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rich and apparently inexhaustible supply of a utmost attention to the subject, and dispose pure and easily-manufactured salt.” As the of it by determining upon and encouraging “a lands, contiguous to the springs, have been as- system of railroads which will bring the greatsigned by the State “to aid in the develop- est prosperity to the State." ment of the full capacity of the springs, and The principal want of Nebraska, however, to furnish a sufficient area for the convenience is immigration. On this account, Governor of salt manufacture," the Governor recom- Butler complains that, while other States mends, as an economical measure, “that so have their chartered immigration societies, much of said lands be sold or given as may and their salaried agents abroad furnished be required for that object, and that a tax of with ample means, whose business it is to two cents on every bushel of salt made shall make known their respective advantages," be exacted and received by the State.” He and invite immigrants, by offering them every adds that responsible persons " are ready to facility and inducement to settle within them, invest, in these springs, any required sums, if “ Nebraska, with millions of undeveloped the opportunity is presented to them," wealth in her soil and minerals, and with a competent men have examined the springs and climate and commercial facilities unsurpassed declared that “brine can be obtained in quan- by any new inland State, has done almost tities equivalent to upward of one thousand nothing." He recommends "that immediate bushels of salt per day.”

and efficient measures be taken to avail orrIn regard to internal improvements, the selves of this most effectual and desirable Governor urges upon the Legislature the ex- means for the early development of our na ecution of several works of public utility, but terial resources.”' chiefly the building of four bridges at as many The speedy enrolment and organization of favorable points across the Platte, namely, the militia for immediate and active service near its mouth, at Ashland, Columbus, and might be regarded as another want. It is repGrand Island, assigning for their construction resented by the Governor as being of absolute the proceeds from the sale of State lands. necessity, especially to secure the frontier The quicksands, wide, shallow, and change- settlements from Indian depredation and masable bottom of said river, are a great bar- sacre, as the southeastern borders of the rier to the communication between the citi- State have been repeatedly visited, and with zens inhabiting the northern and southern no military force near to help the injured. He sections of the State which the Platte divides. states that the survivors among these barini These bridges would be the means of fully come to the capital and appealed to him in realizing the benefits which should accrue to their extremity, he could only furnish the the State from the Union Pacific Railroad run- with arms and ammunition, and advise then ning on the north bank of the river, and to organize and “help themselves as best they which, otherwise, would be nearly exclusively could;" and that, in the fall of 1867, a (o confined to her northern section, and thus half pany of those who had been plundered of lost. But the most signal benefit resulting to their stock and all goods, and compelled to the State from the construction of those abandon their homes, was by his order “musbridges is, that the easy passage afforded by tered into the service of the State, and served them across the river would bring the inhab- two months, patrolling the country and guar' itants of her northern and southern sections ing the settlements against attack." He asks into frequent and more close contact with one that an appropriation should be made “to another, and thus be the direct means of grad- compensate them for their time and espels ually lessening and in a short time dispelling during that period." He earnestly recomaltogether that sort of estrangement and re- mends, at the same time, that immediate pro ciprocal bad feeling which now, on account of vision should be made for the organization that geographical separation, exist between the regular State militia, the experience of sbe them.

past having abundantly taught that, hoTere! As the Secretary of the Interior has refused friendly disposed and willing to render prezi the stipulated payments to the Union Pacific assistance the Federal commander and troopa Railroad Company on the ground that the cul- of the Platte Department might be, “it is m verts built for the road are not solid, Governor the part of prudence to rely on the Genera Butler suggests to the Legislature “to memor- Government alone to protect the front et ialize Congress and the Secretary upon the sub- man” from Indian attacks, these being sudelea ject," stating as a well-known fact “that the and of brief duration, as they are destructive

. culverts were built of the best materials then In this connection we may notice here that at hand, that they have not failed, and are now "the Nebraska Legislature has passed a joint being replaced as fast as possible with stone resolution, memorializing Congress to remote structures."

