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ALEXANDER III.
NATHANIEL P. Banks.
DANIEL G. BRIXTON
C. E. BROWN-SÉQUARD
JEAX CASIMIR-PÉRIER.
THE EMPEROR OF CHINA
JOSEPH II. CHOATE
JOSIAH P. Cooke
ANDREW G. CURTIN
SANFORD B. DOLE
JUBAL A. EARLY
JAMES ANTHOXY FROUDE
PHILIP GILBERT HAMERTON
HERMANN VON HELMHOLTZ.
JOSEPH Holt
GEORGE INNESS
THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN
Joux JAY
SAMUEL J. KIRKWOOD
Louis Kossuth .
AUSTEN HENRY LAYARD
FERDINAND DE LESSEPS

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587

84
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536
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743
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789

6 JAMES McCosu
563 PRUDENTE JOSÉ DE MORAES

32 MULEY Hassan, SULTAN OF MOROCCO
567 | CHARLES H. PARKHURST
287 ROBERT E. PEARY
122 | MRS. ROBERT E. PEARY
532 RODMAN M. PRICE
570 GEORGE J. ROMANES
572 | THE EARL OF ROSEBERY
342 CHRISTINA G. ROSSETTI
574 ANTON GREGOR RUBINSTEIN
295 THE EMPRESS OF RUSSIA
613 JESSE SELIGMAN.
348 WILLIAM G. T. SHEDD
582 HENRY W. SLOCUM
375 | GEORGE STONEMAN
387 WILLIAM L. STRONG
583 WILLIAM G. TEMPLE
584 CELIA THAXTER .
400 ZEBULON B. VANCE
616 WILLIAM D. WHITNEY
402 CONSTANCE FENIMORE WOOLSON.

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FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS. COLORED PLATES

MAP OF THE SEAT OF WAR IN ASIA

BADGES AND ROSETTES OF PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES.
PLAN OF ANTWERP EXPOSITION
CONGRESS BUILDINGS IN BUENOS AYRES
GUAYAQUIL
THE FRENCH BATTLE SHIP “LE Hoche"
The New GERMAN PARLIAMENT HOUSE
THE BRITISH BATTLE SHIP ROYAL SOVEREIGN"
FACSIMILE OF OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES'S MANUSCRIPT
The CATHEDRAL OF Cuzco .
BELGRADE
CORUÑA LIGHTHOUSE

128 641 13 26 248 284 320 332 356 650 714 722

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ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT.

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PAGE KASSALA 2 | HARBOR OF CHEMULPO

397 ANTWERP EXPOSITION

FUSAN.

398 MAIN ENTRANCE 14 | A KOREAN GENERAL .

399 UNITED STATES BUILDING 15 RESIDENCE OF M. DE LESSEPS

403 PREHISTORIC POTTERY 17 QUEEN'S RESIDENCE, MADAGASCAR

449 CAST OF A Woman's Body.

19 PRIME MINISTER'S RESIDENCE, MADAGASGREEK INSCRIPTION

20
CAR

450 ROYAL PECTORAL 22 | A FOREST VILLAGE, MADAGASCAR

451 SCULPTURED MONOLITH 26 THE NEW SEAL OF MARYLAND .

457 CALIFORNIA MIDWINTER FAIR 93 SHIP HARBOR, Nova SCOTIA

558 Hot SPRINGS RESERVATION 138 COLUMBIAN UNIVERSITY

605 MODEL VILLAGE IN EGYPT. 256 TILLAMOOK LIGHTHOUSE

635 DEFILE OF THE ARDÈCHE . 289 | THE New SEAL OF RHODE ISLAND

693 SOURCE OF THE MISSISSIPPI 303 | ROBERT Louis STEVENSON'S HOUSE

726 EFFECTS OF EARTHQUAKE AT ATALANTI 341 FACSIMILE OF ROBERT LOUIS STEVExson's BIRTHPLACE OF OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES 353 MANUSCRIPT.

727 LAST RESIDENCE OF OLIVER WENDELL A CABIN OF THE ALPINE CLUB.

735 HOLMES

355

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THE

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA.

Α.

