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rightful authority to and the independence of the facto law, or law impairing the obligation of Executive and Judiciary, and the subordination of contracts." His language on this point is: the military to the civil power.
7. Equal rights and protection for naturalized and This act declares that no person shall vote at the native-born citizens at home and abroad, and the election for delegates to said convention who is assertion of American nationality which shall com
not, if duly challenged, take and subscribe an oath mand the respect of foreign powers and furnish an
that he has not done certain acts mentioned therein, example and encouragement to people struggling for and inflicts the penalty of political disfranchisement
, national integrity and constitutional liberty.
without any preliminary examination or trial, ior a 8. That the thanks of a grateful people are ever due refusal to take said oaih. Thus the citizen is deto the soldiers and sailors who perilled their lives in prived, upon declining, of a right guaranteed by the defence of the Republic, and that their claims upon
Constitution and the laws, and one of the most inesthe Government and the people shall be held sacred timable privileges of a free government. There car and inviolable.
be no doubt, I think, that to deprive a citizen of the 9. That the nation is under deep and lasting obli- privilege of exercising the elective franchise for any gation to President Andrew Johnson, who, deserted
conduct which he has previously been guilty of, is to by a party which proved faithless to the principles inflict a punishment for the act done. li importes and pledges upon which it came into power, has re- upon him a severe penalty, one which by the laws of spected liis oath to maintain and defend the Consti- the State is a part of the punishment inflicted aft: tution, and who will be honored in history as one of conviction for felony. It arbitrarily and summarils, the most determined defenders of American liberty; and without any of the forms of law, punishes it as and that Chief-Justice Chase, who, in the trial insti- offence created by the law itself. tuted to depose the Executive as an obstacle to par
When the act in question was passed by the Legis tisan and revolutionary purposes, proved faithful to lature, there was no law in this State which einhis high trusts, and restored the Judiciary to its demned or characterized the conduct which is fuiancient renown, is entitled to the gratitude not only ished in this act, by depriving the citizen of the mus of the Democracy of this State and nation, but of all of suffrage. This law created a new crime, and main friends of civil government.
an offence which did not previously exist. It pas
ishes for an act which was not a crime when you In relation to State affairs the following was
ted. Besides, the statute in question, in violation i adopted :
the rules of the common law, pronounces juris Resolved, That all registration and excise laws of condemnation without evidence, without any gtshould be uniform in their operation throughout the portunity to defend against the charge, and the State; and that the execution of excise laws and the any trial. It makes the party the accuser of time collection of foes under them should be made through and his refusal to acquit himself
, his own conder* the local authorities in the several counties.
tion. It punishes for an offence, before an aceastao
is made and a trial had judicially, according to it The election took place on the first Tuesday constitution and the laws of the land. It is of November, and resulted in favor of the him, in a direct violation of the Constitution du Democratic candidates both for State officers refusal to testify that he is innocent operates top
United States, to be a witness against himself
. Hi and Presidential electors. The whole vote for
duce his conviction, and seals his guilt. The Governor was 850,656, of which Hoffman of the fifth amendment was to prevent the partyte received 439,301 and Griswold 411,355, giving being called upon as a witness of his own guilt
. T the former à majority of 27,946. The entire compel him to testify would violate this provisio vote cast for Presidential electors was 849,766,
and indirectly to make his refusal to testify a com of which 429,883 were for electors pledged an evasion of the provision cited.