the Pawnees from their present reservati. To shorten distances and facilitate com- near Columbus. It has also agreed upon & BL. munications between remote points in the providing a general herd law." interior of the State, by connecting them Upon this occasion, and aiming at a tbrethrough railway lines of her own, the Govern- ough organization of the Executive Departor urges upon the Legislature to give their ment, Governor Butler represents that the

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care and preservation of the military records, efficiency of this branch of the State educa-
the correspondence on military affairs, the tional system.”
care of the ordinance, arms, and ammunition, After stating that “the grounds on which
belonging to the State, make it necessary that the old State-house stands were given by the
the office of Adjutant-General be created and citizens of Omaha to be used by the Territory
provided with a suitable salary.”

for the erection thereon of the capitol," now
He seems also to hint at the utility of crea- that the seat of government has been trans-
ting the office of Attorney-General, when he ferred to Lincoln, the Governor says: “I rec-
says that he has employed counsel in behalf of ommend that they be granted to the city of
the State, whose bill for fees will be laid Omaha, to be used for a high-school, on the
before the Legislature, and asks them to set condition that, when they shall no longer be
apart for the future a sufficient sum as “impor- used for that purpose, they shall revert to the
tant questions, which can be settled only by State.”
litigation, and in which the State has impor- He requests the Assemby to take effective
tant interests, have been suffered to lie, be- measures to secure school reports with full
cause there was no appropriation to defray the and accurate statistics, giving a definite idea
expenses attending their adjudication." of the condition of the schools, as well as of

Concerning the education of youth and the efficiency of the system; such information
public instruction in general, though there being indispensable both to legislate upon and
are schools and school-houses in Nebraska, she superintend the schools in an efficient manner.
seems not to have given the subject that at- He finally recommends the creation of
tention and care which it deserves. Accord- local and general superintendents of the
ing to the Governor's statement, the differ- schools as independent offices. He represents
ent portions of the State “complain of the them to be a want long and generally felt, and
inefficiency and injustice of our school laws.” suggests that to the General Superintendent's
And while he does not sanction, but rather office an ample salary should be attached, "suf-
condemns, such complaints as untrue in most ficient to secure the constant services of our
cases, yet he calls on the Legislature,, say- best men.”
ing: “These complaints are so numerous that The Governor asks an appropriation for the
the feeling prevails that we have no estab- State Library, chiefly to enlarge its law branch,
lished public school system, nor even settled by purchasing the best recent works on ele-
policy of public instruction. It is therefore mentary law, and above all to complete the
devolved upon you to give to the State a sets of its Law Reports, as some volumes which
school system that shall be in its operation belong to them respectively were accidentally
equitable and efficient, complete in all its parts, lost in the transportation.
and as a whole harmonious.”

He strongly urges an effectual provision for He also requests them to consider and decide securing the publication of the Law Reports of upon the expediency of establishing a school- Nebraska; representing that such publication building fund, to be distributed among the is both honorable to the State by enabling her districts which have occasion for a school- to send her own reports to other States who house, and apportioning it in equal sums, “not furnish her with theirs, and advantageous to to exceed two-thirds or three-fourths of the the administration of justice within her limits, minimum cost of buildings of lowest grade, to especially in the inferior courts.

These are be fixed by him.”

frequently in doubt, and hesitate to pronounce Governor Butler anticipates that a general on cases before them, “from the difficulty of fund, besides securing “in every district a ascertaining what are the decisions made in school-house creditable to the State,” would superior courts.” also remove the injustice done to the inhab- In regard to works of charity toward the itants of precincts lately formed out of por- unfortunate among her people, Nebraska has tions of larger ones, as they, after having made provision for the deaf and dumb, the borne their share of the burden for erecting blind, and the insane, by causing the latter to the school-houses in the old precincts under be taken care of, and the former educated in the system of precinct taxation, would be well-known institutions abroad, at her charge. compelled to build the schools of their new The insane are sent to the Iowa Hospital precincts unaided.

