONY. Do you propose to print The following petitions, &c., were presented

to the Committee on the Judiciary. under the rule, and referred to the appropriate

Mr. CONKLING presented a petition of

the maps ?

Mr. POMEROY. We have not recom officers of the United States Army, praying an committees :

mended that. By Mr. BUCKLAND: The petition of Wil

increase of compensation; which was referred liam Robertson and thers, owners of steamers to the Committee on Military Affairs and the

Mr. EDMUNDS. Let it go over until to Militia.

morrow and be printed. and vessels engaged in the coasting and other trade on the southern shore of Lake Erie, for

Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN presented a peti

The PRESIDENT pro tempore. Objection tion of officers of the United States Army,

being made, it goes over under the rule. the passage of the bills introduced into the Senate of the United States by Mr. CHANDLER praying an increase of coinpensation; which

MESSAGE FROM THE HOUSE. regulating such trade. was referred to the Committee on Military

A message from the House of Representatives, Affairs and the Militia. By Mr. LOAN: The petition of A. L. H.

by Mr. McPHERSON, its Clerk, announced that Crensbaw, of Jackson county, Missouri, for

Mr. TRUMBULL presented a petition of the House had concurred in the report of the

officers of the United States Army, praying an relief.

committee of conference on the disagreeing By Mr. MILLER: The petition of sundry increase of compensation; wbich was referred

votes of the two Houses on the bill (H. R. Army officers, praying an allowance of forage to the Committee on Military Affairs and the

No. 605) making appropriations for the legisMilitia. for an additional number of horses, and also

lative, executive, and judicial expenses of the the continuance of the compensation of ten

Mr. WILSON presented a petition of officers

Goverument for the year ending the 30th of dollars per month to every company comof the United States Army, praying an increase

Juve, 1869. mander "for responsibility of clothing, arms, of compensation ; which was referred to the

The message further announced that the Committee on Military Affairs and the Militia. company property, &c.

House had concurred in the report of the coinBy Mr. PETERS: The petition of John G.

Mr. MORGAN presented a petition of citi- mittee of conference on the disagreeing votes Chandler and others, Army officers, for an zens of New York, praying an extension of the

of the two Houses on the bill (II. R. No. 314) increase of compensation. time of the so-called Gifty per cent. clause of

to incorporate the Washington Target-SbootBy Mr. POLAND: The petition of Colonel

the bankrupt act; which was referred to the ing Company. J. G. Chandler and others, officers in the

Committee on the Judiciary.
Mr. FESSENDEN presented a petition of

The message also announced that the House United States Army, praying for an increase

had passed a joint resolution (H. R. No. 350) officers of the United States Army, praying an of compensation.

authorizing the remission of the duties on a By Mr. RANDALL: The petition of sundry increase of compensation ; which was referred

chime of bells imported for presentation to ibe to the Committee on Military Affairs and the officers asking the passage of the bill known as Militia.

Episcopal church at Hoosic, Rensselaer county, “the Schenck bill,'' to equalize the pay of the

New York.
officers and enlisted men of the Army.
Mr. HOWE presented the petition of Levi

Herzog, praying compensation for goods fur.
By Mr. SCHENCK: The petition of officers

nished the first regiment Marylard volunteer The message further announced that the of the Army asking for the passage of General || cavalry in 1861; which was referred to the Speaker of the House had signed the enrolled Schenck's bill, to fix and equalize the pay of Committee on Claims.

bill (S. No. 564) concerning the tax commisofficers and to establish the pay of enlisted soldiers of the Army.

Ile also presented the petition of George sioners of the State of Arkansas ; and it was By Mr. WASHBURN, of Massachusetts :

Fuerst, praying to be allowed transportation | signed by the President pro tempore.

to Fort Vancouver, Washington Territory; The remonstrance of C. H. Jones, and 7

SAMUEL PIERCE which was referred to the Committee on Milother legal voters of Athol, Massachusetts,

On motion of Mr. FERRY, the bill (H. R. itary Affairs and the Militia. against the increase of the tariff on steel.

