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rich and apparently inexhaustible supply of a pure and easily-manufactured salt." As the lands, contiguous to the springs, have been assigned by the State "to aid in the development of the full capacity of the springs, and to furnish a sufficient area for the convenience of salt manufacture," the Governor recommends, as an economical measure, "that so much of said lands be sold or given as may be required for that object, and that a tax of two cents on every bushel of salt made shall be exacted and received by the State." He adds that responsible persons 66 are ready to invest, in these springs, any required sums, if the opportunity is presented to them," as competent men have examined the springs and declared that "brine can be obtained in quantities equivalent to upward of one thousand bushels of salt per day."

In regard to internal improvements, the Governor urges upon the Legislature the execution of several works of public utility, but chiefly the building of four bridges at as many favorable points across the Platte, namely, near its mouth, at Ashland, Columbus, and Grand Island, assigning for their construction the proceeds from the sale of State lands. The quicksands, wide, shallow, and changeable bottom of said river, are a great barrier to the communication between the citizens inhabiting the northern and southern sections of the State which the Platte divides. These bridges would be the means of fully realizing the benefits which should accrue to the State from the Union Pacific Railroad running on the north bank of the river, and which, otherwise, would be nearly exclusively confined to her northern section, and thus half lost. But the most signal benefit resulting to the State from the construction of those bridges is, that the easy passage afforded by them across the river would bring the inhabitants of her northern and southern sections into frequent and more close contact with one another, and thus be the direct means of gradually lessening and in a short time dispelling altogether that sort of estrangement and reciprocal bad feeling which now, on account of that geographical separation, exist between


As the Secretary of the Interior has refused the stipulated payments to the Union Pacific Railroad Company on the ground that the culverts built for the road are not solid, Governor Butler suggests to the Legislature "to memorialize Congress and the Secretary upon the subject," stating as a well-known fact "that the culverts were built of the best materials then at hand, that they have not failed, and are now being replaced as fast as possible with stone structures."

To shorten distances and facilitate communications between remote points in the interior of the State, by connecting them through railway lines of her own, the Governor urges upon the Legislature to give their

utmost attention to the subject, and dispose of it by determining upon and encouraging "a system of railroads which will bring the greatest prosperity to the State."

The principal want of Nebraska, however, is immigration. On this account, Governor Butler complains that, while "other States have their chartered immigration societies, and their salaried agents abroad furnished with ample means, whose business it is to make known their respective advantages," and invite immigrants, by offering them every facility and inducement to settle within them,

Nebraska, with millions of undeveloped wealth in her soil and minerals, and with a climate and commercial facilities unsurpassed by any new inland State, has done almost nothing." He recommends "that immediate and efficient measures be taken to avail our selves of this most effectual and desirable means for the early development of our ma terial resources."

The speedy enrolment and organization of the militia for immediate and active servics might be regarded as another want. It is represented by the Governor as being of absolute necessity, especially to secure the frontier settlements from Indian depredation and mas sacre, as the southeastern borders of the State have been repeatedly visited, and with no military force near to help the injured. He states that the survivors among these having come to the capital and appealed to him in their extremity, he could only furnish them with arms and ammunition, and advise them to organize and "help themselves as best they could;" and that, in the fall of 1867, a co pany of those who had been plundered of their stock and all goods, and compelled to abandon their homes, was by his order "mes tered into the service of the State, and served two months, patrolling the country and guarding the settlements against attack." He asks that an appropriation should be made “t compensate them for their time and expens during that period." He earnestly recom mends, at the same time, that immediate prevision should be made for the organization e the regular State militia, the experience of the past having abundantly taught that, however friendly disposed and willing to render promp assistance the Federal commander and troop of the Platte Department might be, "it is not the part of prudence to rely on the General Government alone to protect the frontiers man" from Indian attacks, these being sudden and of brief duration, as they are destructive

In this connection we may notice here that "the Nebraska Legislature has passed a joint resolution, memorializing Congress to remove the Pawnees from their present reservation near Columbus. It has also agreed upon & I providing a general herd law."