at Mount Pleasant for their treatment, eleven As to the State Normal School at Peru, for new subjects having been sent thither within the completion of whose building the last Gen- the last two years, in addition to those who eral Assembly appropriated at the May session then were there. The average yearly exthree thousand dollars, the Governor states pense at the hospital is $280, the aggregate that the sum has been expended for that pur- amounting at present to $5,350. To this must pose, and that “the institution is now in suc- be added the expense of conveyance, reckoned cessful operation.” Referring to the sugges- at about one hundred dollars for each subject. tions made by the Boa

their On these grounds the Governor intimates“ that report to the State Auditor, he urges on the the time has nearly arrived when economical Legislature the necessity of making full pro- considerations alone will require that these unvision for the successful management and fortunate people shall find an asylum under the

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control and within the borders of their own our honor and regard, and trust they will aid in per. State. I recommend this subject to your con- petuating the liberties of the Constitution of the counsideration, suggesting that provision be made try they perilled their lives to save.

Resolved, That the Republican party was organized for the erection, within the next two years, of a for the preservation of the life of our nation, and for Hospital for the Insane."

the purpose of establishing equality to all before the He urges upon the General Assembly the law; and that while, as a party, we favor all moveerection of a State Penitentiary, as a public ments tending to promote public morality, yet ** necessity; stating that the escapes of criminals terfering with the national customs of any portion of from the places of their detention have been so our citizens, as subversive of sound morality and as frequent till within a short time that “sentence unnecessary abridgments of the liberties of the per of imprisonment was little more than a farce; son guaranteed the people by all republican consti.

tutions, and that at present they “are confined in overcrowded county jails, frequently in cells under

The Democratic State Convention also vis ground, badly ventilated, damp, and unwhole- held in Omaha, on the 5th of August, 1862

He recommends that the Legislature and nominated their candidates for State offtake such action as may be necessary to effect cers and the presidential electors. the early building of the penitentiary, and The qualifications required of a roter in that the State convicts be employed in the con

Nebraska are as follows: struction."

Every male citizen of the United States, and be Pursuant to a call previously published by who has filed his declaration of intention to become the Republican State Central Committee, the such, and who has attained the age of twentyRepublican State Convention met at Nebraska State for six months, of the county twenty days, 1o. City, on April 29, 1868, when they nominated of the precinct ten days next preceding the election

, their candidates for Governor, Secretary of is a voter at all elections in this State, escepting & State, Auditor, Treasurer, and three presiden- per provision made by section fifty-three of the cizia

tion tial electors, and before adjourning adopted,

All male persons, who can show the registrar that as their platform, the following resolutions: the above facts will exist the day preceding the elit tion, to the history and record of the great national states before twenty-one years of age, and where they Resolved, That we point, with pride and satisfac- tion, are entitled to registration.

Any foreign-born male coming to the Tnited Republican party of the United States-and ask for it the confidence and unfaltering support of our fel- ther files his declaration of intention to beczna 2 low-citizens :

citizen before his children are twenty-one years ] 1. Because it has saved the Republic from over

is thereby made a voter. throw by putting down the most wanton and wicked

Any foreign-born male who has served in this rebellion, urged in the interest of slavery and oppres- charge, is a voter.

United States army, and can show an honorable di sion, ever known to the history of the world.

2. Because it has stood, like a "wall of fire,” be- NETHERLANDS, THE, a kingdom in Extween the oppressed and their relentless and unrepentant oppressors, as it still demands that, in the rope. King, William III., born February 19 reconstruction of the rebel States, loyal men only shall 1817; succeeded his father, March 17, 1849. control.

Area, 13,890 English square miles; population 3. Because it has given to the country a homestead (according to the calculation of the Rosa law, thus providing free homes for free men, and Statistical Bureau), in 1866, 3,552,665; at the providing land for the landless without money and close of 1867, 3,592,416. without price."

