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have, by the largest popular vote ever cast in this The thorough organization of the Democratic at State, unmistakably expressed their desire for my party, and the active canvass carried on through
as their constitutional Governor. In view of this out the entire campaign preceding the election
expressed desire of the just and lawful owners that of June 22d, had the intended effect, and a 1. this property remain in the continuous possession of large proportion of the negroes in the State
their own chosen custodian, and from the further either abstained from voting altogether, or cast fact that the mere occupancy of the mansion by my their ballots against the ratification of the confamily cannot operate as an impediment to the just stitution. The whole vote on that question administration of the reconstruction laws of Congress, I must respectfully decline to oblige yourself or others, was 120,091, of which 56,231 were for, and by vacating the mansion until a legally qualified Gov- 63,860 against the ratification; giving the Demernor is elected under the constitution of the State.
ocrats a majority of 7,629, notwithstanding the Very respectfully, BENJ. G. HUMPHREYS.
alleged fact that a considerable majority of the Executive DEPARTMENT
, STATE SUM 19 18HEPI, } registered voters were blacks. The vote for Hon. B. H. Humphreys :
Sie: I have been informed (it is possible that my constitution; B. B. Eggleston, the Republican information is incorrect) that you do not find it con- candidate, received 55,250 votes, and Benjamin venient to vacate the Governor's mansion. I presume it is because of the difficulty in finding majority of 8,071. Five members of Congress
B. Humphreys 63,321, which gave a Democratic any other fit residence. It is my wish to put you to as little personal inconvenience as possible. "Under were chosen, four of whom were Democrats. the above supposition, I have no objection to your The Legislature, if ever allowed to assemble, occupying a part of the house. Next Monday, by will have a small Democratic majority. There which time you can make the necessary arrangements, L, with others, will take possession of a part of the
were numerous charges of fraud and intimidahouse. So long as we may remain joint tenants, tion at the polls, but General Gillem stated in great care shall be taken not to inconvenience your his report that the military force was distribfamily. Very respectfully, yours, etc.,
uted at nearly as many posts in the State as A. AMES, Provisional Governor. there were counties, in order to secure a fair
Jackson, Miss., July 9, 1868. election, and that no instance of violence or General A. Ames :
intimidation was reported by the officers in Srr: Your letter of the 9th was received this morning. It will be disagreeable to myself and family to
charge. Though charges of fraud were made share the apartments of the Governor's mansion with on both sides, the commanding-general deother permanent tenants. I hope my letter of the clared himself satisfied that “the election was Eth will be satisfactory, and relieve us from any such as fair and free from intimidation and the inannoyance. Very respectfully, BENJ. G. HUMPHREYS.
fluence of fraud as it would be possible to
secure under existing circumstances, and that EXECUTIVE , } Jackson, Miss., July 10, 1868.
no undue influence was exercised at the polls." Hon. B. G. Humphreys :
General Gillem, who was very popular with Sie: Yours of the 8th and 9th were received this the people of Mississippi, had been appointed, morning.
in July, to relieve General McDowell in the You entirely ignore the reconstruction acts of Con- command of the Fourth Military District, which gress, and the action taken by those empowered to act under them. I recognize no other authority. had been reduced to the single State of MisUnder such circumstances, your statement, by which sissippi, by the consummation of the “reconyou would show yourself the lawful Governor of this struction" of Arkansas by act of Congress. State, has little weight.
(See ARKANSAS.) The foeling entertained not only by me, but by others , not to cause you any personal inconveniencē, conditions imposed by Congress for its resto
The State, having refused to comply with the The controversy about the “mansion" can only ration to the Union, remained under the militerminate as indicated in my letter of yesterday. tary rule which had been placed over it, and Very respectfully,
several instances occurred of the immediate exA. AMES, Brevet-Major-General U. S. A., Provisional Governor.