Upon this occasion, and aiming at a thotough organization of the Executive Depart ment, Governor Butler represents that "the

care and preservation of the military records, efficiency of this branch of the State educathe correspondence on military affairs, the tional system.' care of the ordinance, arms, and ammunition, After stating that “the grounds on which belonging to the State, make it necessary that the old State-house stands were given by the the office of Adjutant-General be created and citizens of Omaha to be used by the Territory provided with a suitable salary."

for the erection thereon of the capitol," now He seems also to hint at the utility of crea- that the seat of government has been transting the office of Attorney-General, when he ferred to Lincoln, the Governor says: “I recsays that he has employed counsel in behalf of ommend that they be granted to the city of the State, whose bill for fees will be laid Omaha, to be used for a high-school, on the before the Legislature, and asks them to set condition that, when they shall no longer be apart for the future a sufficient sum as “impor- used for that purpose, they shall revert to the tant questions, which can be settled only by State." litigation, and in which the State has impor- He requests the Assemby to take effective tant interests, have been suffered to lie, be- measures to secure school reports with full cause there was no appropriation to defray the and accurate statistics, giving a definite idea expenses attending their adjudication."

of the condition of the schools, as well as of Concerning the education of youth and the efficiency of the system; such information public instruction in general, though there being indispensable both to legislate upon and are schools and school-houses in Nebraska, she superintend the schools in an efficient manner. seems not to have given the subject that at- He finally recommends the creation of tention and care which it deserves. Accord- local and general superintendents of the ing to the Governor's statement, the differ- schools as independent offices. He represents ent portions of the State "complain of the them to be a want long and generally felt, and inefficiency and injustice of our school laws.” suggests that to the General Superintendent's And while he does not sanction, but rather office an ample salary should be attached, “sufcondemns, such complaints as untrue in most ficient to secure the constant services of our cases, yet he calls on the Legislature,, say- best men.” ing: "These complaints are so numerous that The Governor asks an appropriation for the the feeling prevails that we have no estab- State Library, chiefly to enlarge its law branch, lished public school system, nor even settled by purchasing the best recent works on elepolicy of public instruction. It is therefore mentary law, and above all to complete the devolved upon you to give to the State a sets of its Law Reports, as some volumes which school system that shall be in its operation belong to them respectively were accidentally aquitable and efficient, complete in all its parts, lost in the transportation. ind as a whole harmonious."

He strongly urges an effectual provision for He also requests them to consider and decide securing the publication of the Law Reports of apon the expediency of establishing a school- Nebraska; representing that such publication building fund, to be distributed among the is both honorable to the State by enabling her listricts which have occasion for a school- to send her own reports to other States who house, and apportioning it in equal sums, “not furnish her with theirs, and advantageous to o exceed two-thirds or three-fourths of the the administration of justice within her limits, minimum cost of buildings of lowest grade, to especially in the inferior courts.

These are je fixed by him.”

frequently in doubt, and hesitate to pronounce Governor Butler anticipates that a general on cases before them, "from the difficulty of ind, besides securing “in every district a ascertaining what are the decisions made in chool-house creditable to the State,” would superior courts." also remove the injustice done to the inhab- In regard to works of charity toward the tants of precincts lately formed out of por- unfortunate among her people, Nebraska has ions of larger ones, as they, after having made provision for the deaf and dumb, the porne their share of 'the burden for erecting blind, and the insane, by causing the latter to he school-houses in the old precincts under be taken care of, and the former educated in he system of precinct taxation, would be well-known institutions abroad, at her charge. compelled to build the schools of their new The insane are sent to the Iowa Hospital recincts unaided.

at Mount Pleasant for their treatment, eleven As to the State Normal School at Peru, for new subjects having been sent thither within he completion of whose building the last Gen- the last two years, in addition to those who ral Assembly appropriated at the May session then were there. The average yearly exhree thousand dollars, the Governor states pense at the hospital is $280, the aggregate that the sum has been expended for that pur- amounting

at present to $5,350. To this must bose, and that “the institution is now in suc- be added the expense of conveyance, reckoned essful operation.” Referring to the sugges- at about one hundred dollars for each subject. ions made by the Board of Education in their On these grounds the Governor intimates that report to the State Auditor, he urges on the the time has nearly arrived when economical Legislature the necessity of making full pro- considerations alone will require that these anvision for the successful management and fortunate people shall find an asylum under the

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control and within the borders of their own State. I recommend this subject to your consideration, suggesting that provision be made for the erection, within the next two years, of a Hospital for the Insane."

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He urges upon the General Assembly the erection of a State Penitentiary, as a public necessity; stating that the escapes of criminals from the places of their detention have been so frequent till within a short time that "sentence of imprisonment was little more than a farce; and that at present they "are confined in overcrowded county jails, frequently in cells under ground, badly ventilated, damp, and unwholesome. He recommends "that the Legislature take such action as may be necessary to effect the early building of the penitentiary, and that the State convicts be employed in the construction."

