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prima facie evidence both of novelty and utility, and neither of these presumptions has been rebutted by the evidence. On the contrary, they are strengthened. No anticipation of the design is shown, although the attempt has been made to prove anticipation. The fact that it has been infringed by defendants, is sufficient to establish its utility, at least as against them.”

The decree of the Circuit Court is, therefore,
Reversed, and the case remanded with directions to enter an

interlocutory decree for the plaintiff, and for further pro-
ceedings in conformity with this opinion.

CHICAGO, ROCK ISLAND AND PACIFIC RAILWAY COMPANY v. DENVER AND RIO GRANDE RAILROAD COMPANY.

DENVER AND RIO GRANDE RAILROAD COMPANY v. CHICAGO, ROCK ISLAND AND PACIFIC RAILWAY COMPANY.

APPEALS FROM THE CIRCUIT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE

DISTRICT OF COLORADO.

Nos. 1095, 1109. Submitted January 7, 1892. – Decided March 7, 1892.

In the interpretation of any particular clause of a contract, the court is

required to examine the entire contract, and may also consider the relations of the parties, their connection with the subject matter of the

contract, and the circumstances under which it was made. The Chicago, Rock Island and Colorado Railway Company contracted with

the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad Company for the use by the former of the tracks, stations, sidings, switches, etc. of the latter company between Colorado Springs and Denver, (except its shops at Burnham), and also for its terminal facilities at Denver, and, having so contracted made its connections and entered on the enjoyment of its rights under the contract. Shortly afterwards the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway Company was organized and acquired the property and rights of the Chicago, Rock Island and Colorado Railway and entered into the enjoyment of them, and its rights were recognized by the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad Company. The Rock Island and Pacific Company then acquired a right to connect with the Union Pacific Railroad

Statement of the Case.

Company at Limon, and to run its eastern trains over the tracks of the latter company to Denver, which it did. The distance from Limon to Denver by this route was sixty-four miles less than by the way of Colo. rado Springs and the Denver and Rio Grande road. Although it had diverted its Denver traffic, it continued to use the Rio Grande road for its Pueblo traffic, and it claimed the use of the terminal facilities of that road at Denver for all, and also the use of some land at Burnham not actually used for shops. It also claimed the right under the contract to put in its own switching forces and cleaning gangs. The Denver and Rio Grande Company then gave notice that it would exclude from the Denver terminals all business coming over the Union Pacific tracks. Thereupon the Rock Island Company filed a bill in equity and obtåined a restraining order. By amendments and supplemental bills there were brought into the controversy other matters of difference between the two companies and a final decree was made settling their rights under the contract as follows: (1), that the new Rock Island Company was the successor of the old, and had the right under the contract to operate its trains over the Rio Grande Company's line; (2), that it had not the right, under the contract, to bring its trains to the Denver terminals over the Union Pacific; (3), that it had the right to employ separate switching crews and separate employés to perform other services in the yards of the Rio Grande Company under the control and subject to the direction of the agent of that company; (4), that the words “shops at Burnham ” in the contract included all lands used or procured for shop purposes and appurtenant to the shops located at Burnham; (5), that a track should be set apart at Denver on which the Kansas Pacitic Company might clean its cars; (6), that each party should pay one-half of all costs. On appeal this court Held, (1) That the plaintiff was entitled to file this bill; (2) That it was never intended to grant the use of terminal facilities for

the Rock Island road, except as appurtenant to the use by it of

the Rio Grande road; (3) That the exception of the shops at Burnham not only included the

buildings actually used for mechanical purposes, but also two tracts purchased for the use of the shops, and intended to be de

voted to such purposes; (4) That there was no error in the decree of the court below as to the

employment of separate switching crews; (5) That the cleaning of the cars could be done by the Rock Island

Company, but the Rio Grande Company was bound to furnish

track facilities for it; (6) That it was not necessary to decide questions raised as to the dis

charge of employés engaged in the operation of that part of the road jointly occupied and used under the contract.

The court stated the case as follows:

This was a bill in equity brought by the Chicago, Rock

Statement of the Case.

Island and Pacific Railway Company, (hereafter designated as the Rock Island Company,) against the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad Company, (hereinafter designated as the Denver Company,) to enforce an alleged right to certain terminal facilities at the city of Denver, and for certain incidental purposes, hereinafter stated in the opinion. There was also a

. cross-bill filed to enjoin the plaintiff from making use of such facilities, and for other purposes, which was subsequently dismissed by stipulation of the parties.

The litigation arose out of a contract entered into on the 15th day of February, 1888, between the Denver Company and the Chicago, Rock Island and Colorado Company, (hereinafter designated as the Chicago Company,) for the joint use and possession of the Denver road between Denver and Pueblo, the material portions of which are printed in the margin.?

1 Material portions of the contract of February 15, 1888. Articles of agreement made and entered into this fifteenth (15th) day of February, in the year eighteen hundred and eighty-eight, by and between the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad Company, a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the State of Colorado, hereinafter referred to as the “ Denver Company," and the Chicago, Rock Island and Colorado Railway Company, a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the same State, hereinafter referred to as the “Chicago Company," witnesseth:

First. The Denver Company owns and operates a railway with appurtenant property, a portion of the main line of which extends from Denver through Colorado Springs to South Pueblo, all in the State of Colorado; and the Chicago Company owns a railway which is being constructed from the western boundary of the State of Kansas, at which point it will connect with the Chicago, Kansas and Nebraska Railway to the city of Colorado Springs, above mentioned.