ercise of the authority of the district com
mander in matters ordinarily under the sole
"} control of the civil powers. The question now JACKSON, Miss., July 13, 1868. Hon. B. G. Humphreys:
came up, as to whether the State would be alSIR: General Ames, the Provisional Governor of lowed to participate in the presidential electhis State, has called upon me, as the officer in com- tion. On the 11th of August, the Democratic mand of this post, to gain possession of one-half of Executive Committee determined to publish an the mansion now occupied by you. I send Lieutenant Bache, with a guard of men, to
address to the Democracy of the North, exsee that Governor Ames's request is carried out. pressive of their cordial sympathy, and protestLieutenant Bache will hand you this letter.
ing against “the law of Congress passed in vioI do not desire to use force if I can help it, but he lation of the declared objects of the war, to. will be instructed to do so if necessary. I'wish to avoid all
unpleasantness to yourself and family, but prohibit Mississippi from performing her duty if you desire, for political purposes, to have a military and exercising her privilege of casting her vote
pantominie,” I have also instructed Lieutenant in the presidential election." The address Bache to carry it out with all the appearances of a was accordingly published, and expressed anew reality, without actual indignity.
the opposition of the conservative people of I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
the State to the course of the Federal GoyCaptain and Lieut.-Col., U. S. A., commanding post. ernment and of the Republican party, in dealing with their interests. A few days later State a reign of terror. Loyal and peaceable citizens General John D. Freeman, the chairman of
were driven from their homes, threatened with riothis committee, addressed 'a note to General lence and death. Public speakers, by threats and
intimidations, were prevented from meeting their Gillem, stating that a general election for presi- appointments, or were driven from the stand by dential electors was to be held in November, lawless mobs. An organization of armed and disand that the laws of that State made it thé guised men, calling itself a Ku-Klux Klan, perambuduty of the sheriff's to hold the election. It Tated the country by night, committing outrages sol was usual, he said, for the Governor to issue abetted by officers of the law, who made no effort w
murders, defying detection, or being aided and a proclamation requiring the sheriffs to per- bring them to punishment. The poor, dependent form that duty, but the Governor, having been classes of our loyal fellow-citizens were threatened removed by the military authorities, the peo, Violence and death, if they failed to vote in acord
with starvation, and discharge from service, with ple now looked to the commanding general
ance with the dictates of their disloyal employers, i to require the law in this respect to be ex- said employers habitually denouncing the Congress ecuted. The commanding general replied, of the United States, as an unconstitutional and retoinforming Mr. Freeman that “neither the act lutionary body of men, that ought be dispersed by of March 2, 1867, organizing this military dis- force or otherwise. trict, nor any of the acts supplementary there- violence, thousands of our fellow-citizens were as
By bribes, threats, misrepresentations, fraud, and to, nor any existing orders, either require or erced into voting against their will, and against their authorize him to cause the election referred honest convictions of right and duty, or were forced to by you to be held, and that, therefore, he to withhold their votes altogether. Many have been declines taking the action indicated in your feited all their just rights as citizens, by conspiriez communication." To this Mr. Freeman re- by armed force to throw off their allegiance to the joined in an elaborate attempt to show that it Government of the United States, stood guari ai was made the duty of the commander, by the the polls, to overawe the timid, and mark for future laws under which he acted, to hold this elec- condemnation and persecution' all those who defied
their tyranny. tion, and appealed to the General of the Army and the President of the United States for a
In many counties the state of affairs herein
enumerated prevailed to such an extent that the decision in this matter. In consequence of this existed not even the semblance of a free electie appeal, as is supposed, Army Order No. 82, This malignant and unscrupulous opposition to the dated October 10th, was issued by direction of generous terms of reconciliation offered by Congress the President, forbidding the military com
and against the upholders and supporters of the manders to interfere in the presidential elec- founded only on a desire to harass the public mic.