No. 783) for the relief of Samuel Pierce, which By Mr. WELKER: A memorial of Colonel

had been reported on adversely, was posiponed J. G. Chandler and 10 others, officers of the

Mr. DRAKE. I ask the unanimous con- indefinitely. Army,asking the passage of General SCHENCK'S

sent of the Senate to resume at this time the bill fixing the pay of officers and soldiers in the consideration of the bill which was cut off yes.

DEFICIENCY APPROPRIATION BILL. Army. terday morning by the expiration of the morn

Mr. FERRY submitted an amendment ining hour. It will take but a little time, and it tended to be proposed to the bill (H. R. No. IN SENATE.

is a bill of public importance, which has already || 1341) making appropriations and to supply

passed the House of Representatives, and been deficiencies in the appropriations for the serTUESDAY, July 14, 1868.

reported with amendments froin the Commit- vice of the Government for the fiscal year Prayer by Rev. E. H. GRAY, D. D.

tee on Naval Affairs. It is a bill (H. R. No. ending June 30, 1868, and for other purposes ; On inotion of Mr. FERRY, and hy unani- || 941) to amend certain acts in relation to the which was referred to the Committee on Appromous consent, the reading of the Journal of Navy and Marine corps.

priations. yesterday was dispensed with.

Mr. CATTELL. I am very sorry to inter-

fere with the purpose of the Senator from Mis-
souri, but a bill of, I think, very great public | remission of the duties on a clime of bells

The bill (H. R. No. 339) authorizing the
Mr. VICKERS presented the credentials of
Hon. William Pinkney Whyte, appointed by discussion more than once in the morning church at Hoosic, Rensselaer county, New

import, Senate bill No. 543, has been up under imported tor presentation to the Episcopal the Governor of the State of Maryland a Sen hour and been cut off, and I am extremely ator from that State to fill the unexpired term anxious that it should be disposed of now.

York, was read twice by its title, and referred

I of Hon. Reverdy Johnson, resigned.

to tbe Committee on Finance. am quite unwell, scarcely able to be in the The credentials were read; and the oaths Senate this morning, and came here hoping

NORTHERN MICUIGAN RAILROAD. prescribed by law having been administered to

that that bill would be disposed of. I thiok it Mr. WHYTE, he took his seat in the Senate.

Mr. HOWARD. I desire to appeal to the will not give rise to much discussion.

Senate to take up Senate bill No. 276. I only HOUSE BILLS REFERRED.

Mr. DRAKE. I beg the gentleman not to want to have it taken up and read, and it may The joint resolution (H. R. No. 332) author. | object to taking up the bill I indicated. be laid aside then if any gentleman has any. izing the appointment of examiners to exam

The PRESIDENT pro tempore. Reports | thing more pressing. ine and report upon the expediency of disconof committees are in order.

The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The ques. tinuing the navy-yard at Charlestown, Massa


tion is on the motion of the Senator from chusetts, and uniting the same with the yard Mr. POMEROY. I am directed by the Com. Michigan, to take up the bill (S. No. 276) to at Kittery, Maine, was read twice by its title, mittee on Public Lands, to whom was referred grant lands to the Northern Michigan Railroad and referred to the Committee on Naval Affairs. the resolution relative to printing extra copies | Company in extension of the Northern Pacific

The joint resolution (H. R. No. 338) exon- of the Land Office report, to report it back. railroad. erating certain vessels of the United States It has been before the Committee on Printing Mr. EDMUNDS. Is it just reported ? from the payment of tonnage fees to consular and was referred again to the Committee on Mr. HOWARD. No; it has been reported agents in Canada was read twice by its title, Public Lands, and they recommend the amend- for months. and referred to the Committee on Commerce. ment of the Committee on Printing, with a Mr. TRUMBULL. Before that is taken up






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