Second. The interest of both parties and of the public will be promoted by the establishment and operation of a through line of railway between all the points of the railway of the Denver Company between and including Denver and South Pueblo, and all points on the line of railway which will be operated by the Chicago Company, and on the system of railways of which the Chicago Company will form a part.

Therefore, in consideration of the premises and of the several covenants, promises and agreements hereinafter set out, the parties do covenant, promise and agree to and with each other as follows:

Article I. The Denver Company covenants, promises and agrees to and with the Chicago Company :

Statement of the Case.

Pursuant to art. III, § 10, of this contract, the president of the Chicago Company, on March 17, 1888, gave written

SECTION 1. It hereby lets the Chicago Company into the full, equal, joint and perpetual possession and use of all its tracks, buildings, stations, sidings and switches on and along its line of railway between and including Denver and South Pueblo, excluding its shops at Burnham, meaning and intending hereby to include in the description aforesaid all and every portion of its railway, and appurtenant property, between and at the points aforesaid, and all improvements and betterments thereof and additions thereto, which may be jointly used by the parties, as hereinafter provided.

SEC. 2. It will maintain and keep in good repair the property described in the preceding section, during the term of this contract, and will comply with all regulations prescribed by law for the safety of the public.

SEC. 3. It will, if required by the Chicago Company, provide the necessary housing and care of the locomotives which said party may have from time to time at Denver and South Pueblo, upon reasonable terms, which shall be agreed to by the general managers or other authorized officers of the two companies. It will, upon like requisition, furnish in the same manner it provides its own locomotives on its tracks above described, all water and coal which the Chicago Company will need for the operation of its trains over the railway of the Denver Company. The compensation which shall be paid for the water supply shall be ascertained on the basis of wheelage as hereinafter provided for expenses of maintenance and repairs; and the compensation for coal so furnished shall be the actual cost thereof in the shutes and platforms from which it is transferred to the locomotives of the Chicago Company.

Sec. 4. It will pay all taxes and assessments which shall be levied or assessed directly or indirectly upon or against the property described in article 1, section 1, hereof, or upon either the gross or net earnings thereof during the term of this indenture.

SEC. 5. It will at the commencement of said term, if so required by the Chicago Company, provide, and, during the continuance thereof maintain, at Denver and South Pueblo, for the exclusive use and control of said Chicago Company, engine-houses conveniently located and having the necessary fixtures and sufficient capacity to properly and safely shelter all locomotive engines which said company may have occasion to use on the railway of the Denver Company.

Article II. The Chicago Company covenants, promises and agrees with the Denver Company as follows:

SECTION 1. It hereby accepts the covenants, promises and agreements made and entered into by the Denver Company.

SEC. 2. It will, from and after the completion of its railway from the boundary line of the State of Kansas to a connection with the railway of Statement of the Case.

notice to the defendant company that the Chicago Company elected, as provided by the contract of February 15, 1888, “ to the Denver Company at or near Colorado Springs, while this agreement remains in force, pay monthly for the use of the premises described in article 1, section 1, hereof, the sum of the following amounts :

First. An amount equal to a one-twelfth part of two and one-half per centum of the value of the property described in article 1, section 1, hereof, and which value it is agreed is three million dollars;

Second. An amount equal to a one-twelfth part of two and one-half per centum per annum upon all sums which the Denver Company shall from time to time pay for the construction or acquisition of additional tracks, facilities and conveniences under section 1, article 3, hereof, except roundhouses at Denver and Pueblo.

Third. An amount equal to a one-twelfth part of five per centum upon the cost of constructing, and in addition thereto the cost of repairing round-houses which the Denver Company may erect and maintain at Denver and South Pueblo, for the exclusive use of the Chicago Company, as provided in section 5, article 1, hereof.

Fourth. An amount equal to the proportion of the cost or expenses actually incurred and paid during the month for keeping the railway and appurtenant property described in the first section of article 1, hereof, in repair, and supplying it (the Chicago Company) with water, as the number of wheels per mile run by it, the Chicago Company, over said railway, or any part thereof, bears to the whole number of wheels per mile run over the same during the same period.

Fifth. An amount equal to the actual cost of the coal delivered during the month to the engines of the Chicago Company under this contract.

Sixth. An amount equal to a proportional share of the expenses actually incurred in paying proper salaries to the general superintendent and subordinate employés, including switchmen, telegraph operators, train dispatchers, and others, necessarily employed in the performance of the duties incident to the joint use and occupation of said railway, not including trainmen, which proportion shall be ascertained in the manner provided in paragraph number four, above set out.

Seventh. An amount equal to one-half of all taxes and assessments lawfully levied and actually paid during the month upon the property described in article 1, section 1, hereof; that is, that portion of the railway and appurtenant property used by the Chicago Company under this contract, excluding shops at Burnham, and equipments, facilities and conveniences not intended for joint use by the parties hereto.

Tenth. No compensation will accrue or be paid to the Denver Company from or by the Chicago Company, for the use and occupation of said premises before the railway of the Chicago Company shall be completed from its initial point on the western boundary of the State of Kansas to a connection of the railway of the Denver Company within the time hereinafter specified.

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