same, has, in our opinion, no just excuse, and can be tion in their respective districts. Nevertheless by parading before it issues long since settled by ** the necessary authority was not exercised in sword, and which ought now to be forgotten. Mississippi, though General Gillem was again Among the resolutions adopted by the ciappealed to, and that State took no part in the vention were the following: election of November. It was claimed by the Republicans of Missis- sippi, in convention assembled, do solemnly delete
1. That we, the loyal people of the State of Nico sippi that, but for fraud and intimidation at the that said constitution was ratified by a majorist June election, the result would have been quite the legal votes cast at that election. different; and on the 25th of November a con
2. That_the Republican State ticket-viz., GoT vention was held at Jackson, for the purpose Jamison ; Secretary of State, Robert J. Alcorn: 8
ernor, B. B. Eggleston; Lieutenant-Governor, I ! of petitioning Congress to set aside the result Treasurer, D. McA. Williams ; State Auditor, Willie of that election as officially announced by the J. Morgan; Attorney-General, Joshua S. Morris, a district commander, by throwing out the vote Superintendent of Public Education, Charles T of several counties, and pronounce the consti
Clark-were duly elected by a majority of the legal
votes cast at that election. tution adopted and the Republican candidates 3. That it is for the best interest of the people si duly elected to all the State offices. The ad- the State of Mississippi that civil government të dress adopted by the convention, and transmit- established at the earliest practicable moment, ted to Congress, declared that there was a
4. That we appeal to the Congress of the late! large class of persons in the State arrogating admit the State of Mississippi into the great astia
States, the law-making power of this nation, tr, to themselves the title of "the ruling class," family, and clothe her, under the new constituti which “in defiance of the authority, and re- of the State, and under the Constitution of the Upto. gardless of the wishes of Congress, has reject- States, with all the rights and powers of a sovereiga ed in contempt all terms of restoration, and State in the Union. has itself assumed the right to dictate on what Such was the political state of things is conditions the State will condescend to be re- Mississippi at the close of the year 1868. admitted into the Union.” With regard to Notwithstanding the political excitement of frauds and intimidations, the following is the the year, much was done toward reviving the statement of the address:
material interests of the State. A large From the 15th day of May, 1868, the day on which vention of land-owners, from the States of the constitution, framed by the Constitutional Con- Mississippi
, Alabama, Tennessee, and Lonisiaga, vention of Mississippi, in accordance with the reconngress, was submitted to the peo- the purpose
of organizing companies eact to
was held at Jackson, on the 31st of March, foi ple, to the 22d of June, the date on which the election be called "The Freehold Land and Colonies held, there existed throughout a greater part of the tion Company of "and of encouraging immigration and the influx of capital into that To a permanent school fund created by section of the country, A scheme for the
act of 11th of March, 1867
$1,500,000 00 organization of these companies was formed, To redemption of Union military bonds.
To reimburse the seminary fund
1,683,232 27 and a plan of action laid down.
To payment of overdue coupons 8,070,682 63 The freedmen employed as laborers during To payment of overdue bonds and couthe year in most cases received a share of the pons of the State held by the United
States .. crops as compensation. A fair crop of cotton
110,010 00 and the other staples of the State was ob
$6,472,289 35 tained.
MISSOURI. The increase of population in More than $13,000,000 of the present State Missouri, during the last four years, has been debt was incurred by issuing bonds to aid in very rapid. On the 1st of January, 1865, the the construction of railroads, the payment of State had less than one million inhabitants, and, which was secured by a lien on the property. at the close of the year 1868, the best estimates The process of transferring the property acplaced the number above one million and a quired in railroads by the State to private half. This result has been due in a great meas- capitalists, on such terms as shall secure the ure to the labor of the State Board of Immigra- speedy completion of the lines, has been contion, organized under an act of the Legislature tinued through the year, and a considerable of 1865. It has been the business of this Board share of attention was given by the last Legisto make known abroad the resources of the lature to an adjustment of railroad affairs. State, and induce immigrants from Europe to There are now 1,394 miles of finished road in make their home there. The undeveloped the State, and 569 miles in process of construcresources of Missouri, which call only for tion. laborers, are very great; coal is found in thir- The North Missouri Railroad has been comty-six counties, iron in thirty-five, lead in thir- pleted. It embraces 3744 miles of road, and, ty-six, copper in twenty-two, zinc in five, with its various branches, connects St. Louis nickel and kaolin in two, and platina, emery, with the great agricultural region of the north alabaster, and tin, in seven counties, while the and northwest. Work on the bridge across best of lands for farming purposes are lying the Missouri River, at St. Charles, has made fallow for want of cultivators. The laboring rapid progress, and will be finished without population amounts to about 400,000, of whom delay. The State claim on this railroad has 272,000 are employed in agricultural pursuits, been sold in accordance with an act of the last leaving only 118,000 for all other occupations, General Assembly, the whole amount paid in and of these less than 60,000 are engaged money and secured by bond being $800,000. in mining and manufacturing operations, al- A deed of release has also been executed to though the State presents great natural fa- the Pacific Railroad Company, under an act of cilities for the development of these valuable March 31, 1868, whereby a clear title has been interests.
