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For 1893 the total assessed valuation of prop- orators. The sentiment of the convention was erty in the State was $260,172,590.16, on which a strongly expressed in favor of this solution of tax of 5 mills was levied, yielding a revenue of the negro problem. $1,302,473.96. The valuation for 1892 was $260,- Pensions. The special State tax levied for 926,127.23, on which a 4-mill tax was levied, the relief of Confederate soldiers and their widyielding $1,048,899.36.

ows yielded a fund in 1893 amounting to $125,Education. The public schools are at a 326.95. This was distributed among 5,655 needy standstill. The State does not increase its ap- soldiers and widows, each receiving $21.95, and propriations as fast as the population increases, among 45 blind soldiers, each of whom received and there is no prospect that it will.”. This $26.66. The fund for distribution in 1894 was statement is found in a circular issued this year $117,484.78, and the beneficiaries numbered 6,506, in behalf of the adoption of a proposed consti- of whom 46 were blind soldiers. tutional amendment, giving to local school dis- Labor Troubles.-In April of this year a tricts the right to levy a special tax for schools strike was inaugurated among the coal miners in addition to the State appropriation. This of northern Alabama, which at length attained amendment failed to secure the approval of the such serious proportions as to lead Gov. Jones people, and the schools in the rural districts to call upon the militia. The First Regiment must still remain weak and inefficient, as the of State troops was ordered into camp at Ensley State can not well afford to do more for public City late in May, whence it was several times education than it is now doing.

called out to prevent threatened trouble. Not Penitentiary.-A gradual reformation in the until late in June did the Governor deem it safe methods of prison management is in progress in to dismiss the troops: and his order, dated June the State. Under the operation of the act of 29, directing their dismissal, had scarcely been 1892 the State convicts are being gradually with- executed when the railroads at Birmingham and drawn from the coal mines and placed under the vicinity were tied up by a strike inaugurated as direct control and supervision of State officials. a part of the great Chicago strike. Gov. Jones In order to effect this change it was necessary at once ordered the troops to Birmingham, for the State to secure larger prison accommoda- where the railroad companies were protected tions, and for this purpose the board of convict in hiring new men and opening their lines to managers in 1893 purchased 4,000 acres of fine traffic. On July 16 he was compelled to order woodland on Coosa river, at Speigner, in Elmore the troops to Pratt mines, where the striking County. The land lies on both sides of a creek, miners had attacked a company of negroes hired and is only nine miles from the old prison at to supply their places, and had killed several. Wetumpka. In October, 1893, a party of 15 con- The presence of the militia restored order. They victs from the mines at Birmingham was brought were kept under arms for several weeks and were to this wilderness. They camped out in tents and then dismissed gradually. began to fell trees and clear up a place upon which Negro Persecution.—In certain portions of the first temporary stockade could be built. The Pike and Crenshaw Counties an organized effort work rapidly progressed, and in a short time two appears to have been made early in the year to houses were completed, and these were followed rid the locality of its colored people by making it by others, until more convicts could safely be unsafe for them to remain. All sorts of outrages brought down from the mines. The buildings were heaped upon them, and matters had reached were called Prison No. 2, in contradistinction such a state in March that Gov. Jones issued his from “ The Walls” at Wetumpka, which is termed proclamation invoking the aid of the good citiPrison No. 1. Work was also begun at clearing zens in those counties in enforcing the law. The up a plat across the creek for what is called Prison local courts had been unable to reach the offendNo. 3. As soon as a stockade was built more ers, owing to the fear of the negroes to testify: prisoners were brought down, and the building This action of the Governor seems to have had operations were pushed with greater rapidity. the desired effect.

Before April of this year a kitchen, dormitory, Lumber.— The following is a summary of the stable, and 3 other small buildings had been lumber and timber business done in the port of erected at Prison No. 2, where 120 convicts were Mobile for the fiscal year 1893–94, compared with quartered. Three hundred acres of land adjacent that of 1892-'93, the timber being reduced to suhad been cleared and planted with cotton. At perficial feet : Prison No. 3 6 buildings had been erected, and 209 convicts were brought thither from the mines. Here also 300 acres had been cleared and planted.