Pursuant to a call previously published by the Republican State Central Committee, the Republican State Convention met at Nebraska City, on April 29, 1868, when they nominated their candidates for Governor, Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, and three presidential electors, and before adjourning adopted, as their platform, the following resolutions:

Resolved, That we point, with pride and satisfaction, to the history and record of the great national Republican party of the United States-and ask for it the confidence and unfaltering support of our fellow-citizens:

1. Because it has saved the Republic from overthrow by putting down the most wanton and wicked rebellion, urged in the interest of slavery and oppression, ever known to the history of the world.

2. Because it has stood, like a "wall of fire," between the oppressed and their relentless and unrepentant oppressors, as it still demands that, in the reconstruction of the rebel States, loyal men only shall


3. Because it has given to the country a homestead law, thus providing free homes for free men, and providing land for the landless without money and without price."

4. Because it has chartered and endowed the great Pacific Railroad, thus uniting, with iron bands, the Atlantic with the Pacific, and bringing through the State the commerce of China and India, in exchange

for the commodities and productions of American labor, skill, and enterprise.

5. Because it is the vivifying power which imparts to the efforts of the struggling friends of freedom, throughout the world, their light, their heat, and their highest value.

Resolved, That, we heartily approve of and accept as just the doctrine of universal amnesty and impartial suffrage, believing that in its application will be found a just rule for a permanent settlement of the great question of reconstruction.

Resolved, That, recognizing the doctrine that allegiance is alienable, our national Government should protect American citizens abroad, whether native or foreign born, and any outrage committed on the person of an American citizen by a foreign Government

should be resisted at every cost, at all hazards. Resolved, That the nation is deeply indebted to the soldiers and sailors who gallantly defended it in the late war of the rebellion, and that the memory of those who perished in the conflict should and will be held in grateful remembrance, and their widows and children should be tenderly cared for by the nation; that those who returned and are in our midst we congratulate, and tender them the assurance of

our honor and regard, and trust they will aid in per petuating the liberties of the Constitution of the country they perilled their lives to save.

Resolved, That the Republican party was organized for the preservation of the life of our nation, and for the purpose of establishing equality to all before the law; and that while, as a party, we favor all movements tending to promote public morality, yet we terfering with the national customs of any portion of are opposed to all prohibitory laws and statutes inour citizens, as subversive of sound morality and as unnecessary abridgments of the liberties of the person guaranteed the people by all republican constitutions.

The Democratic State Convention also was

held in Omaha, on the 5th of August, 1868, and nominated their candidates for State offcers and the presidential electors.

The qualifications required of a voter in Nebraska are as follows:

Every male citizen of the United States, and he who has filed his declaration of intention to become such, and who has attained the age of twentyyears, and shall have been an actual resident of this State for six months, of the county twenty days, and of the precinct ten days next preceding the election, is a voter at all elections in this State, excepting s per provision made by section fifty-three of the elec

All male persons, who can show the registrar that the above facts will exist the day preceding the ele tion, are entitled to registration."

Any foreign-born male coming to the United States before twenty-one years of age, and whose f ther files his declaration of intention to become citizen before his children are twenty-one years old. is thereby made a voter.

Any foreign-born male who has served in the charge, is a voter. United States army, and can show an honorable dis

NETHERLANDS, THE, a kingdom in Erope. King, William III., born February 19, 1817; succeeded his father, March 17, 1849, Area, 13,890 English square miles; population (according to the calculation of the Roya Statistical Bureau), in 1866, 3,552,665; at the close of 1867, 3,592,416. An official census is taken every tenth year; the result of the last censuses was as follows: 1859, 3,293,577; 1848 ! 3,056,879; 1839, 2,860,450; 1829, 2,613.45 The large cities are, Amsterdam, 267,627; Ro terdam, 117,107; the Hague, 89,068. The population of the Dutch colonies is as follows East Indies (1866), 20,523,742; West Indies. 84,486; coast of Guiana, about 120,000; total 20,728,228. In the Dutch East Indies there was, in 1866, a European population of 36.124 (of whom 29,768 were born in the colonies; exclusive of 11,492 soldiers and their descendants (886). The number of Chinese in the same colonies was 241,533. The budget for 1868 fixes the expenditures at 99,665,824 ders, and the receipts at 94,865,321 guilders The public debt, in 1868, was 968,245.918 guilders. The army, in 1867, consisted of 61.318 men; the army in the East India colonies of 27,168 men. The fleet, on July 1, 198 consisted of 135 vessels, with 1,325 guns. The imports, in 1866, amounted to 528.970.00 guilders, and the exports to 436,590,000 gailders. The merchant navy, on December 31.