given to the Pacific Railroad of Missouri for The assessed value of all real and personal the sum of $5,000,000. Provision was also property in the State of Missouri in 1860 was made for the disposal of the South Pacific $317, 928,404.30, including slaves, valued at Railroad, and in the hands of enterprising $44,181,912. The losses of the war and the private capitalists it is making rapid progress, emancipation of slaves reduced the wealth of and promises soon to connect the Territories the State to $200,000 on the 1st of January, to the southwest with the great metropolis of 1865. Since that time there has been a steady the Mississippi Valley, and, through that, put increase, and the taxable property of the Com- that region in communication with the Eastern monwealth on the 31st of December, 1868, was part of the country. Its value in the developstated at $474,000,000. On this property, a
ment of New Mexico and Texas will be very tax of one-fourth of one per cent. is levied for great. By an act of the last Legislature, it the payment of the public debt. The total was provided that the Missouri Valley Railbonded debt of the State is $18,654,000, the road Company should pay off its indebtedness semi-annual interest on which amounts to to the State by extending the road, at the rate $567,565. The surplus of the interest fund is ef $120,000 for every mile of road constructed. invested each year in bonds of the United An act was also passed directing the St. Louis States
, to form å sinking fund : $48,000 of the and Iron Mountain Railroad to pay its debt to war debt still remain to be disposed of, but the State by building a road from Pilot Knob there was on the 1st of October à balance of to the State line of Arkansas, and this arrange$464,637.89 in the Union military fund, which, ment was promptly accepted by the company. after liquidating the remnant of the debt,
will The St. Joseph and Council Bluffs Railroad has be transferred to the credit of the interest been completed, and passes for 80 miles fund. The claims of the State against the Fed- through one of the most fertile districts of the eral Government for reimbursement for mili- State. The Osage Valley and Southern Kansas tary expenses, incurred during the war, have Railroad has been built from Boonville to all been settled, and the Treasury has received Tipton, a distance of 25 miles. Among the therefrom $6,472,289.35, which has been ap- projected lines
is one from the Mississippi to plied as follows:
the Missouri River via Macon.
The great interest of this, as well as several other West- versity amounts to $123,707.50, yielding an inern States, at present seems to be the building come for the past year of $10,677.50, wbich of railroads as an agency in the development was increased by direct appropriations to of the country:
It is with this view that $22,065.50. liberal aid has been granted to it by the Legis- Before giving an account of the action of the lature during a period when it would be two political parties in the excited campaign of wholly unremunerative if undertaken by pri- the year, it may be well to present a synopsis vate individuals alone.
of the registration act passed by the last Lets The public elemosynary institutions of Mis- lature, which contains some provisions intended souri are under very efficient management, to guard the privilege of voting even more bnt the growing wants of the State demand rigidly than had been done hitherto in the more ample provisions for the unfortunate and State of Missouri. The law makes it the daty the vicious. The State Penitentiary contains of the Governor, by and with the advice and seven hundred and thirty-five convicts, and the consent of the Senate, to appoint & super accommodations afforded by the present build- intendent of registration in each senatoria ings are quite inadequate, and new structures district every year in which a general electia are already in progress. Under the provisions takes place. The Board of Registration in ear of the act of December, 1865, two hundred and county is to be appointed by the saperinzer :twenty convicts have been pardoned, and a ent, and all the registry officers are to quality similar leniency has been shown in one hun- by taking the “ oath of loyalty and oath of eldred and ninety-seven cases not falling under fice, prescribed in the sixth and thirteenth ser the provisions of that law. The State Insane tions of the second article of the constitution." Asylum is overcrowded, but a new institution After prescribing some of the general duties e of the kind, in course of construction by the the officers having charge of the registration o city and county of St. Louis, will afford ample voters, the act lays down the following: additional accommodations. The Institution for the Blind is in a prosperous condition, and Registration as aforesaid, there shall be printede
SECTION 8. In the books furnished to the Board seems to be all that is required for the wants written the oath of loyalty aforesaid, followed by *** of the unfortunate persons committed to its sufficient for every voter to subscribe his name . care. The Deaf and Dumb Asylum is full, and place of residence thereunder, and, in cities teria requires enlargement.