Lumber. These buildings, which, with the aid of convict la

Total foreign and coast

67,209,745 79, 804,565 bor, were erected at a cost of only about $5,000,

5,650,800 6,000,000 are intended merely for temporary use. Substan- Towed to Ship Island.. tial brick structures are to be erected forth with.

5,000,000 7,500,000 Good clay for brick is found on the premises, and as early as June of this year preparations had been

Timber. completed so that a portion of the convicts could

Direct to vessels, bewed.

18,620.888 80,082,044 Direct to vessels, sawed

24,442,064 be employed in making brick.

Towed to Ship Island, hewed.

1,108,1129 African Migration.– A State convention of Towed to Ship Island, sawed. 150,000 2,170,267 representative colored men met at Birmingham,

Total superficial feet, , 126,684,445 162,666,969 on March 21, for the purpose of considering and

85,982,524 promoting the migration of the race to Africa. Addresses in favor of the movement were deliv- In hard woods the exports were 223,192 cubic ered by Bishop Turner and by various colored feet, against 1,320,726 in 1892–93, and 282,451


1893-'94. 1892-'93.

t'ia the rauroads.


Local and rivers..




in 1891-'92. Exports of staves were 319,262 We denounce the Sayre election law as partisan, pieces, value $33,673, against 190,000 pieces, and open to the commission of frauds, for which no value $25,000, in 1892–93.

remedy is provided and no penalty affixed, and we Cotton. The receipts of cotton amounted to pledge ourselves to repeal or amend it so as to secure

fair and honest elections, as soon as we obtain control 215,116 bales, against 182,884 last year, showing of the State government. an increase of 32,232 bales.

We denounce the extravagant methods of the Fruit.--Probably the business which flour present de facto State administration by which taxes ished most during the year was the fruit busi- have been increased and large sums of money borness. There were imported during the fruit sea

rowed at high rates of interest to defray expenses of

the current year. son 104,810 pineapples, against 87,399 last season; 613,385 loose oranges, against 163,750; 62,718 the colored people, and encourage them to be honest

We would discourage the spirit of emigration among boxes of oranges, against 48.725; 819 barrels and industrious, by dealing fairly with them and acof oranges, against 160; 27,500 lemons, against cording to them their rights under the law. We are 2.278; 157,175 plantains, against 75,000; 1,530,- in favor, however, of having the General Government 344 bunches of bananas, against 365,610; and set apart sufficient territory to constitute a State, 5.018,150 cocoanuts, against 2,963,415. There are given exclusively to the colored race, to which they 15 iron steamships employed in bringing ba- may voluntarily go, and in which they alone shall be nanas to Mobile.

entitled to suffrage and citizenship. Coal.-The receipts of Alabama coal were The State Convention of the regular Demo111,660 tons, against 86,293 tons last season. Of cratic party met at Montgomery on May 22. this amount, 23,539 tons were exported.

There had been an ante-convention contest for Political. This year, like 1892, was one of the gubernatorial nomination between William unusual political excitement in the State. The C. Oates and Hon. Joseph F. Johnston, which old contest for supremacy between the Kolb fac- resulted in the success of the former at the prition of the Democratic party and the regular maries. When the convention met, Oates was Democratic organization was prosecuted with in- nominated on the first ballot, receiving 272 votes creased zeal and bitterness. The followers of to 232 for Johnston. The remainder of the ticket Mr. Kolb, who styled themselves Jeffersonian was completed as follows: For Secretary of State, Democrats, met in convention at Birmingham James Kirkman Jackson; for Treasurer, J. Craig on Feb. 8, and nominated a ticket for State of- Smith; for Auditor, John Purifoy; for Attorneyficers headed by their leader, Reuben F. Kolb, General, William C. Fitts; for Superintendent for Governor, which included the following of Education, John 0. Turner; for Commisnominees: J. C. Fonville for Secretary of State, sioner of Agriculture, Hector D. Lane. Thomas K. Jones for Treasurer, W. T. B. Lynch A platform was adopted which is noteworthy for Auditor, Warren S. Reese, Jr., for Attorney- for its approval of the national Administration. General, J. P. Oliver for Superintendent of Edu- The convention took this action in spite of the cation, and S. M. Adams for Commissioner of well-known hostility of Senator Morgan to the Agriculture. This ticket_was adopted by the Administration, and in spite of the fact that he State Convention of the Populist party, which had just entered upon a campaign for re-election met at Birmingham at the same time. The plat- by severely attacking the President. Other decform of the Jeffersonian Democrats contained the larations of the platform were as follow: following declarations:

