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cils bill. Resolutions concerning the liquor lotments, parish halls, and the like.” Relative traffic were adopted to the effect that the house to the movement for the disestablishment of the trusted that some legislative measure might Church in Wales, the house conveyed to the speedily be passed which should largely diminish bishops, clergy, and laity of the same its assurthe number of places in which intoxicating ance of the warmest spinpathy with them," and liquors are sold ; that it would welcome a further the pledge of the house to do its utmost limitation of the hours in which public houses sist the attack now made upon the Church.” The may be open on Sunday; and that it was of the lower house, on the report of the Committee on opinion that there was need of some legislative the Relations of Church and State, declared that measure for the compulsory registration and " to sever the union between Church and state at stringent control of clubs where intoxicating present existing in six dioceses of the province liquors are sold. A motion was agreed to con- of Canterbury, and to deprive in whole or in templating such alterations in the service of part those dioceses of their ancient endowments prayer on the accession of the sovereign as shall would be an act fraught with disastrous consemake it generally acceptable to the people and quences to the English nation, and would be a the clergy, " by bringing it into consonance with grave injustice to those dioceses and to the whole the circumstances of the empire, the needs of Church of En nd.” While generally approv,

and the feelings of the Church and na- ing the Church Patronage bill, the house decided tion." The report of the Committee on the In- to present a petition to Parliament for the procumbents' Resignation Acts, 1871 and 1877, was vision of means, under proper safeguards, of getdiscussed, and a resolution was adopted respect- ting rid of incumbents - whose continuance in ing it. The opinion of the house was expressed their cures is, through their own fault or neglithat the recommendation of the committee ap- gence, injurious to the spiritual welfare of the pointed by the archbishops with reference to the parish.” On the presentation of the report on education question should be considered by the hymnals, the house resolved that it is inexpetwo convocations before being made the basis of dient in existing circumstances to interfere with any attempted legislation. The House of Lay- the clergy and congregations in the use of men expressed the opinion that the permanent hymns." The House of Laymen, concerning the augmentation of poor benefices is the best rem- Welsh Disestablishment bill, “ expressed its deedy for the impoverishment of the clergy; rec- sire to affirm " that disestablishment would be a ommended that a diocesan association, similar to misfortune to the country, and should be opthose already existing in several dioceses, should posed by loyal Churchmen as wrong in principle be formed in every diocese in England and and injurious in practice; that piecemeal disesWales; the objects for which such associations tablishment and disendowment such as is now shall invite subscriptions to include an endowed proposed is open to the strongest objections, and fund to increase permanently the income of ought to be resisted by the whole strength of the small benefices and a sustentation fund to assist Church of England; and that the house proimpoverished benefices by annual grants. Sev- tested against any attempt to transfer the paroeral suggestions were made with reference to the chial and other endowments of the Church from Parish Councils bill. A report was made by the their sacred uses to secular purposes. Committee on Christian Training in Public Ele- The Convocation of York met March 29. The mentary Schools concerning the operation of archbishop delivered an opening address denling what is called the Birmingham system, and the with the subject of lay ministration. He pointed committee was further instructed to consider and out that they had no hesitation about permitting report the best method of securing to the bap- a layman to minister in schoolrooms, and to contized children of the Church of England who duct services and even deliver sermons there, and attend those schools "such definite instruction he advanced the proposal whether they might in the principles of the Church of England as not be allowed to minister in the parish church. will at least satisfy the requirements of the ru- He asked the houses to consider how far it was bric in its Book of Common Prayer."