An official censo: is 4. Because it has chartered and endowed the great taken every tenth year, the result of the lasi Pacific Railroad, thus uniting, with iron bands, the Atlantic with the Pacific, and bringing through the 3,056,879; 1839, 2,860,450; 1829, 2,613,4%

censuses was as follows: 1859, 3,293,577; 1849 State the commerce of China and India, in exchange The large cities are, Amsterdam, 267,627; K for the commodities and productions of American labor, skill, and enterprise.

terdam, 117,107; the Hague, 89,068. I 5. Because it is the vivifying power which imparts population of the Dutch colonies is as follows to the efforts of the struggling friends of freedom, East Indies (1866), 20,523,742; West Indies throughout the world, their light, their heat, and 84,486; coast of Guiana, about 120,000; total their highest value.

Resolved, That, we heartily approve of and accept as 20,728,228. In the Dutch East Indies there just the doctrine of universal amnesty and impartial was, in 1866, a European population of 36.!!! suffrage, believing that in its application will be (of whom 29,768 were born in the colonies: found a' just rule for a permanent settlement of the exclusive of 11,492 soldiers and their descendgreat question of reconstruction.

Resolved, That, recognizing the doctrine that allegi- ants (886). The number of Chinese in the ance is alienable, our national Government should same colonies was 241,533. The budget der protect American citizens abroad, whether native or 1868 fixes the expenditures at 99,665,824 St.foreign born, and any outrage committed on the per- ders, and the receipts at 94,865,321 guilders son of an American citizen by a foreign Government The public debt, in 1868, was 963,243.91 should be resisted at every cost, at all hazards.

Resolved, That the nation is deeply indebted to the guilders. The army, in 1867, consisted of bl. soldiers and sailors who gallantly defended it in the 318 men; the army in the East India colonies late war of the rebellion, and that the memory of those who perished in the conflict should and will consisted of 135 vessels, with 1.325

guns. Tbs

of 27,168 men. The fleet, on July 1, 108 be held in grateful remembrance, and their widows imports, in 1866, amounted to 528.970, tion; that those who returned and are in our midst guilders, and the exports to 436,590,000 cai! we congratulate, and tender them the assurance of ders. The merchant navy, on December ål.









1866 consisted of 2,178 vessels, together of that the country's interests did not require the
510,379 tons. The movement of shipping, in last dissolution of the Chamber.” On the 21st
1866, was as follows:

of March this resolution was adopted, by 39
votes against 34. On the 28th of April the
Second Chamber rejected the estimates of the
Minister for Foreign Affairs by 37 to 35 votes.

The ministry immediately tendered their res-
Dutch.. 3,342 597,586 3,337 607,920

ignation to the King. Their resignation was Foreign. 5,126 1,316,541 5,079 | 1,341,143

accepted. Attempts to form a new Cabinet Total.. 8,468 1,914,127 8,416 1,949,063 with M. Van Reenen and Baron Mackay hav

ing been abandoned, the task on May 23d was According to an official return, the

whole intrusted to the old leader of the Liberal length of the railways in Holland, on Decem- party, M. Thorbecke, who succeeded. The ber 31, 1867, was 1,071 kilomètres (five-eighths new ministry was officially announced on the of a mile each). In 1868, 200 more were add- 3d of June, but the list was not completed uned, and on the 31st of December the total til the 8th of June. It was composed as folwas 1,271. The increase has been entirely on lows: C. Fock, Minister of the Interior; J. M. the state network, which shows thus far 708 Roest van Limburg, Foreign Affairs; P. P. van kilomètres.