We pledge to the people of Alabama a continuance

of the good government of our State atfairs inauguWe demand a free vote and an honest count.

rated by the election of George S. Houston in 1874. We demand the passage of a contest law for State The election law enacted at the last session of our officers.

General Assembly is in accordance with the princiWe demand the free coinage of gold and silver on the basis of 16 to 1.

ples upon which are based the laws regulating elec

tions in a large majority of the States of this Union, We demand the expansion of the circulating me- without regard to party, and intend to obtain at the dium by corporate enterprises.

ballot box a full and free expression of the popular We demand a tariff for revenue, and that the reve- will. We believe in giving it a fair trial, and should nue necessary to meet the expenses of the Governo it fail to accomplish the end which it was intended to ment be raised so far as possible by a tariff on impor- effect, we pledge ourselves to make such changes and tations, and that this tariff be so levied as to protect alterations therein as may be necessary to effect that the laborer in the mines, the mills, the shops, and on end. the farms and their products, against the labor of We pledge our party to the maintenance of a sysforeign countries.

tem of free public schools, and to increase the approWe demand a national graduated tax on salaries or priations for that purpose whenever the financial conincomes in excess of reasonable expenditures for the dition of the State will permit. comforts and necessities of life. We favor more liberal educational facilities for the

On May 31 the Republican State Convention masses, and a better and more efficient administration met at Birmingham and adopted the Kolb ticket. of the school laws.

All the other political factions in the State were We demand that the convicts shall be removed therefore united in opposition to the regular Defrom the mines.

mocracy. We demand that the present lien laws be so

An exciting campaign followed, in amended as to give miners the same benefits accorded State for the purpose of aiding in the overthrow

which money from the North was sent into the will secure to them payments of wages in lawful of Democracy; but the result was again in favor money semimonthly.

of the existing régime. At the August election

the entire regular ticket was elected, Oates reThe platform of the Populists ratified the na- ceiving 110,830 votes for Governor and Kolb tional platform of the party, demanded a free 83,309. Two amendments to the State Conballot and a fair count, opposed State banks, and stitution were submitted to the people at this embraced the following declarations :

time, and both were defeated, neither receiving

a majority of all the votes cast in the election. battle a bullet grazed his head. After the war One of these was in the interest of public educa- he was made general-in-chief of the forces in the tion, permitting school districts to levy and col- St. Petersburg district. lect special taxes for support of schools. It re- The Nihilists had persistently plotted to murceived 47,732 affirmative and 46,274 negative der Alexander II, and the sternest and most votes. The other amendment related to the city thorough measures of repression had been exeof Birmingham. Members of the Legislature cuted against them, while at the same time steps were chosen at the same time. After the election, as in 1892, Kolb and his followers claimed that the result had been secured by fraud; that he had actually received a majority of the votes cast, but that the regular Democrats, holding control of the election machinery, had falsified the returns, An address was at once issued by his campaign committee, indignantly protesting against these frauds, and calling upon all people who believed in fair elections to meet at their respective county seats on Aug. 23 and organize honest - election leagues, whose duty it should be to see that such violations of law were punished and made odious, Meetings were held in many of the counties, resolutions were adopted, and in some cases leagues were formed.

Another election was held on Nov. 6 in the several congressional districts of the State, at which 8 Democrats and 1 Populist were chosen, the latter being elected in the seventh district.