streets and houses numbered, the street and on The public schools of the State are in a prom name; and no person shall be registered as a qualita
of each voter's residence shall be placed opposita ising condition.
The whole number of chil- voter unless he appear before the said Board, and is dren in the State between the ages of five and and subscribe said oath, except in the cases poorias twenty-one is 544,664, of whom 510,183 are for in the twenty-third and twenty-fourth sections white and 34,481 colored. For the instruction the second article of the constitution ; for person of these, 6,040 school-houses with 7,100 teach: third section, a separate oath shall be wristea
lieved from disqualifications under the said twel ers are supplied by the State. The permanent printed in said book, in conformity with the es school fund now amounts to $1,689,760, from tution, to be taken and subscribed by them. 14 the income of which $92,793 were distributed person subscribe either of said oaths by makin: by to the counties during the year to aid in the mark, his signature shall be witnessed by a pas support of schools. The portion of revenue tax posite thereto. Every person so registering
of the Board of Registration, by signing his naria set apart for the same purpose amounted to write his first Christian name in full, and if his siena $217,011.60. The State has no system of nor- ture is so illegible as to be difficult to read of mal schools, but for two years past a series of a registering officer shall immediately in his present “teachers' institutes" has been organized in write
the name legibly in a side column or spent nearly all the counties, and does a very useful registration under the provisions of this act sta
the register; provided that if any person echte work in the way of training teachers for their from any cause, not appear before the Board of Epeculiar duties. The State University provided gistration of his respective district, he mas tree for by the constitution has been put in pros
mit to said Board, or to the Board of Review, s Tperous operation with a full corps of instruc- writing his name thereunder, and sworn to be inte
ten or printed copy of the oath of loyalty, signeet tors. A normal department was added by an officer properly authorized to administer oaths. As act of the last Legislature, and is already work- the oath so signed and sworn to shall be presets ing successfully. A military department has and filed in the office of the Clerk of the Countye.. been organized, where civil engineering and with the books of registration. military tactics are taught under the direction
Seo. 9. The Board of Registration shall have pas
er to examine, under oath, any person applying? of a distinguished army officer, assigned to that registration, as to his qualifications as a voler duty under a law of the United States; and it they shall, before entering the name of any is proposed to establish a department for teach- on the registry of qualified voters, diligently in ing the branches of learning which pertain to and ascertain that he has not done any of the
specified in the constitution as causes of disqualis agriculture and the mechanic arts, so as to en- tion, and if, from their own knowledge or enda able the university to avail itself of the dona- brought before them, they shall be satisfied that es tion of land made to the State under act of person seeking registration is disqualified unk! Congress of July 2, 1862, for the purpose of provision of the constitution, they shall not etter founding an Agricultural and Mechanical Col- have taken and subscribed before them the earth
name on the list of qualified voters, though he lege. The present endowment of the State Uni- loyalty aforesaid; but shall, if he has taken and so.
scribed such oath, enter his name on a separate list are attached to all attempts at fraudulent votof persons rejected as voters; and in connection with ing or registration. When any person has such entry they shall also note every appeal from their decision by making an entry of the fact opposite voted, the word "voted” is required to be the name of the party taking such appeal. The Board written opposite his name, and, in case a vote of Registration, or any member thereof, shall have is rejected, the word rejected” is placed power to administer oaths to all parties appearing be- against the name of the person offering the fore them for registration or as witnesses.