safe or right that persons approved by the bishop The Houses of Convocation met again April 24. should be allowed to make use of the church unIn the upper house a report was adopted on the der exceptional circumstances and under certain use of hyinnals in the churches, showing which restrictions. A resolution was passed in the books stood most in favor, and revealing an upper house to the effect that it was expedient overwhelming preponderance” of one particu- to authorize duly qualified laymen to preach in lar compilation. "It also expressed the opinion of consecrated buildings, but as the legality of such the committee that a Convocation hymnal, start- a course had been doubted it was desirable to ing with the absorption of the best features of seek the opinion of the ecclesiastical lawyers on the three chief hymnals, would probably obtain the question. The lower house resolved that the and keep the confidence of the English Church. question was beset by so many legal difficulties A report recommending an amended scale of ec- that it would be advisable to defer it for further clesiastical fees was adopted. Concurring with consideration. It further resolved that it recogthe resolutions on the subject of temperance nized with great thankfulness lay ministrations passed by the lower house in January preceding, under proper authority in unconsecrated buildthe house further invited the attention of the ings. The House of Lavmen resolved that, while parochial clergy" to the opportunity afforded by fully recognizing the importance of extending acts of Parliament, and especially by the Local the powers existing enabling laymen to conduct Government act of 1894, for the provision of services, it felt that as yet it hardly possessed such permanent counteracting agencies to the sufficient information to enable it to recommend social attractions of the public houses as free that the authorization should be extended to libraries, reading rooms, recreation grounds, al- services in consecrated buildings. The upper house expressed itself as unable to agree with presided. Recalling, in his opening address, the the interpretation given by the Convocation of history of the society, the president said it was Canterbury to the requirements of the act of mainly the product of the election of 1892 and Uniformity (amended) in respect to additional of the general feeling of regret on the part of services. The lower house requested the arch- Liberals who were also Churchmen that the bishop to appoint a committee to consider and Church, both during that election and before it, report upon the subject of the law relating to had come to be identified in the eves of the ecclesiastical vestries and church wardens (in- voters with the Tory party. That was felt to be volved in the pending Parish Councils bill). a reproach which should not be allowed to con

Liberation Society.—The jubilee of the So- tinue to exist. The events of the last fifteen ciety for the Liberation of Religion from State months had abundantly demonstrated the truth Patronage and Control was celebrated in London of that thought. April 30 and May 1. The report of the execu- The first annual report of the National Prottive committee represented that, owing to the estant Church Union showed that the number absorption of the last session of Parliament by of members had reached nearly 4.000. About two great governmental measures, the progress 48,000 pamphlets had been sold or circulated, of all the society's minor objects had been re- comprising 21,000 copies of Archdeacon Fartarded ; but the complete abolition of Church rar's tract on Undoing the Work of the Refestablishments had been perceptibly advanced. ormation." A parliamentary subcommittee Successful resistance had been made to a meas- had been appointed, and the formation of a ure dealing with Liverpool churches and to the board of patronage had been considered by the London University scheme. The action of the council. The income of the Union was £1,500. bishops and other friends of the Church on the The need of such an association as this was repParish Councils bill, which was in some degree resented as becoming daily more apparent. a measure of disestablishment, had deepened the Meanwhile the council had observed with much impression that the existence of a privileged thankfulness the signs of awakened interest in Church was obstructive to social progress. It Protestant principles in various parts of the was expected that the act would do more than country. Especial thankfulness was expressed promote mental activity and independence in "for the recent bold and faithful utterances of the country. The Church of England would our spiritual rulers, as indicating that they are still have its local affairs managed by the unre- not insensible to the dangers which threaten the formed vestry, besides a vigorous popular body, Church from these causes.” Particular referand the concessions Churchmen were already ask- ence was made in connection with this point to ing in this respect could only be obtained by dis- some utterances of the Archbishop of Canterestablishment. The Welsh bill seemed a com- bury against extreme ritualistic declarations and plete and satisfactory measure of disestablish- practices; the declaration of the Archbishop of ment, but its pecuniary arrangements would York that “ England is Protestant to the core"; need careful consideration. It would be stren- an exhortation to clergymen by the Bishop of nously resisted in order to defend the English Liverpool to “ stand firm " in the paths of the Establishment, and the friends of religious Reformation : a declaration made by the Bishop equality in England as well as Wales must pre- of Worcester; and anxiety expressed by the pare for a struggle which must have far-reaching Bishop of Wakefield on account of the growing