Bosse, Finance; F. G. R. H. van Silver, Justice; The official organ of the Government, on

E. Dewaal, Colonies; J. J. van-Mulken, War; January 3, 1868, published a report of the L. G. Broex, Marine. The ministry of Public Council of Ministers proposing the dissolution: Worship was dispensed with. of the Chamber of Deputies, followed by a In November there was a serious riot at royal decree ordering that the Chamber be Rotterdam, but it was promptly quelled by the dissolved accordingly. The new elections troops. Twenty-two persons were killed. took place on the 22d of February, and the NEVADA. The election which was held general result was, the election of 35 min- in this State during the year was for the choice isterial candidates, 27 of whom previously be- of presidential electors, a member of Congress, longed to the House, and 38 opposition candi- judges of the Supreme Court, members of the dates

, 31 of whom were old members. The Legislature, and local officers. The Republican new session of the States-General was opened ticket prevailed by a majority of about 1,400. on the 25th of February by a royal commis- The Legislature contained in the Senate 15 Resion, consisting of the Ministers of the Interior publicans and 5 Democrats; in the House 36 and Finance. The opening speech said : Republicans and 3 Democrats. The views of

The Government considers that its conduct of the conventions of the respective parties in the
foreign policy has been advantageous to the country. State corresponded with those of similar con-
It was with regret, but after mature reflection, that ventions in other parts of the country, except
it decided upon dissolving the former Chamber.
There was at present a new Chamber, one-fifth of on the question of suffrage. On this subject,
which consisted of new members. The Government the Republican Convention adopted the follow-
and the representatives (continues the speech) have ing resolution:
now to guarantee that agreement between the execu-
tive and legislative powers which is necessary to

Resolved, That being, as a party, in favor of intelstrengthen confidence in our public institutions. If ligent suffrage only, we heartily indorse the action the Government receives the support of the States- of our National Convention in its position of leaving General the session will be fruitful. Let us all unite

to Nevada and other loyal States the undisputed in affection toward our sovereign and in care for his right to regulate the question of suffrage for themfaithful people, and the country will profit by our


In the Assembly, elected as above mentioned, The Second Chamber elected M. Van Ree- the word “white was stricken from the ConDen president, who, on accepting the post, deliv- stitution of the State by a vote of nearly two ered a speech in which he advised a conciliatory to one. spirit to all parties. On the 2d of March, M. A question of some national interest came Thorbecke brought forward a resolution re- up in Nevada, which was decided by the United Pecting the recent dissolution of the Chamber. States Supreme Court during the year. The Hle delivered a speech showing that the frequent plaintiff in error was agent of the Pioneer dissolution of the Chamber was unconstitu- Stage Company, at Carson City, and was ortional and uncalled for. Several other Liberal dered by the sheriff of Ormsby County to make members condemned the conduct of the min- a statement of the number of passengers conisters

, who, they said, were guilty of an veyed out of the State in April, 1865, in acabuse of the King's name.

The Minister of cordance with the ninety-first section of the the Interior and the Minister for Foreign Af- revenue act of Nevada, which levies a capifairs defended the Government, the latter re

tation tax of one dollar upon every person questing the Chamber to suspend its judg- leaving the State by any railroad, stage-coach, ment until the discussion of the budget. On or other vehicle, engaged or employed in the the 4th of March M. Blusse proposed the fol- business of transporting passengers. The agent, lowing resolution : "The House, having heard refusing to comply with the order of the sherthe statements of the ministers, is of opinion iff

, was committed for contempt, but after

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ward released on a writ of habeas corpus. The the same name, whose general altitude raries Supreme Court of Nevada decided that the law from six to nine thousand feet, though several in question was constitutional, but the United high ridges reach an elevation of eleven thouStates Supreme Court reversed the judgment sand feet. It lies one hundred and twento-fire of the court below, with instructions to enter miles east of south from Elko, and about the judgment in accordance with this opinion. same distance south of east from Austia. Elko

