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Opinion of the Court.

In Russell v. Clark's Executors, 7 Cranch, 69, 89, the bill was one for discovery, and the answer disclosed nothing, the plaintiff supporting his case by testimony in his own possession. In the case now before us, discovery was only one of the grounds of jurisdiction, and the answers to the bill disclosed, through the books of the company, facts which the plaintiff sought to discover.

In Parkersburg v. Brown, 106 U. S. 487, 500, it was held that there was a plain, adequate and complete remedy at law for the relief granted by the decree. In the present case, discovery was prayed for and made, the affairs of an insolvent corporation were settled up, the subscription to stock made by the plaintiff was substantially cancelled, part of the proceeds of the assets of the company were applied to the repayment of the $10,000, and a decree for the balance was made against Tyler, the agent of the company, who had committed the fraud.

In Buzard v. Houston, 119 U. S. 347, the ruling was, that a court of equity would not sustain a bill in a case of fraud, to obtain only a decree for the payment of money by way of damages, when the like amount might be recovered in an action at law; and that, if a bill in equity showing ground for legal and not for equitable relief, prayed for a discovery as incidental only to the relief sought, and the answer disclosed nothing, but the plaintiff supported the claim by independent evidence, the bill ought to be dismissed, without prejudice to an action at law.

In Kramer v. Cohn, 119 U. S. 355, the ruling was, that a bill in equity by an assignee in bankruptcy against the bankrupt and another person, alleging that the bankrupt, with intent to defraud his creditors, concealed and sold his property and invested the proceeds in a business carried on by him in the name of the other defendant, should, on a failure to prove the latter allegation, be dismissed without prejudice to an action at law against the bankrupt.

The present case is not within the rulings in the cases thus referred to.

Moreover, the objection now made to the jurisdiction in

Opinion of the Court.

equity was not raised in the court below, by answer or otherwise. It is said in Thompson v. Railroad Companies, 6 Wall. 134, 137, that usually, where a case is not cognizable in a court of equity, the objection is interposed in the first instance, but that if a plain defect of jurisdiction appears at the hearing or on appeal, a court of equity will not make a decree. The present case, as before demonstrated, so far from showing a plain defect of equity jurisdiction, is a case for its exercise.

In recent cases in this court the subject of the raising for the first time in this court of the question of want of jurisdiction in equity has been considered. In Reynes v. Dumont, 130 U. S. 354, 395, it was said that the court, for its own protection, might prevent matters properly cognizable at law from being drawn into chancery at the pleasure of the parties interested, but that it by no means followed, where the subjectmatter belonged to that class over which a court of equity had jurisdiction, and the objection that the complainant had an adequate remedy at law was not made until the hearing in the appellate tribunal, that the latter could exercise no discretion in the disposition of such objection; and reference was made to 1 Daniell's Chancery Practice, 555, 4th Am. ed.; Wylie v. Coxe, 15 How. 415, 420; Oelrichs v. Spain, 15 Wall. 211; and Lewis v. Cocks, 23 Wall. 466. To the same effect are Kilbourn v. Sunderland, 130 U. S. 505, 514; Brown v. Lake Superior Iron Co., 134 U. S. 530, 535, 536; and Allen v. Pullman's Palace Car Co., 139 U. S. 658, 662.

(2) As to the decree being outside the case made in the bill, we think the allegations of the bill as to the fraud are adequate, and that the statement of the decree that the company was represented to the plaintiff by Tyler, its president, to be in a flourishing condition, when in fact it was insolvent, is a sufficient support of the allegations of fraud made in the bill.

The averment of the bill that the $10,000 was justly due to the plaintiff by Tyler and the company, because that sum was unlawfully obtained from her by the misrepresentations of the affairs of the company by Tyler, who was its president and duly authorized agent, and because that sum went into the treasury of, and was expended by, the company, is a distinct

VOL. CXLIII--7

Opinion of the Court.

allegation that the $10,000 was justly due to her by Tyler. The further averment that the plaintiff had a right to require all the proper assets of the company to be gotten in and applied to the liquidation of the debts due to her and others, is merely an allegation that her first claim was to have the assets of the company applied to pay her, and that beyond that she had a claim against Tyler personally for the deficiency in such assets. There was a deficiency in the assets of the company, and the decree against Tyler was only for such deficiency.

The relief against Tyler was properly granted under the prayer of the bill for general relief. It was consonant with the facts set out in the bill as a ground of relief against Tyler personally, and it was relief agreeable to the case made by the bill. Story's Eq. Pl. $ 40, etc.; Tayloe v. Merchants' Fire Ins. Co., 9 How. 390, 406. The bill could not have been successfully demurred to for multifariousness.