The Scottish bill introduced by Sir practice of "reservation of the sacrament. Charles Cameron, for which there was little A memorial, signed on behalf of the National chance of progress this session, might be con- Protestant Church Union, was presented, in sidered too liberal to vested interests, but the August, to the Archbishops of Canterbury and circumstances of the two countries differed York and the English bishops, calling attention greatly. If the terms offered were rejected, they to the “ use of unauthorized service books, side were not likely to be renewed. A final struggle by side with the Book of Common Prayer, in the in Scotland must now be prepared for. Efforts administration of the holy communion, and also to secure ecclesiastical ascendancy in connection to the wide circulation of manuals, especially with popular education were increasing in num- among the young, containing not a few of the ber and boldness. Reference was made to the distinctive errors of the Church of Rome.” opportunity which the consideration of the Among these are named “ Notes on Ceremonial," Church Patronage bill gave for showing that “The Priest's Ceremonial," "The Server's Ceremoonly after disestablishment could the Church de- nial," "The Ceremonial of the Altar," " Directorivise a satisfactory mode of appointing and allo- um Anglicanun,” and “The Ritual of the Altar," cating its ministers. The report concluded by all of which are intended, it is expressly stated by reminding the society that its aim was “not so the compilers, for the use of the clergy and their much to right ourselves as to right Christianity." assistants in the public administration of the holy A resolution was passed expressing satisfaction communion. Numerous quotations are given with the Local Government act as a measure from the service books, with a view to showing which effected a severance between civil and that their teaching is alien to the whole tenor ecclesiastical matters in parochial affairs, dimin- and teaching of the Book of Common Prayer, of ished the legal powers of incumbents and other the Communion Office, and of the rubric at the officials of the Established Church, and would end of the Communion Office. The archbishops lead to beneficial changes in the condition of the and bishops are asked to express their disaprural population.

proval of the use of these books by the clergy and Other Societies. The annual mecting of to discountenance their circulation. the Liberal Churchmen's Union was held in The Irish Episcopal Church.—The twentyLondon, April 13. Mr. George Russell, M. P., fourth report of the Representative Body of the


Episcopal Church in Ireland gave a more satis- interpose in cases of extreme necessity, we deprefactory account of the financial condition of the cate any action that does not regard primitive Church than did the previous report. The con- and established principles of jurisdiction and the tributions from voluntary sources amounted to interests of the whole Anglican communion.” £156.597. showing an increase of £5,695 over the While the Irish bishops at that time declined to amount in 1892. The parochial assessment ac- consecrate Bishop-elect Cabrera, Archbishop count for stipends amounted to £2,144, showing Plunkett, in his private chapel, ordained a Mr. a considerable decrease. The contributions re- Cassels, in 1891, to serve in Spain. The discusceived from voluntary sources since disestablish- sion which this act aroused in England resulted ment amounted to £4,376,197. The total revenue in a protest deprecating interference on the part was £487,681, and the total expenditure £421,- of the Church of England with the Church in 553, leaving a balance in hand of £66,128.

Ireland in the conduct of the relations between At a meeting of the bishops of the Church of itself and the Spanish reformers who had apIreland, held Feb. 20, letters were read from the pealed to it for help. Among the signers of this Archbishop of Dublin and the Bishops of Clagher protest were the Deans of Llandaff and Canterand Down, in reference to the consecration of bury, the Master of Corpus, the late Prof. Jowett, bishops for the Reformed Churches of Spain and and Archdeacon Farrar. Subsequently, the Portugal. The letters recited that the decision of Archbishop of Dublin went to Spain and opened the bishops in 1889 adverse to the consecration the church at Madrid of which Señor Cabrera of these bishops under the sanction of the Irish was the pastor. The adherents of the Reformed Church was not based upon the ground of prin- community in Spain are represented by Archciple, but upon a difference of opinion which ex- bishop Plunkett to number nearly 3,000 souls. isted on the subject, and upon a hope that the They are found in Madrid, Seville, Malaga, Salchurches mentioned might before long obtain amanca, Valladolid, the neighborhood of Barceconsecration from some other source. The dif- lona, and other centers of life. The congregaference of opinion had now undergone consider- tions among which they are distributed have able modification, and the hope had been disap- their vestries, and each sends a clerical and a pointed. Further, the lapse of time had mate- lay delegate to a central synod, which meets rially strengthened the claims of the churches when occasion demands. They have a liturgy requesting the service. During the fifteen years and a hymnal of their own. Their buildings at that had elapsed since they first came with their Madrid include a handsome church, a synod hall, petition they had met with much discourage-. a residence suitable for a bishop, and accommoment and hostility, but had nevertheless " ad- dations for students for the ministry. hered with singular patience and steadfastness The Church Congress.- The Church Conto the resolve that, come what will, their churches gress met at Exeter, Det. 9. The bishop of the shall be organized after the primitive model.” diocese presided and delivered the opening adThe writers were determined, unless they met dress, in which he touched upon a number of with formal protest from the bishops or General topics relating to the condition and interests of Synod of the Church, to visit Spain and Portu- the Church and its work. The first subject disgal, and there consecrate for each of the two cussed was the relation of cathedrals to the work churches a bishop-provided the synods of those of the churches; upon which the Bishop of churches affirm guarantees similar to those which Peterborough read a paper on * Cathedrals in they offered, of their own accord in 1883, and Relation to the Cathedral City, the Diocese, and that provision is made for an endowment fund. the Church at Large.” Archdeacon Robeson A resolution was adopted authorizing the course discussed the financial aspect of the subject, marked out in this letter.