ABYSSINIA, an empire in eastern Africa, country, which amounted to 15,898,262 lire. The orer which Italy claims a protectorate by virtue imports of Massowah in 1891 amounted to 12,of a treaty made on May 2, 1889, with Menelek 542,933 lire, and in 1892 to 10,903,015 lire. II before he was established in power as the suc- The Egyptian Government at the instance of cessor of the Negus Johannes II. A convention England acquiesced in the Italian occupation of for mutual protection, signed on Sept. 29 of the Massowah and the adjacent Red Sea coast by same year, was interpreted by the Italian Gov- Italy, whereas Turkey, the legal suzerain power, ernment as confirming the protectorate, but this objected. The French representative at the the Negus in August, 1893, refused to prolong. Brussels Antislavery Conference in 1890 raised The protectorate was duly notified to the powers a protest against Italy's protectorate over Ethioin conformity with the general act of Berlin, pia, and it never has been recognized by Russia, and in 1891 a delimitation between the British which asserts a certain right of tutelage over and Italian spheres was agreed upon. The em- Abyssinia on the ground of the historic afliliapire of Abyssinia, otherwise called Ethiopia, em- tion between the Greek Orthodox Church and bracing Tigre, Lasta, Amhara. Gojam, Shoa, the Alexandrian rite, which is the national reKaffa, and Harrar, has an estimated area of ligion of Abyssinia. 190,000 square miles and about 5,000,000 inhab- Taking of Kassala.—The capital of the foritants. The dependent Somali and Galla terri- mer Egyptian province of Taka, Kassala, once tories, as delimited in the Anglo-Italian agree- the center of trade between the Nile and Abysment, have an area of 300,000 square miles and sinia, has been in the possession of the dervishes 600,000 inhabitants; the territories of the Habab, since the surrender of the Egyptian garrison in Bogos, Beni Amer, and other tribes in the north October, 1885. The dervishes have committed have an area of 18,000 square miles and 200,000 frequent depredations on the Abyssinian provinhabitants; and the territory of Danakil has an ince of Tigre, and have harassed the tribes in Italarea of 34,000 square miles, inclusive of the sul- ian territory. In 1890 the Italian Government, tanate of Aussa, with 200,000 inhabitants. The when discussing with the British Government Italians actually occupy the seaport of Masso- the boundary of Erythria, desired that Kassala wah with the country around it, the upland dis- should be included in its territory. To this the tricts of Keren and Asmara, and the Dahlak Egyptians, and Sir Evelyn Baring as the reprearchipelago. In September, 1893, they assumed sentative of their interests, strongly objected, the administration of the seaports on the Somali and the negotiations were broken off: but when coast, which, by arrangement with England, the they were renewed at Rome by Lord Dufferin Sultan of Zanzibar had ceded to Italy in August, it was agreed, in a protocol signed April 15, 1891, 1892. The Italian colony in the north of Abys- that Italy might occupy Kassala as a military sinia, including Massowah, is officially called measure on the understanding that it should be Erythria. The littoral on the Red Sea extends restored to Egypt as soon as the Egyptians were from Cape Kasar to Raheita, on the strait of in a position to hold it. The dervishes, toward Bab-el-Mandeb, 670 miles. The total popula- the end of 1893, advanced against the Italian tion is estimated at 450,000, mostly consisting of position, and a severe battle was fought near nomadic tribes. Massowah has a resident popu- Fort Agordat, in which 3,000 or 4,000 of them lation of about 16,000. The head of the civil were killed, including their leader, Hamed Ali, administration is a governor general. The mili- and his 4 emirs. A few months later they retary force in 1893 consisted of 222 officers, of newed their aggressions. In July. 1894, they whom 33 were natives, and 4,192 native and raided the large village of Karkabat, on the 1,906 European soldiery. The Italian Govern- bank of the Baraka, killing many of the inment expended on its African possessions, from habitants and carrying off the rest as slaves. the occupation of Massowah in 1887 to the end The Governor General, Col. Baratieri, heard of of 1892, the sum of 125,327,315 lire. The colo- the incursion while the Soudanese horsemen nial budget for 1893 was 2,376,082 lire, exclusive were still harrying the inhabitants of the surof military expenditures borne by the mother rounding country. Hastening from Keren, on

VOL. XXXIV.-1 A

KASSALA.