for punishment effects the same purpose. It is comme to vote for Seymour, and 419,883 were in favor of the election of Grant. Seymour's
The act prescribing this oath is also decen majority in the State was just 10,000. Thirty- to be contrary to the provisions of the cost one members of Congress were chosen, of
tution of the State. The Judge says: whom thirteen are Democrats, and eighteen I am also of the opinion that the statute in 7 Republicans. The Legislature of 1869 has 17
tion violates the constitution of the State of NT
York. Republicans, and 15 Democrats in the Senate,
The first section of the second article of the parte and 76 Republicans and 52 Democrats in the
stitution prescribes the qualifications of electors, aby Assembly. In the City of New York there shall be entitled to vote for all officers that bot: were 173,683 voters registered, 165,894 votes hereafter may be elected by the people." were cast for Governor, of which 112,522, or a
The second section of the nineteenth artida majority of 69,150 were given for Mr. Hoff
vides for the submission of the question, whether
convention shall be called, " to the electors cuadded The full vote for Mayor in December to vote for members of the Legislature, and in cea was 95,944, of which A. Oakey Hall received majority of the electors so qualified voting site supply 75,109, or a majority of 54,274 over Fred.
election shall decide in favor of such conrektir!" A. Conkling, the Republican candidate. such a purpose, the Legislature shall provide for the The Court of Appeals pronounced a decision
election of delegates to such convention." T:
clause does not confer upon the Legislature w against the legality of political test oaths at power to create disabilities not existing at the 15 the November term. The case arose under under the Constitution, or to restrict the rieb the act of 1867, providing for a conven
suffrage which the Constitution has establisted. tion to revise and' amend the Constitution of right to determine who were entitled to the pri
would be extraordinary if the Legislature Lad the State, which excluded from the privilege of voting, and thus, in the exercise of an unkno of voting all persons who refused to take a discretion, be able to disfranchise any class of prescribed oath. Judge Miller held the opinion zens, when the right is already clearly establish that was inconsistent with the clause of of the constitution of this state, which declare that the Federal Constitution which declares that
no member of this state shall be distractised “no State shall pass any bill ofattainder, er post deprived of any of the rights or privileges secue)!
any citizens thereof, unless by the law of the land or The following statement exhibits the finanthe judgment of his peers." " The law of the land" cial condition of the canals: does not mean a statute passed for the purpose of
Canal Fund. working the wrong, but the law which existed at the time when the alleged offence was perpetrated. The
Balance on hand October 7, 1867
$3,840,935 66 provision was intended to restrict the power of Received during the year..
5,681,226 11 the Legislature (Wynehammer agt. The People, 13
4,823,239 33 section in question pronounces a judgment and disfranchises the elector without judge or jury, or Balance September 30, 1868.
$4,698,922 44 any of the forms required by the ordinary course of
Revenues and Expenditures. legal proceedings.
Receipts from tolls.
$4,417,559 50 It also violates section six of article one, which de- Receipts from rent of surplus water..
750 00 clares that no person shall be held to answer for a
Interest on current revenues.
Miscellaneous receipts.. crime, except on presentment of a grand jury; and
26,444 98 the second section of the same article, which secures
$4,477,546 17 the right of trial by jury in all cases in which it bas Payinents to commissioners for repairs... $241,647 18 heretofore been held inviolate.
To contractors for repairs..:
775,118 74 At the beginning of the fiscal year, October To collectors for salaries, etc.
To superintendents for repairs....
76,761 11 1, 1867, there was a deficiency in the revenues of. To weighmasters.
13,347 70 the State of $2,860,586.38. The payments made Miscellaneous..
77,079 29 during the year amounted to $10,208,198.46,
$1,184,245 04 thus giving $13,068,784.84 to be provided for Surplus revenues, mostly applied to the sinkby taxation, while the receipts from that source
$3,293,301 13 were $10,112,331.30, leaving a deficiency of The produce of the State salt springs of On$2,956,453.54. This was afterward made up
ondaga for the year was 8,793,514 bushels, by the payment of $4,000,000 due from the city yielding a revenue of $88,049.47' obtained at of New York. The receipts of the year on ac
an expense of $49,238, which leaves the net count of all the funds of the State, with the excep- profit to the State at $38,811.47. tion of the canal and free-school funds, amounted
The earnings and expenses of the State Pristo $16,003,178.53, and the payments on the
ons are as follows: same account were upward of $15,000,000,
$135,363 78 which left a balance of $748,521.41. The State Auburn.