1866 consisted of 2,178 vessels, together of that the country's interests did not require the 510,379 tons. The movement of shipping, in last dissolution of the Chamber.” On the 21st 1866, was as follows:

of March this resolution was adopted, by 39 votes against 34. On the 28th of April the Second Chamber rejected the estimates of the Minister for Foreign Affairs by 37 to 35 votes.

The ministry immediately tendered their resDutch.. 3,342 597,586 3,337 607,920

ignation to the King. Their resignation was Foreign. 5,126 1,316,541 5,079 | 1,341,143

accepted. Attempts to form a new Cabinet Total.. 8,468 1,914,127 8,416 1,949,063 with M. Van Reenen and Baron Mackay hav

ing been abandoned, the task on May 23d was According to an official return, the whole intrusted to the old leader of the Liberal length of the railways in Holland, on Decem- party, M. Thorbecke, who succeeded. The ber 31, 1867, was 1,071 kilomètres (five-eighths new ministry was officially announced on the of a mile each). In 1868, 200 more were add. 3d of June, but the list was not completed uncd, and on the 31st of December the total til the 8th of June. It was composed as folwas 1,271. The increase has been entirely on lows: O. Fock, Minister of the Interior; J. M. the state network, which shows thus far 708 Roest van Limburg, Foreign Affairs; P. P. van kilomètres.

Bosse, Finance; F. G. R. H. van Silver, Justice; The official organ of the Government, on January 3, 1868, published a report of the L. G. Broex, Marine. The ministry of Public

E. Dewaal, Colonies; J. J. van. Mulken, War; Council of Ministers proposing the dissolution: Worship was dispensed with. of the Chamber of Deputies, followed by a In November there was a serious riot at royal decree ordering that the Chamber be Rotterdam, but it was promptly quelled by the lissolved accordingly, The new elections

troops. Twenty-two persons were killed. cook place on the 22d of February, and the

NEVADA. The election which was held general result was, the election of 35 min- in this State during the year was for the choice sterial candidates, 27 of whom previously be- of presidential electors, a member of Congress, onged to the House, and 38 opposition candi- judges of the Supreme Court, members of the lates

, 31 of whom were old members. The Legislature, and local officers.' The Republican new session of the States-General was opened ticket prevailed by a majority of about 1,400. in the 25th of February by a royal commis- The Legislature contained in the Senate 15 Reion, consisting of the Ministers of the Interior publicans and 5 Democrats; in the House 36 ind Finance. The opening speech said :

Republicans and 3 Democrats. The views of The Government considers that its conduct of the conventions of the respective parties in the oreign policy has been advantageous to the country. State corresponded with those of similar cont was with regret, but after mature reflection, that ventions in other parts of the country, except 4 decided upon dissolving the former Chamber. There was at present a new Chamber, one-fifth of on the question of suffrage. On this subject, shich consisted of new members. The Government the Republican Convention adopted the follownd the

representatives (continues the speech) have ing resolution: how to guarantee that agreement between the execuive and legislative powers which is necessary to Resolved, That being, as a party, in favor of inteltrengthen confidence in our public institutions. If ligent suffrage only, we heartily indorse the action he Government receives the support of the States- of our National Convention in its position of leaving jeneral the session will be fruitful. Let us all unite

to Nevada and other loyal States the undisputed a affection toward our sovereign and in care for his right to regulate the question of suffrage for themaithful people, and the country will profit by our


In the Assembly, elected as above mentioned, The Second Chamber elected M. Van Ree- the word " white was stricken from the Conlen president, who, on accepting the post, deliv- stitution of the State by a vote of nearly two red a speech in which he advised a conciliatory to one. pirit to all parties. On the 2d of March, M. A question of some national interest came horbecke brought forward a resolution re- up in Nevada, which was decided by the United pecting the recent dissolution of the Chamber. States Supreme Court during the year. The Le delivered a speech showing that the frequent plaintiff in error was agent of the Pioneer lissolution of the Chamber was unconstitu- Stage Company, at Carson City, and was orional and uncalled for. Several other Liberal dered by the sheriff of Ormsby County to make nembers condemned the conduct of the min- a statement of the number of passengers consters, who, they said, were guilty of an veyed out of the State in April

, 1865, in acibuse of the King's name.