ALEXANDER III, Emperor of Russia, born March 10, 1845; died at Livadia, in the Crimea, Nov. 1, 1894. He was the second son of the Emperor Alexander II, whose great achievement of giving freedom to the serfs in 1861 placed him historically beside President Lincoln and Dom Pedro II, of Brazil. All three acts were taken for a commission of the nobility and of emancipation took place within a period of ten magistrates to work out a scheme that should years. The Russian emancipator's eldest son, grant the people representative government and Nicholas, heir apparent to the throne, died in redress some of their grievances. But the con1865, and on his deathbed requested his fiancée, spirators were embittered by the punishment Princess Dagmar, of Denmark, to marry his given to many of their number, and determined brother Alexander. This marriage took place to compass the death of the Emperor at all hazNov. 9, 1866, and is said to have been very hap- ards. Their final plot was a scheme by which py. Five children were born of it, the eldest of half a dozen of their number were provided with whom, born May 18, 1868, has succeeded to the thick glass bombs filled with dynamite, and stathrone. (See NICHOLAS II.)

tioned at intervals along the route by which the At the time when he became heir to the throne imperial carriage was to return from a review Alexander III was noted for nothing but his im- of the Marine Corps. A woman was to give the mense physical strength. But he had received signal by raising her handkerchief to her face, a military education, and could speak French, and if one bomb failed the next was to be thrown. and he at once set about fitting himself for the The first struck the ground behind the carriage duties that were to devolve upon him some day. and wounded two of the guards, and when the He learned to speak English and German, and Emperor alighted to look after the injured men diligently read history, political economy, and the second bomb was thrown at his feet. Its exworks on civil government, and manifested a plosion mangled him frightfully and killed the deep interest in religious questions and the his- Nihilist who threw it. The Emperor was taken tory of the Greek Church. In the Russo-Turk- to his palace, and died within two hours. Alexish war of 1877 he took the field as a general of ander III then became Emperor, March 13, 1881, infantry, and in the Danube campaign com- but his coronation was postponed more than a manded the two corps on the left of the army. year. (See “ Annual Cyclopædia " for 1881, page He is said to have been a courageous soldier, go- 795 et seq.) ing under fire with his troops, so that in one On ascending the throne, Alexander III set



aside the plans for liberalizing the Government ANGLICAN CHURCHES. Statistics of that had been originated by Melikoff and adopted the Church of England.—The Church Yearby Alexander II, and resolved upon a stern policy book for 1894 contains returns from all but 687 of repression. The result was what might have parishes of the Church of England against 1,263 been expected. The Nihilists became more des- parishes which failed to report for the edition perate than before, more determined than ever of 1893. No returns are given from the diocese to keep up the conflict by what they considered of Truro. This represents an approximation to the only means in their power. They issued two completeness of 5 per cent. In the parishes proclamations-one addressed to the new Em- represented--95 per cent of the whole number, peror, the other to the people of Europe. In the sitting accommodation is provided in churches first they told the Einperor that they would for 6,250,000 persons, and in mission rooms and cease from terrorism only on two conditions: other buildings used for religious services for that he pardon all political offenders, and that 750,000 more. The number of communicants is he call å national assembly, to be elected by given at somewhat less than 1,750,000. Existing popular vote of all classes, for revision and re- churches are used so freely and fully as to provide form of the laws. In the proclamation to the an aggregate of 51,805 communions every month, people they said: As the Russian revolutionary or 621,660 every year. And although a gross comparty chose for its aim the elevation of the Rus- municants' roll of less than 1,750,000 may seem sian workman and peasant to a higher plane of to be very inadequate, it is, on the other hand, intelligence and the improvement of their mate- very encouraging to find that communicants' rial condition, it did not concern itself with the classes are attended by nearly 200,000 persons, political oppression and arbitrary injustice that adult Bible classes by more than 400,000, of prevailed in our country, and took no part whom nearly half are men, and Sunday schools in political questions. For this its recompense by nearly 2,250,000 children; while the church was cruel persecution by the Russian Govern- workers, including district visitors, Sundayment. Not isolated individuals, but hundreds school teachers, lay readers, nurses, choirs, ringand thousands were martyred in prisons, in ex- ers, etc., aggregate about 600,000 persons, or ile, in the mines; thousands of families were more than 1 in every 50 of the whole populabroken up and plunged in immeasurable sorrow. tion. The summary of the balance sheet of volAt the same time the Russian Government en- untary contributions and of clerical incomes delarged the number and powers of the bureau- rived from endowments gives : cracy to an incredible degree, and gave the fullest scope to the rule of rogues. In all countries Voluntary contributions for the year 1992-'93..... £5,401,982 individuals are overtaken by ruin, but nowhere

Aggregate of net clerical incomes...