vote. Severe penalties are imposed upon any “On the six secular days next preceding member of a Board of Registration who " shall the tenth day before the general election,” the knowingly enter upon the register of qualified supervisor of registration of each county, in con- voters the name of any person not entitled to nection with the Board of Registration of the registration, or shall wilfully and corruptly county, are required to meet as a Board of Re- exclude therefrom the name of any person view to revise the lists previously made. “If applying for registration and lawfully entitled such Board of Review shall be satisfied that thereto.” On the other hand, extraordinary any person applying to be placed on the list powers are given to the Board of Registraof voters could not have appeared before the tion and Board of Review by the following Board of Registration in his election district, section : without great inconvenience, they shall so SECTION 20. The Boards of Registration and Review, place his name, if entitled to be registered as a while discharging their duties, shall bave and exer'voter, on the list of the election district in cise the powers of a circuit court for the preservation which he resides. If the Board shall be fully may summon and compel the attendance of witnesses
of order at and around the place of registration, and satisfied, from the testimony brought before for the purpose of ascertaining the qualifications of them, that any person has been rejected by persons registered or applying for registration, and the Board of Registration wrongfully and with
to that end may issue subpænas, attachments, and out sufficient cause, they shall place the name
commitments to any sheriff or constable, who shall of such person on the list of voters of the elec- shall receive the same fees therefor as allowed by
serve such process as it issued by such court, and tion district in which he resides; or if it satis- law for such services in State cases. All papers, factorily appears to the Board from their own writs, etc., issued by said Board, may be signed by knowledge, or testimony brought before them, either member of the Board, and 'shall have the same that any person has been placed on the list of
force and effect as if signed by the whole Board, but
no fee shall be charged by said Board for any process voters of any election district of said county so issued ; the serving of subpænas to be paid out of who has done any of the things named in the the county treasury, and attachments and commitconstitution as disqualifying a person to be a
ments by the person against whom they are issued. roter, they shall strike from the list of voters Special precautions are required in the city the name of such person. Objections to per- and county of St. Louis, and printed lists of sons whose names have been registered by the the qualified voters are to be used in place of Board of Registration may be made on the the registration books. In that city, “the first, second, third, or fourth day of the sitting judge to whom any ticket shall be delivered of the Board ; and the name of no person pre- shall, upon receipt thereof, pronounce in an riously registered shall be stricken from the audible voice the name of the voter, and, if the list of registered voters unless such person judges shall be satisfied that the person offershall have had two days' previous notice of the ing to vote is a legal voter, his ticket shall be time and place when such objection would be placed in the ballot-box, without inspecting heard and considered. Such notice shall be the names written or printed thereon, or pergiven in either of the following methods: 1. mitting any other person to do so; before such At the time such person is registered by any ticket is placed in the ballot-box, such judge citizen, and if such notice be then given, it or clerk of election shall number it to correshall be the duty of the officer of registration spond with the number opposite to such voter's to mark opposite the name of such person the name on the printed list
, as herein provided; Words objected to,' and the name of the ob- and the clerks of election shall check off such jector. 2. By notice in writing, signed by voter's name on the list, by writing opposite the person objecting or by a member of the the same, in the column of remarks, voted," Board, to be served as ordinary summons is with red ink.” served. 3. By posting up such notice con- The political campaign was opened in Misspicuously in the office of the county clerk, souri by a convention of the Democratic and at the voting precinct in the election dis- party, in St. Louis County, which issued an trict where the person sought to be affected address to the people of the State, arraigning resides, signed by the party objecting, or by a the Republican party for the policy on which member of the Board of Review."
the administration of the State and of the counThe Board of Registration is required to try generally had been conducted since the elect three judges of election for each district, close of the civil war. A series of resolutions and to deliver to them the completed registra- was adopted by the same convention, embodytion lists. Very strict regulations are made ing the substance of the address in condensed with regard to transferring names in case of form, and closing with a recommendation that the removal of qualified voters from one elec- a thorough organization be effected in all the tion district to another, and heavy penalties towns and wards in the State, and that meet