The Minister of cordance with the ninety-first section of the he Interior and the Minister for Foreign Af- revenue act of Nevada, which levies a capiairs defended the Government, the latter re- tation tax of one dollar upon every person questing the Chamber to suspend its judg- leaving the State by any railroad, stage-coach, nent until the discussion of the budget. On or other vehicle, engaged or employed in the the 4th of March M. Blusse proposed the fol- business of transporting passengers. The agent, lowing resolution : " The House, having heard refusing to comply with the order of the sherthe statements of the ministers, is of opinion iff, was committed for contempt, but after


ward released on a writ of habeas corpus. The Supreme Court of Nevada decided that the law in question was constitutional, but the United States Supreme Court reversed the judgment of the court below, with instructions to enter judgment in accordance with this opinion. Mr. Justice Miller, who delivered the opinion, after examining the subject in its constitutional relations, took the general ground that citizens in one part of the country have the same unrestrained right to travel as citizens in any other part of the United States. He reviewed the question in a national aspect, referring, among other things, to the fact that Washington is the seat of a great Government, Congress makes laws, the judiciary expounds them, and the President directs its thousands of employés in the transaction of business. They may be called to Washington for instructions, or other citizens may be appointed to office in Washington, or such public officers may find it necessary to leave their respective localities to attend to Government business in other States. If restrictions be imposed upon their travel, it is apparent that the design of a free Government, where every man has a right to emigrate, cannot be efficiently carried out. And so of business of all kinds in the States, whether connected with the Government or not. If one State can impose a capitation tax on passengers leaving it, or passing through its territory, so can another, or all the States may thus restrain or impede travel, and interfere with commerce between the States. In further support of the views of the majority of the court, he said the Government, under such State laws, could be seriously embarrassed in the transportation of troops and supplies, and quoted numerous legal authorities to sustain the opinion. Chief-Justice Chase and AssociateJustice Clifford dissented as to some of the principles advanced in the opinion.

The construction of railroads is already attracting attention among the people. The Central Pacific is about completed through the State. Another enterprise is the Virginia and Truckee Railroad, to connect with the Central Pacific at Reno, on the Truckee River, passing through Washoe City, Carson City, and the richest agricultural valleys to Virginia City. The engineers are engaged in the necessary surveys. Arrangements have been made for the iron and rolling stock, and nothing remains to engage the attention of the company but the speedy grading of the road and the laying of the track. Another road is contemplated from Oroville, California, to Virginia City, and a portion of the capital is taken up.

The mining operations throughout the State have improved during the year, although the yield of some districts has declined. Of the new fields which have been discovered, the most promising is known as the White Pine. This district comprises an area of about twelve miles square, in a bold chain of hills bearing

the same name, whose general altitude varies from six to nine thousand feet, though several high ridges reach an elevation of eleven thousand feet. It lies one hundred and twenty-five miles east of south from Elko, and about the same distance south of east from Austin. Elko is on the Central Pacific Railroad, some four hundred and sixty miles east of Sacramento, and at present is simply a collection of tents, at the mouth of the south fork of the Hunboldt. Stages already run between Silver City and Boise, to Elko, and thence to Hamil ton, in the White Pine district. The discovery of the silver lodes-regarded as the richest ever known in the world-was made by an Indian and a man named Eberhardt, and the mine located in January, 1868. A shaft was sunk at the point of discovery, out of which some good ore was taken, but nothing to indicate the immense value which has since been developed. In May following, a discovery w made, about a hundred feet east of the shaft, of exceedingly rich ore, and work was commen with vigor.


The nearest reduction-work were at Newark, some twenty-five miles dis tant, and Austin, one hundred and twenty miles distant; and the ore was shipped to both these points. The first lot, worked & Austin, paid at the rate of fourteen hundred dollars per ton.

The Eberhardt is located on the souther slope of Treasure Hill, and development bas shown that it runs nearly east and west, rathe than north and south, as located; yet that portion which is at present yielding so shar dantly is called the South Eberhardt. T workings have been extended until two dis tinct and well-defined walls appear, which are one hundred and eighty-four feet apart, at between which the ore is enclosed. The re matter is a conglomerate of quartz, calesper limestone charged with metal, and bowlders of barren limestone, a majority of which conta from eight thousand to twenty thousand da lars per ton in silver; none of the lower gra is at present worked, and nothing less the three hundred and fifty dollar ore has yet be sent to the mill, and by far the greater porti has yielded from eight to twelve hundred da lars per ton. The mine lies in a limestone formation; the workings during the summer were in an open cut, but during the fall two shafts were sunk which were covered with substantial building, and through which the workings are conducted. The deepest shatt but eighty or ninety feet down. There was in sight in the mine, on January 1st, as estimated by competent judges, between four and fire hundred tons of milling ore. Small lots of or have been selected and smelted that yielded from four to seven dollars per pound; and the company had on hand about seven tons of or that will yield from five to seven thousand de lars per ton in silver. Since the opening of the mine, in May last, according to the books of the company, an amount of ore has been

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