8,285,990 from such slight causes as in Russia. Scorning Excess of free donations over endowments, etc. £2,115,992 the pitiful existence of slaves, the Russian socialrevolutionary party determined either to perish Nearly 7,000 students have been trained in the or to crush the despotism, centuries old, that theological colleges that have been established stifled the life of the Russian people. The ca- during the past half century. Between 1840 tastrophe that fell upon Alexander II is only a and 1892 £46,000,000 were spent in the building single episode in the conflict.”

and restoration of churches. While in 1870, The secret police was reorganized, the guards when the first Education act was passed, the of the palaces were strengthened, the Emperor Church had already provided 6,382 elementary became practically a prisoner in his own home; schools, besides training colleges sufficient for even high officers could not reach him except the training of 1,850 teachers, and was teaching through a line of Cossacks, and constant search 844,000 pupils, it is now carrying on 11,935 was made, in both public and private houses, on schools, accommodating nearly 2,750,000 chilthe assumption that somebody was plotting his dren, with an average attendance of 1,750,000. immediate assassination. And this assumption To support these schools and erect buildings for was not far from the truth. Two dynamite them £36,000,000 have been spent. mines were discovered under a bridge in St. The following statistical summaries of the Petersburg; an attempt was made to kill Gen. Church of England have been compiled from Tcherevin, who had charge of the arrangements 12,875 answers received from forms sent out by for the protection of the Emperor; and it was the "Guardian

newspaper to every beneficed found that all sorts of people were implicated in clergyman in the United Kingdom. Only 687 the revolutionary movement, including at least clergymen failed to respond to the inquiry. Toone naval officer and a second cousin of the Em- tal accommodation provided in parish churches, peror. More than three thousand arrests were chapels of ease, mission rooms, and other build

ings, about 6,500,000 sittings; net income of the The ministry resigned when it became certain beneficed clergy, £3,285,901: total amount of that Alexander would permit no reform, and voluntary contributions, £5,401,982 ; number of Ignatieff succeeded Melikoff. The events of his communicants, estimated at 1,607,930. Of the reign and the policy of his administration may sittings, those in parish churches are described be learned from the articles on Russia in the as being 1,361,800 appropriated and 3,925.944 successive volumes of the “ Annual Cyclopædia.” free; those in chapels of ease as 60,161 appropriAlexander III was nearly six feet high, broad- ated and 408,982 free. The membership

of the shouldered, rather stout, and very muscular, Sunday schools includes 544,389 infants, 775,832 with auburn hair and light-gray eyes. He had a boys, and 885,323 girls, 55,467 men, and 132,544 well-equipped study in the Antichkov palace, and women teachers. The various guilds contain was fond of reading history and the newspapers. 85,959 young men and 242,742 young women. The cause of his death was chronic nephritis. The list of other church workers includes 1,586

made in a year.


licensed and 2,274 unlicensed lay readers, 151 in Uganda, although the world, seeing only paid and 107 unpaid deaconesses, 72 paid and what it called “religious rivalries," utterly 416 unpaid sisters, 806 paid and 165 unpaid mis- failed to comprehend what had taken place. sion women, and 1,127 paid and 123 unpaid Several converts from Mohammedanism were

The tithe-rent charge as commuted is mentioned. The most welcome news of the year given at £2,339,643, and its present value as was that of the improvement in the lives of the £1,777,524. The average income of the parochial native Christians in India, China, Japan, and clergy is a little more than £240. The stipends Africa. Contributions were made during the anof assistant clergy are returned as £275,468. Of niversary meetings sufficient to pay the debt of the voluntary contributions, £636,708 were for the society and to furnish it £4,000 or £5,000 day and Sunday schools and £235,905 for for- with which to begin the new year. eign missions. An advance, in some instances The Cambridge mission to Delhi and the considerable, on the returns of the previous year south Punjab in its sixteenth annual report is shown in every department.