Canon Cornish considered the attitude of the The Reformed Church in Spain.—The Arch- parishes toward the cathedrals, the Earl of bishop of Dublin with the Bishops of Clogher and Mount Edgecumbe spoke on the management of Down. representatives of the Irish Episcopal new cathedrals, the Dean of Chichester on catheChurch, proceeded to Madrid in September, and dral worship, and the Dean of Norwich on the with due form consecrated Señor Cabrera as the ministry of hospitality as a duty of cathedrals. first bishop of the Reformed or Protestant ('on- On the subject of biblical criticism papers were gregations of Spain and Portugal. The new read by the Bishop of Gibraltar on “The bishop at one time held a Government office at Grounds of our Belief in the Divine Origin and Gibraltar, but, having been converted to Protes- Authority of the Bible”; by Prof. Driver, on tantism, resigned his position and engaged in “ The Growth of the Old Testament”; by Dr. missionary work at Seville. He soon became the Stanley Leathes, on “ The Organic Unity of the recognized leader of the Spanish reformers, and Old Testament"; and the Rev. Dr. Sanday, on was subsequently elected bishop, but failed to “ The Fullness of Revelation in the New Testasecure consecration. The Lambeth Anglican ment.” Papers relating to the Catholic Church Conference of 1878, when the question came be- were read by Canon Meyrich on “National fore it, declined to sanction the election. The Churches," and Canon Overton on The Church Conference of 1888 passed resolutions on the sub- of England and Nonconformity.” The subject of ject that did not commit it, but expressed a hope “ Christian Doctrine in its Relation to (1) Agnostithat the reformers “ may be enabled to adopt cism: (2) Indifference; and (3) Anarchy and such sound forms of doctrine and discipline and Atheism,” was discussed by R. II. Hutton, editor to secure such Catholic organization as will per- of the “Spectator." in reference to Agnosticism; mit is to give them a fuller recognition.” These and the Rev. R. Bayne, of Whitechapel, in refresolutions were afterward supplemented by a dec- erence to Anarchy and Atheism. Other subjects laration that " without desiring to interfere with presented in papers and general discussion were: the rights of bishops of the Catholic Church to • Temperance Work and Legislation "; “ Ele


mentary Education”; “The Care of the Poor”; than 200 acres, and besides being directly con“ The Church in Country Districts"; " Secondary nected with the principal railways, were easily Education and Public Schools "; " The Present accessible from the city by means of street cars Relations between Morals and Politics"; " The and omnibuses. Relations between Morals and Commerce"; "The Buildings.— The main buildings, designed by Ethics of Amusements,” including athletics, M. J. L. Hasse, covered over 1,100,000 square feet field sports, the theater and the music hall, and and were continuous. They consisted of a hall club life; “ Church Reform and Discipline"; devoted to the display of industrial and com• Central Church Organization”; “ Church Wor- mercial products, from which it was possible to ship”; “ Church Defense"; " Training and Stud- pass direct to a smaller building in which were ies of the Clergy”; “ Clerical Ministration and the electrical exhibits, while by means of a Church Finance”; “Work among Soldiers and raised corridor access was had to the hall asSailors"; "Church Work and Workers”; “Sun- signed to machinery, besides which there was a day Schools,” in the three aspects of catechizing, festival hall covering 54,000 square feet and the keeping of scholars under religious influence, capable of seating 5,000 persons. These exhiand the training and recognition of teachers; bition halls were built of iron and steel and • The Care of the Poor" ; Religious Life in were roofed with zinc. They were devoid of the Church: (1) How affected by Party Spirit in architectural features, for none of them were Different Schools of Thought; (2) How best pro- monumental in appearance or even elaborate in moted in Ordinary Life”; Characteristics of design. There was a certain amount of decoraChristian Ethics as coinpared with some non- tion on the long low façade that formed the Christian systems (Hinduism, Buddhism, Mo. principal front facing upon the beautiful Avenue hammedanisin, Confucianism, and those of the du Sud, one of the great boulevards of Antwerp, Roman Empire in the third century after but no inoney was spent on ornamental effects. Christ); and Church Worship and Hymnology. The roofs were small in span and simple in conThe meeting of women workers considered the struction, the result being a long series of wellspecial characteristics of woman's work, " What lighted galleries, unobstructed by heavy colWomen can do to raise the Standard of Moral- umns or springing of massive arches. The ity,” temperance work among women, the train- grounds, carefully laid out by a landscape garing of women for the Church's work, the protec- dener, contained exhibits of trees, shrubs, and tion of working girls, and “ First Principles in other products unsuitable for exhibition in the Women's Education.'