125,334 89 tax levied in 1868 was 54 mills on each dollar Clinton...
238,428 55 of taxable property, and was distributed as fol
$499,127 55 lows: For schools, 17 mills; for general pur
Expenses. poses, 11 mills; for canals, 11} mill; for bounty
$303,364 36 debt, 27 mills; and for the Whitehall and Anburn...
208.839 53 Plattsburgh work, 1 mill; all of which yield
420,008 31 ed a total revenue of $10,243,317.01.
$932,212 20 The State debt, on the 30th of September, 1867, was $48,367,682.22, classified as follows:
The following figures relate to the Public
Schools: General Fund Debt.
$5,642,622 22 Contingent.
Receipts. 15,733,060 00 Amount reported on hand, Oct. 1, 1867..... $1,197,924 70 Bounty. 26,862,000 00 Apportioned to districts..
2,315,166 80 Proceeds of Gospel and School Lands.
22,813 46 Total. $48,367,682 22 Raised by Local Taxation...
633,346 58 On the 30th of September, 1868, the total From all other sources.... funded debt was reduced to $44,968,786.40,
$10,480,467 66 classified as follows:
$5,586,546 42 General Fund.
26.926 48 Contingent.
231,392 34 Canal..
64,765 58 Bounty.
930.610 61 The following statement shows the amount
Amount reported on hand, Oct. 1, 1868. 1,470,610 01 of the State debt on the 30th of September,
$10,480,467 66 1868, after deducting the unapplied balances
Statistical. of the sinking funds of that date:
Number of children of school age.
16.590 Number of male teachers....
5,883 General Fund $4,707,826 40 *$153,178 54 $4,554,647 85
Number of female teachers.
21,870 Contingent... 68.000 00 15,517 82 52,482 18 Number of school districts..........
11,731 14,249,960 00 4,017,282 43 10,232,727 57 Number of school-houses.
11,673 25,913,000 00 +1,919,408 87 24,024,591 13
.Number of volumes in district libraries.. 1,064,229
Amount of public money to be appropriated Total..... $44,968,786 40 $6,101,337 66 $38,864,448 74
$2,520,000 * Includes $350,000 due October 1, 1868, and since paid. + Deducting interest accrued to October 1, 1868, payablo which was called to frame a new constitution
during current fiscal year.....
NORTH CAROLINA. The convention, January 1, 1869.
Balance of the
Balance of Debt
Debt on the 30th
for the State of North Carolina under the The only oath, prescribed for every person reconstruction acts of Congress, met at Raleigh on his induction into office, is the ordinary ason the 14th of February, and proceeded to the severation that he will support the Constitution work appointed for it without delay. Some and laws of the United States and of the State little sensitiveness was displayed at first in a of North Carolina, and that he will perform, resolution, adopted on the second day of its to the best of his ability, the duties which he session, that “no reporter for any newspaper assumes in accepting the official position. be allowed upon this floor, who treats the The article on the judiciary abolishes the convention or any of its members with dis- distinction between actions at law and suits in respect, but that they shall, in case of offence equity, and provides for the establishment of a in this respect, be excluded from the floor of supreme court, superior courts, courts of the hall, and from the galleries.". The "dis- justices of the peace, and special courts
. The respect” which called forth this rule consisted Supreme Court consists of a chief-justice with in designating the colored members by the four associates, and exercises in general matword "negro," placed after their names in the ters only an appellate jurisdiction. The judges reports of the proceedings. The only impor- of both the Supreme and Superior Courts are tant discussions which arose during the sittings to be elected by the suffrages of the qualified of the convention were connected with the voters of the State, and hold their positions for subject of equal rights for whites and blacks. a term of eight years. In the constitution, as framed and adopted, no The elective franchise is conferred upon distinction of races is in any way recognized, every male person, twenty-one years of age and though attempts were made, by the members upward, native in the country or legally nataopposed to the enfranchisement of negroes, to ralized, who shall have resided in the State introduce provisions looking to various dis- twelve months next preceding the electica criminations to be made by future Legislatures. and thirty days in the county in which he oiThe principal debate on this topic occurred on fers to vote. No exception to this rule is made the consideration of the article regulating the whatever, but “no person shall be allowed to suffrage, and on that making provision for the vote without registration, or to register vitaorganization and management of public schools. out first taking an oath or affirmation to sapOne member made an elaborate speech to port and maintain the Constitution and laws show “ the physical and mental inferiority of of the United States, and the constitution and the African race, which rendered it unfit to laws of North Carolina, not inconsistent theiolive on a footing of social and political equality with." with the whites."