July 12, with his entire force—2,400 men, native and Italian, under 54 Italian officers—he arrived at the front after the enemy had begun to retire. He closely pursued them, but they made good their retreat to Kassala and awaited behind intrenchments the coming of the Italians, who left Sabderat, on the border of the Italian territory, at midnight, and at dawn on the 17th came unexpectedly upon Kassala. The Italian troops advanced at once to the attack, and carried the outer works without difficulty, as the Mahdists were taken somewhat by surprise. Inside the town the garrison, consisting of 2,000 infantry and 600 cavalry, fought desperately, but were dislodged by a charge of cavalry, well supported by the infantry, and retreated in disorder to the Atbara river. Capt. Carchidio was killed while charging at the head of his squadron, and a few of the native auxiliaries lost their lives. The dervishes were unable to cross the swollen Atbara, and most of them surrendered to the troops that were sent in pursuit. A strong garrison was left at Kassala in a fortified position, provided with artillery and ammunition and stores sufficient for a siege.

Anglo - Italian Protocol. The boundary between the British East Africa and the Italian sphere of influence, as settled on March 24, 1891, ascends the Juba river in a northwesterly direction to the sixth parallel of north latitude, then runs due west to the intersection of the thirty-sixth meridian of east longitude, and thence due north to the Blue Nile. On May 5, 1894, another protocol was signed at Rome, which delimits the Italian sphere from the British possessions on the Gulf of Aden. The boundary is constituted by a line that, starting from Gildessa and running toward the eighth degree of north latitude, skirts the northeast frontier of the territories of the Girri, Bertiri, and Derali tribes, leaving to the right the villages of Gildessa, Darmi, Giggiga, and Milmil. On reaching the eighth degree of north latitude the line follows that parallel as far as its intersection with the fortyeighth degree of longitude east of Greenwich. It then runs to the intersection of the ninth degree of north latitude with the forty-ninth degree of longitude east of Greenwich, and follows that meridian to the sea. Both governments engage to conform in their respective protectorates to the stipulations of the general act of Berlin and the declaration of Brussels relative to freedom of trade, and in the port of Zeila British and Italian subjects and protected persons will receive equality of treatment in all that relates to their persons or property or the pursuit of trade or industry. "By this

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protocol Harar, Ogaden, and the peninsula of between the Russian Cabinet and a special ChiMedjúrtin remain in the Italian sphere. The nese envoy, and also with the British GovernFrench Government formally protested against ment acting in behalf of Afghanistan. It was the arrangement, affirming that Abyssinia is an suspected that a more direct and secret arrangeindependent power, and that Harar therefore ment, made by the Russian ambassador to Pekin, could not be assigned to Italy by Great Britain. Count Cassini, preceded the provisional modus

AFGHANISTAN, a monarchy in central Asia. vivendi concluded by Ching-Chan, the Chinese The reigning Ameer is Abdurrahman Khan, minister, at St. Petersburg in April, 1894. By born in 1845, who was established on the throne this the Russian Government engaged to make July 22, 1880, under the auspices of the British, no further encroachment on the territory claimed after the defeat and flight of Shere Ali and the by China pending the conclusion of a final subsequent deposition of Yakub Khan. The agreement. Meanwhile the Russians held the area is about 210,000 square miles. The popula- largest part of the disputed district. The usual tion exceeds 4,000,000. The Ameer maintains a commercial relations between the Chinese merregular army of about 20,000 men, armed with chants of Kashgar and the tribesmen of the plaEuropean rifles and 76 pieces of artillery, the teau were allowed to go on as formerly. In gift of the Indian Government, which pays an April a party of military engineers went out annual subsidy of 180,000 rupees, the amount from Russia to explore and survey the Pamir having been increased from 120,000, in 1893, to district. The Russian Government intends to aid Abdurrahman in maintaining his rule and open up these regions to trade and settlement the integrity of his dominions, so that they shall by building a railroad from Samarcand to Mirserve as a buffer state between India and the ghilan, the capital of Ferghana, with a branch to Russian possessions in central Asia. Besides the Tashkend. The British were debarred from esregular army there is a militia of 30,000 men, tablishing themselves on the Pamirs by the enwith 47 guns, consisting of the tribal forces of mity of the Nagar and Hunza tribes. Their subAbdurrahman's vassals.