principal halls, as well as minor buildings and ANTWERP EXPOSITION. Prelimi- pavilions. Among the popular attractions were a nary.-The great World's Fair held in Chicago Street of Cairo, a Turkish village, a Chinese bain 1893 had scarcely been fully inaugurated zaar, a captive balloon, an Indian village, a Wild when the official announcement of an interna- West show, Captain Boyton's water entertaintional exposition of arts, sciences, and industries, ment, and similar enterprises. Chief, however, to be held in Belgium in 1894, was received. among the outdoor exhibitions were the Congo Antwerp, on the river Scheldt, the principal settlement and Old Antwerp. The former inseaport of Belgium, and the outlet of much of cluded an admirable panoraina of the Congo rethe commerce of the Flemish Netherlands, the gion; a very complete series of exhibits of the Rhineland, and the western provinces of Ger- natural and artificial products of the Congo Free many, was chosen as the most desirable place in State: and an extensive open-air encampment which to hold it. Government appropriations copied in every particular from a Congolese vilwere made, buildings were erected, and May 5 lage in which natives occupied the quarters prewas designated as the time for opening. Ex- pared for them. Old Antwerp represented an enhibits from all nations were solicited, and as tire quarters of the ancient city reconstructed vessels of 8,000 tons could sail direct to the with such consummate ingenuity and skill that place, an important problem in transportation the unaided eye could hardly detect the artificialwas easily solved. The opportunity so happily ity of the materials of which it was composed. seized upon by California to hold a Midwinter The streets and monuments, the churches, thea. Fair subsequent to the close of that in Chicago ters, and houses-90 famous old structures in all led to the transportation of many of the exhibits -presented as substantial an appearance as those to San Francisco, and thence to Antwerp. of Antwerp of to-day, only the time was that of

Administration. The management of the the sixteenth century. Realism was carried to Antwerp Exposition was in charge of an extend- the highest pitch in this quarter of the exhibied list of officials under the honorary presidency tion, for not only were the buildings perfect in of the Count of Flanders, brother of Leopold every detail, but the most minute care was taken 11. It included Count Pret Rooze de Colesberg, in preparing the costumes of all the occupants president of the executive committee, M. Her of the buildings, where the pursuits of the time togs, director-general, and Count de Ramaix, were carried on. Here also were held at approsecretary-general. M. Hertogs, who is also a priate times many of those gorgeous historical town councilor of Antwerp, devoted his chief fêtes and processions for which Belgium has attention to the erection of the buildings, while long been famous. But this structure was unthe Count de Ramaix, a deputy for Antwerp, fortunately destroyed by fire before the close was occupied in the work of securing exhibits. of the exposition. A special building belong

Location. The grounds selected for the fair ing to the Royal Society of Fine Arts, also in were in the southern quarter of the border- the grounds, was used for an exhibition of ing on the river Scheldt, and included the his- paintings, sculpture, engravings, and architectoric site of the old South Citadel, built by the ture, to which artists of all countries had been Duke of Alva. They covered an area of more invited to contribute.

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Algerian Village. Railroad Depot.

Marine Display American Building.
Russian Village, Military Exhibit.

Hall of Industries.

Electricity Building. Cairo Street. Turkish Village.

Main Entrance. Festival Hall. Old Antwerp.

Machinery Hall. Captive Balloon.

American Plaisance.
Art Gallery. Aquatic Exhibit.

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