Mr. Justice Miller, who delivered the opin- is on the Central Pacific Railroad, some four ion, after examining the subject in its consti- hundred and sixty miles east of Sacramento, tutional relations, took the general ground and at present is simply a collection of tents that citizens in one part of the country have at the mouth of the south fork of the Hun. the same unrestrained right to travel as citi- boldt. Stages already run between Silter zens in any other part of the United States. City and Boise, to Elko, and thence to HamilHe reviewed the question in a national aspect, ton, in the White Pine district. The discovery referring, among other things, to the fact that of the silver lodes-regarded as the riches Washington is the seat of a great Government, ever known in the world—was made by an InCongress makes laws, the judiciary expounds dian and a man named Eberhardt, and the them, and the President directs its thou- mine located in January, 1868. A shaft wa sands of employés in the transaction of busi- sunk at the point of discovery, out of which ness. They may be called to Washington for some good ore was taken, but nothing to ind instructions, or other citizens may be appointed cate the immense value which has since beca to office in Washington, or such public officers developed. In May following, a discoverses may find it necessary to leave their respective made, about a hundred feet east of the shatt, of localities to attend to Government business in exceedingly rich ore, and work was commented other States. If restrictions be imposed upon with vigor. The nearest reduction-work: their travel, it is apparent that the design of a were at Newark, some twenty-five miles disfree Government, where every man has a right tant, and Austin, one hundred and twenty to emigrate, cannot be efficiently carried out. miles distant; and the ore was shipped to And so of business of all kinds in the States, both these points. The first lot, worked & whether connected with the Government or Austin, paid at the rate of fourteen hundred not. If one State can impose a capitation tax dollars per ton. on passengers leaving it, or passing through its The Eberhardt is located on the southern territory, so can another, or all the States may slope of Treasure Hill, and development has thus restrain or impedé travel, and interfere shown that it runs nearly east and west

, rathe: with commerce between the States. In fur- than north and south, as located; yet that ther support of the views of the majority of portion which is at present yielding so sher the court, he said the Government, under such dantly is called the South Eberhardt. Th: State laws, could be seriously embarrassed in workings have been extended until two-dithe transportation of troops and supplies, and tinct and well-defined walls appear, which are quoted numerous legal authorities to sustain one hundred and eighty-four feet apart, aki the opinion. Chief-Justice Chase and Associate- between which the ore is enclosed. The red Justice Clifford dissented as to some of the matter is a conglomerate of quartz calcspe; principles advanced in the opinion.

limestone charged with metal, and bowlders o The construction of railroads is already at- barren limestone, a majority of which contre tracting attention among the people. The from eight thousand to twenty thousand dalCentral Pacific is about completed through lars per ton in silver; none of the lower gts: the State. Another enterprise is the Virginia is at present worked, and nothing less the and Truckee Railroad, to connect with the Cen- three hundred and fifty dollar ore has yet beta tral Pacific at Reno, on the Truckee River, sent to the mill, and by far the greater portie a passing through Washoe City, Carson City, and has yielded from eight to twelve hundred dolthe richest agricultural valleys to Virginia lars per ton. The mine lies in a limeston City. The engineers are engaged in the neces- formation; the workings during the summer sary surveys. Arrangements have been made were in an open cut, but during the fall 150 for the iron and rolling stock, and nothing shafts were sunk which were covered witb. remains to engage the attention of the com- substantial building, and through which the pany but the speedy grading of the road and workings are conducted. The deepest shart is the laying of the track. Another road is but eighty or ninety feet down. There was in contemplated from Oroville, California, to sight in the mine, on January 1st, as estimate! Virginia City, and a portion of the capital by competent judges, between four and fire is taken up.

hundred tons of milling ore. Small lots of ar? The mining operations throughout the State have been selected and smelted that yieldi have improved during the year, although the from four to seven dollars per pound; and the yield of some districts has declined. Of the company had on hand about seven tons of or new fields which have been discovered, the that will yield from five to seven thousand de! most promising is known ås the White Pine. lars per ton in silver. Since the opening ei This district comprises an area of about twelve the mine, in May last, according to the banks miles square, in a bold chain of hills bearing of the company, an amount of ore has bee 19

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