The only persons disqualified from holding In the Bill of Rights are these declarations : office are: First, all persons who shall das
SECTION 4. That this State shall ever remain a the being of Almighty God. Second, all permember of the American Union, that the people sons who shall have been convicted of treasa, thereof are part of the American nation; that there is no right on the part of this State to secede, and becoming citizens of the United States,
perjury, or of any other infamous crime, size that all attempts, from whatever source, or upon whatever pretext, to dissolve said Union, or to sever
of corruption or malpractice in office, unless said nation, ought to be resisted with the whole such persons shall have been legally restoru power of the State.
to the rights of citizenship." Sec. 5. That every citizen of this State owes par- On the subject of the right of suffrage se] amount allegiance to the Constitution and Government of the United States, and that no law or ordi- of eligibility to office, two minority results nance of the State, in contravention or subversion were submitted by different members of te thereof, can have any binding force.
committee which had those subjects unde? Seo. 6. To maintain the honor and good faith of consideration. One of these was in favor d tho State untarnished, the public debt, regularly con- introducing restrictions which would exclude tracted before and since the rebellion, shall be regarded as inviolable and never be questioned ; but
a large portion of the blacks who had “ reizesi the State shall never assume or pay, or authorize the ly emerged from slavery, and were unfitted by collection of, any debt or obligation, expressed or previous education and habits of thought sod implied, incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion
self-reliance, for the intelligent discharge of against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave.
the duties and responsibilities which would Sec. 33. Slavery and involuntary servitude, other- devolve upon them;" and the other proposed wise than for crime whereof the parties shall have such limitations as would deprive those, sto been duly convicted, shall be, and are hereby, forever took a prominent part in the cause of the prohibited within this State.
South in the late civil war, from participatie: The elections for members of the General in the rights of citizenship. Neither of these Assembly are hereafter to be held on the first reports had any influence in shaping the prior Thursday in August of alternate years, com- visions of the organic law of the State, and Lo mencing in 1870, and that body is to meet on reference is to be found in that instrument the third Monday in November. There are to either to a distinction of races or to the losality be 50 Senators and 120 Representatives, each or disloyalty of any class of citizens, holding office for two years. The term of of- On the subject of education, ample poter fice of all the executive officers of the Govern- are given to the Legislature to establish and ment is four years.
support an effective school system, and pro
vision is made for the management and main- vote of the people was to be taken on the.
as far as practicable, to the youth of the taining complete instructions for revising the
registration of qualified voters, and for receivA homestead and dwelling not exceeding ing and returning the votes. Among the inone thousand dollars in value, and personal structions contained in his order, were the property to the amount of five hundred dol- following: lars, are exempted from sale under execution
9th. The sheriff and other peace-officers of each or other legal process for the collection of county are required to be present during the whole any debt. The separate property of women, time that the polls are kept open, and until the elecacquired before or after marriage, is secured to
tion is completed; and will be made responsible
that there shall bé no interference with judges of them free from liability on account of the debts election, or other interruption of good order. If of their husbands.