As to the assignments of error (3) and (4) we are of opinion, without discussing the evidence in detail, that it sustains the report of the master and the decree. The master reported that on June 1, 1884, the company had lost its entire cashpaid stock and was largely in debt besides; that the formulas and recipes purchased for $8486.84 were then and ever since had been without value, or at least unsalable; and that, in a word, the company was bankrupt. These findings were not excepted to by Tyler or the company. A large part of the money which Tyler had loaned to the company was repaid to him out of the $10,000 paid by the plaintiff. Tyler's letter to the plaintiff of April 10, 1884, in saying, “The last dividend that was declared was a 7 per cent semi-annual. The fiscal year ends on the first of June,” was calculated naturally to produce the impression upon the plaintiff's mind that the last dividend was declared on the 1st of June, 1883, whereas the last dividend was June 1, 1882. It must be inferred that, if the plaintiff had been informed that no dividend had been declared since June 1, 1882, she would not have subscribed for the stock. This suppression of a material fact, which Tyler was bound in good faith to disclose, was equivalent to a false representation. Stewart v. Wyoming Ranche Co., 128 U. S.

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Statement of the Case.

383, 388. The effect of the fraud committed by Tyler enured directly to his personal advantage. Not only was he, as a large stockholder and salaried officer, benefited by the plaintiff's payment into the treasury of the company of the $10,000, but, as already shown, $6200 of that sum went directly to his benefit, and the remainder, he testifies, went to the purchase of material and ordinary expenses of the company. The latter amount enabled the company to continue paying to Tyler his salary for some time longer.

Decree affirmed.

SMALE v. MITCHELL.

QUESTIONS CERTIFIED FROM THE UNITED STATES CIRCUIT COURT

OF APPEALS FOR THE SEVENTH CIRCUIT.

No. 1418. Argued January 14, 1892. – Decided February 1, 1892.

The provision in the statute of Illinois, (Rev. Stats. c. 45, $ 35,) that “ at any

time within one year after a judgment, either upon default or verdict, in the action of ejectment, the party against whom it is rendered, his heirs or assigns, upon the payment of all costs recovered therein, shall be entitled to have the judgment vacated, and a new trial granted in the the cause " applies to such a judgment rendered in a Circuit Court of the United States, sitting within that State, on a mandate from this court in a case commenced in a court of the State of Illinois, and removed thence

to the Circuit Court of the United States. Ex parte Dubuque & Pacific Railroad, 1 Wall. 69, distinguished from this

case.

The court stated the case as follows:

The defendant in error, Charles H. Mitchell, as plaintiff, commenced an action of ejectment in a state court of Illinois, to recover certain described premises situated in that State, against Jabez G. Smale and others, which action was afterwards on sufficient grounds removed to the Circuit Court of the United States for the Northern District of Illinois. Issue being joined in the action, it was tried by the court without a jury, and upon the facts found judgment was rendered on Feb

Statement of the Case.

ruary 1, 1886, in favor of the plaintiff for a portion of the demanded premises, and in favor of the defendants for the residue. Judgment being entered thereon, the case was brought to this court on a writ of error, and on May 11, 1891, the judgment was reversed and the cause remanded to the Circuit Court with directions to enter judgment for the plaintiff in conformity with the opinion of this court. 140 U. S. 406. According to that opinion, the plaintiff was entitled to recover a greater quantity of land than that described in the judgment reversed. The declaration contained two counts, each describing a portion of the demanded premises, and the opinion directed that a general judgment be entered for the plaintiff for the property described in both counts. The judgment was reversed accordingly, and the cause remanded with instructions as above mentioned. The mandate of the court issued thereon followed the judgment, and was filed in the court below June 8, 1891; and that court, in obedience thereto, on the 12th of June following, entered a judgment in favor of the plaintiff for the premises described, and ordered a writ of possession to be issued.

On the following day, June 13, 1891, the defendants moved the court to vacate the judgment thus entered, and to grant them a new trial under the statute of Illinois, all costs of the action having been previously paid ; but the court, after hearing argument thereon, denied the motion, and to its ruling the defendants excepted.

To review this ruling the defendants, in September, 1891, sued out a writ of error from the Circuit Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, returnable in October following, and assigned as error the refusal of the Circuit Court to vacate the judgment entered on June 12, 1891, and grant a new trial under the statutes of Illinois, the costs having been paid, and the motion made in open court within one year from the rendition of the judgment, and the defendants never having had a new trial in the cause as provided for by that statute.

The case being brought, upon this writ of error, before the Circuit Court of Appeals, was heard on October 5, 1891, and the question arose as to the power of the court below to set

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