speaks of the obstacles to missionary work in the Missionary Societies.—The total income of stronghold of Mohammedan and Hindu feeling the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in in which it labors as being very great, and can Foreign Parts for 1893 amounted to £113,079, therefore return but few conversions. It sustains an increase of £1,100 over the previous year. St. Stephen's College, an institution affiliated to The society maintained 718 ordained mission- the Punjab University, with about 600 students aries, including 10 bishops and 2,300 lay teach- from six to twenty years of age, about 50 of ers, and had 2,600 students in its colleges in whom are Christians, while all are receiving different parts of the world, with about 38,000 Christian instruction; a Christian boys' boardchildren in its schools in Asia and Africa. The ing house, containing about 40 boys, who attend works of two brotherhoods or missionary com- the high school ; an industrial boarding school ; munities, one of Cambridge men at Delhi, and bazaar preaching; and itinerant work. A new the other of graduates of Trinity College, Dub- station was contemplated at Rotak. lin, at Hazaribagh, in Chota Nagpur, are cited The Church Pastoral Aid Society in 1893 as striking instances of the way in which the so- made grants to 652 incumbents in England and ciety has secured for its missionary work the Wales, who had under their charge an aggregate services of highly educated men. Considerable population of 5,360,891, the average population space is given in the report to the mission in of each aided parish being 8,222. The average Mashonaland, which was planted by the society amount of incomes of the aided incumbents was before the British South Africa Company was £501, and 156 of them were without parsonage formed. In the new diocese of Lebombo the houses. The total annual value of the grants bishop was the only clergyman of the Church of made was £54,353. These grants had called England. The diocese of Quebec had made a forth considerable local effort. The sum of voluntary offer to surrender its grant at the £37,496 had been raised in the various dioceses close of the present century. As these grants to supplement the society's aid, and a further are surrendered the claims from the lands in- sum of £9,055 had been contributed by the crease in much more rapid proportion. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners. work of the society is carried on in 54 dioceses, The Additional Curates' Society reported a and the clergy whom it maintains minister in 51 decrease of nearly £13,000 in its income for 1893 different languages.

as compared with that for 1892, the receipts The annual meeting of the Church Missionary from all sources having been £74,720, as against Society was held in London, May 1. Sir John £87,476 in 1892. Having regard to the diminuKennaway, M. P., presided. The expenditure of tion in incomes, the society announced that it the society, including a deficit of £3,713 brought was necessary to reduce the grant list by 15 per forward, had been £265,836, or £12,610 more cent. of the total liability for 1893. than the receipts. The expenditure was increas- The Convocations.- At the meeting of the ing at the rate of £12,000 a year. During the Convocation of Canterbury, Nov. 2, 1893, a repast twelve months 45 men and 48 women had port was presented in the lower house criticisbeen accepted for foreign service. The statis- ing certain provisions of the Local Government tical reports showed that there were in all the (England and Wales) bill as net sufficiently missions 324 stations, 844 European missionaries guarding against secular interference with eccle(347 ordained, 74 lay, 255 wives, and 168 woman siastical matters, and resolutions were adopted missionaries), 312 native and Eurasian clergy, suggesting amendments intended to remedy the 4,876 native lay teachers, 45,561 native com- defects pointed out. In the House of Laymen, municants, 200,484 native Christian adherents, also, amendments were suggested with a view to and 2,025 schools, with 81,648 pupils. The number securing to the Church in rural parishes “her of baptisms during the year had been 11,718. rightful control over Church schools, parish The annual report recorded distinct signs of rooms, and other buildings vested in Church offiprogress. Twenty-three native evangelists had cers as trustees.” been ordained during the year, some of whom The Convocation of Canterbury met for the were chiefs of their race, as in Uganda, and one first time in 1894, Jan. 30. In the upper house was a Tukuhd Indian-the first native clergy- the Parish Councils bill was discussed. A peman ever ordained within the limits of the arctic tition was presented calling attention to the incircle. Six of the society's missionaries had crease of suicides, and protesting against the been made missionary bishops. The general leniency with which such cases were treated by effects of mission work were visible in every coroners' inquests returning verdicts of tempofield to all who were willing to see. The most rary insanity. In the lower house a number of conspicuous transformation was that wrought amendments were suggested to the Parish Coun

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