jugation has been completed, and in the summer The small commerce of Afghanistan is mostly of 1894, in anticipation of the final acceptance of with Russia. Wool, silk, fruits, sheepskin gar- a common frontier between Russia and British ments, carpets, felt, and asafetida are the chief India, they proceeded to fortify the Kilik and exports, and cotton goods, sugar, and tea are the Mintaka passes, which give access to Hunza from largest imports. Under the rule of Abdurrah- the Little and the Taghdumbash Pamirs. man fanaticism and lawlessness have been dis- ALABAMA, a Southern State, admitted to couraged, and the people of Cabul, the capital the Union Dec. 14, 1819; area, 52,250 square province, have made a beginning in modern in- miles. The population, according to each decendustrial production, taught by Thomas Salter nial census since admission, was 127,901 in 1820; Pyne, an English engineer, who was employed 309,527 in 1830; 590,756 in 1840; 771,623 in by the Ameer to import machinery and set up 1850 ; 964,201 in 1860 ; 996.992 in 1870; 1,262,factories. He established first a saw and planing 505 in 1880; and 1,513,017 in 1890. Capital, mill, then a inint, next a cartridge factory, and, Montgomery. when the people had become accustomed to these The following were the State officers during strange arts, established a foundry, began the the year: Governor, Thomas G. Jones, Democrat ; manufacture of rifles, set up a forge and steam Secretary of State, Joseph D. Barron; Treasurer, hammer, by means of which 50 inuzzle- and J. Craig Smith; Auditor, John Purifoy; Attorbreech-loading field guns were turned out in ney-General, William L. Martin; Superintendent 1893, next proceeded to manufacture boots for of Public Instruction, John G. Harris; Commisthe army and for sale to the people, introduced sioner of Agriculture, Hector D. Lane: Railroad the distillation of brandy, imported an enormous Commissioners, Henry R. Shorter, Wiley C. Tunplant for rolling cartridge metal, and has built stall, J. T. Holtzclaw; Chief Justice of the Sumills at Jelalabad to prepare tiniber for export preme Court, George W. Stone, who died on to India. Abdurrahman has expended millions March 11 and was succeeded on March 24 by of rupees in these works, not with a hope of pe- Robert C. Brickell, his immediate predecessor in cuniary profit, but simply to promote civiliza- the same office; Associate Justices, Thomas N. tion and well-being among his people.

McClellan, Thomas W. Coleman, James B. Head, The Pamirs.— The Russians in 1894 retained and Jonathan Haralson. their military positions in the Pamirs, and cul- Finances. The statement of receipts and extivated friendly relations with the Khirghis in- penditures of the treasury from Sept. 30, 1893, habitants, who have profited by the improvement to April 13, 1894, is as follows: Balance on Sept. of commercial communications, and willingly 30, 1893, $77,023.30; total receipts, exclusive of accept the rule of the Czar. The conquest of temporary loans, $1,291,515.08; total payments, Roshan and Shignan by the Afghans caused exclusive of temporary loans paid, $1,324,869.03; many families to migrate to Russian territory, balance on April 13, 1894, $43,669.35. The exwhere land was allotted to them. The forcible penditures embrace the following items: Educaoccupation of a large part of the Pamir region tion, $566,916.23; maimed or disabled soldiers by Russian troops in 1892, despite the opposition and widows, $124,668.45: convict department, of the Chinese garrisons, was followed in the $101,546.70; agricultural department, $17,217.59; summer of 1893 by skirinishes with the Afghan interest on public debt, $208,457.85 : interest on outposts on the lower Murghab, where Capt. University fund, $12,000; interest on AgricultuVannovsky compelled the Afghans to fall back. ral and Mechanical College fund, $15,210; ColThe principal Russian post was established at leges of Agricultural and Mechanical Arts. $16,Ak Baitral, on the Murghab. The military 289.60 : institutions for deaf and blind, $34.938.operations gave place to diplomatic negotiations 74; Bryce Insane Hospital, $53,690.

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