there should be more than one polling place in any All able-bodied male persons between the county, the sheriff of the county is einpowered and ages of twenty-one and forty years, who are
directed to make such assignments of his deputies, citizens of the United States, are made liable to
and other peace-officers, to the other polling-places,
as may in his judgment best subserve the purposes duty in the militia, unless averse to bearing of quiet and order; and he is further required to rearms from religious scruples; and it is made port these arrangements in advance to the commander the duty of the Legislature to provide for the of the military post in which his county is situated. efficient employinent of this force, to execute
10th. Violence, or threats of violence, or of disthe law, suppress riots or insurrection, and to
charge from employment, or other oppressive means
to prevent any person from registering or exercising repel invasion.
his right of voting, is positively prohibited; and any The following section renders the amend- such attempts will be reported by the registrars, or ment of the constitution quite difficult: judges of eleetions, to the post commander, and will
cause the arrest and trial of the offenders by military Section 2. No part of the constitution of this State authority. The exhibition or carrying of deadly shall be altered, unless a bill to alter the same shall weapons in violation of General Orders No. 10, of have been read three times in each House of the 1867, at or in the vicinity of any polling-places durGeneral Assembly, and agreed to by three-fifths of ing the election herein ordered, will be regarded and the whole number of members of each House, respec- treated as an additional offence. tirely; nor shall any alteration take place, until the 11th. All bar-rooms, saloons, and other places for bill so agreed to shall have been published six months the sale of liquors by retail, will be closed from six previous to a new election of members of the Gen- o'clock of the evening of the 20th of April, until six eral Assembly. If, after such publication, the altera- o'clock of the morning of the 24th of April, 1868, tion proposed by the preceding General Assembly and during this time the sale of all intoxicating shall be agreed to, in the first session thereafter, by liquors at or near any polling-place is prohibited. two-thirds of the whole representation in each House The police officers of cities and towns, and the sherof the General Assembly, atter the same shall have iffs and other peace-officers of counties, will be held been read three times on three several days in each responsible for the strict enforcement of this prohibiHouse, then the said General Assembly shall pre- tion, and will promptly arrest and hold for trial all scribe a mode by which the amendment or amend- persons who may transgress it. ments may be submitted to the qualified voters of 12th. Military interference with elections, “ unless the House of Representatives throughout the State; it shall be necessary to repel the armed enemies of and if, upon comparing the votes given in the whole the United States, or to keep the peace at the polls," State, it shall appear that a majority of the voters is prohibited by the Act of Congress approved Febvoting thereon have approved thereof, then, and ruary 25, 1865, and no soldiers will be allowed to apnot otherwise, the same shall become a part of the pear at any polling-place, unless as citizens of the constitution.
State they are qualified and are registered as voters,
and then only for the purpose of voting; but the The principal objections made to the work commanders of posts will keep their troops well in of the convention, either by its own members hand on the days of election, and will be prepared or in the public prints, were based on its free- to act promptly if the civil authorities are unable to dom from any provisions making distinctions preserve the peace. among citizens on account of race, color, or
The State-officers to be chosen were a govprevious condition. The convention concluded ernor, lieutenant-governor, anditor, treasurer, its labors with an ordinance providing for the superintendent of public works, superintendfirst election, at which the vote was to be ent of public instruction, attorney-general, taken on its ratification, and adjourned on the five justices of the Supreme Court, and one 17th of March.
judge of the Superior Court, in each of twelve The ordinance of the convention, providing judicial districts. for the holding of the election at which the A disposition was shown, on the part of all
classes of people in the State to take part in and believes that its rights and powers, in that rethe political canvass, and exert their influence spect, should be preserved intact, as established by for or against the new constitution. Dele- law in the earlier and better days of the Pepublikein
and that any serious impairment thereof, by legis gates of the Conservative or Democratic party lation or otherwise, will be destructive to the best met in convention, at the call of their State interests of the country, and dangerous to the liberexecutive committee, at Raleigh, on the 7th of ties of the people. February, and decided upon a plan of organiza
Resolved, That, despairing of any restoration of tion for the party throughout the State. The the Southern States under the conduct of that or
ganization which now controls the proceedings of purpose of the convention, as expressed in the Congress, waiving all former party feeling and prejapreamble to its declaration of principles, was dice, this convention does most unhesitatingly re"to consider the present anomalous condition ommend and invite the cooperation of all the perple of the State, and of the country, and to con
of North Carolina with the Democrats and Conseris
tive men of the North and West, who are not nobly sult together upon the grievances which now strugyling for the maintenance of the Constitution afflict and threaten them (the Conservatives), of the United States, and the restoration of the and the course of action proper to be adopted Southern States to their rights in the Union, on tõe in the trying circumstances which surround solid foundation of harmony and peace.
After declaring their “unalterable The Republican Convention met at Raleigh devotion to the principles of constitutional on the 2d of March, and placed candidates is liberty," and their“ fealty to the Government nomination for the offices to be filled at the of the United States, as set forth in the Fed- election in April. The Republican candidata eral Constitution," and averring that they ac- for Governor was Wm. W. Holden, and Thomas cept in good faith “the legitimate and legal S. Ashe was nominated by the Democrats. results of the late war,” and heartily desired The whole number of voters registered in peace and concord with their “sister States, the State of North Carolina was 196,876, of and with the entire United States,” they em- whom 117,431 were whites and 79,445 colored bodied the leading articles of their political faith The whole vote on the constitution at the e.ee in the following resolutions:
tion of April, 1868, was 167,127; 93,118 votes United States as the source of all power in the ad- ing a majority of 19,109 in favor of adoptis;
Resolved, That, regarding the Constitution of the were for ratification, and 74,009 against it, et ministration of the Government, and that the powers that instrument. The entire vote cast for of the Executive, Legislative and Judicial depart. Governor was 179,950; Holden received 4ments are equal and coordinate, as defined by that instrument, we do respectfully and solemnly protest 499, and Ashe 83,451; Holden's majorits, leagainst the enforcement upon our people of the re- 048. There were seven members of Congress construction Acts and policy of Congress, as uncon- chosen, Republicans from the first, second stitutional, unwise, and destructive to society, and third, fourth, and fifth districts, and Den violative of that great principle of American polities, that each State shall have the exclusive control of its crats from the sixth and seventh districts. The own internal affairs.
constitution of the State Legislature is as filResolved, That it is the opinion of this conven- lows: tion, that the great and all absorbing issue, now soon to be presented to the people of the State, is Republicans.... negro suffrage and negro equality, if not supremacy, Democrats..
51 and whether, hereafter, in North Carolina and the South, the white man is to be placed politically, Republican majority. 26 and, as a consequenco, socially, upon a footing of equality with the negro, and, in many localities, The constitution of North Carolina met the subject
to his government as a superior. That we approbation of Congress, and, on the 25th of are utterly, opposed to such change in our govern- June, an act passed that body to admit this hereby earnestly recommend to the people of the among other Southern States, into the l'hier State to manfully meet the issue now attempted to be forced upon them, and to use every proper Federal Constitution should be ratified bris
as soon as the proposed amendment of the means within their power to avert the impending Legislature. In order that the rote might be mischief.
Resolred, Th to political and social equality with the black race, while we are unalterably opposed taken on this matter, and that such laws mich
be passed as should be necessary in reorzalis we yet have no unjust prejudices against that race; ing the Government of the State, the General them fully in all their civil rights, and to confer the Governor
, to meet at Raleigh on the upon them all privileges which can be done consistently with the safety and welfare of both races. first day of July. Judge Pearson, who was ty
Resoloed, That the distressed and impoverished administer the oath of office to the members of speediest and wisest
" measures of relief that the Le- by that no oath would be required except this gislature can devise. feclings of gratitude, the heroic and patriotic efforts order to facilitate the organization of the Heart
Resolved, That this convention recognizes, with prescribed in the constitution of the State. La of the President of the United States, to restore the State Government, the Governor and Le
Resolved, That this convention regards the Su- order, and the persons appointed who had been preme Court of the United States as the legitimate lately elected to those positions. This order expounder, in the last resort, of the Constitution- was to take effect on the meeting of the Legit?