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which has gained so much under such adverse cattle from the South. The subject was subcircumstances, and, disdaining the counsels of sequently brought to the attention of the Letimidity or the indifference of despair, continue gislature. the struggle till the last hour of the 3d of On the night of the 18th of November, the November, in the discharge of a solemn duty, Ohio Central Lunatic Asylum at Columbus was the reward of which will be the redemption of destroyed by fire, and six of the patients were our country from despotism and anarchy.” suffocated, while terrible suffering was caused

At the November election 518,828 votes were to many others. This calamity is described as cast, of which 280,128 were for Grant and one of unusual distress. The loss to the State 238,700 for Seymour. Grant's majority was was nearly $200,000. The Legislature, which 41,428.

met in extra session on the 23d of November, The financial condition of Ohio is improving. appointed a committee to investigate the cause In 1845, when the total value of the taxable of the fire, the extent of damage, and the expediproperty in the State was $136,142,666, the ency of rebuilding the institution. A majorpublic debt amounted to $20,018,515. In 1868, ity of the committee reported at the regular with the total of taxable property at $1,138,- session in January in favor of transferring the 754, 779, the State debt was $10,532,675. The site and remnants of the buildings to the Asyreceipts into the Treasury during the year have lum for the Blind and building a new Insane been $4,347,484.82, and the disbursements for Asylum, the selection of a site to be made by the same period have amounted to $4,455,- a committee consisting of two members from 354.86.

the Senate and three from the House. There The Ohio railroads, in operation on the 30th was also a minority report, which recommended of June, measured 5,653.09 miles, including that the old buildings be rebuilt and refitted over 2,000 miles running into adjoining States, with as little delay as possible. in making connection with other lines to vari- The regular session of the Legislature for ous parts of the country. The number of work- 1869 opened on the 5th of January, and was men engaged in repairs and operations on these constituted as follows: roads was 19,884. The total cost of constructing these railroads was $288,269,958, and the Republican.

17 equipments cost $14,299,916. This is repre

Democratic

76 sented by paid-up capital to the amount Democratic majority..

7 of $172,047,542; funded debt, $133,111,294 ; floating debt, $8,494,466 ; or a total capital of

OLDENBURG, a grand-duchy belonging to

Grand$313,653,302, against an entire cost of $302,. the North German Confederation. 589,874.' The gross earnings of these railroads duke, Peter I., born July 8, 1827; succeeded or one year was $47,118,722, while the expense

his father, February 27, 1853. Heir-appaof operating them was $32,920,034, leaving $14,- rent, Prince Frederick August, born Novem198,688 for the net earnings. $6,963,726 were

ber 16, 1852. Area, 2,469 square miles. aid out for construction and new equipment, Population, in 1867, 315,622.

The populaand $3,801,291 in dividends, while $1,644,376 tion connected with the Evangelical State were paid to the State and nation in taxes.

Church was 241,381; the Roman Catholic · The number of school-houses in Ohio is population, 72,077; other Christians, 984; 11,353, with a total value of $9,072,443. The Jews, 1,527; religion not stated, 26. number of children in the State, between the public debt, at the close of 1867, amounted to ages of five and twenty-one years, is 971,705— 7,967,600 thalers. The army is fully incor194,458 male and 477,247 female-of whom porated with that of Prussia. The movement 704,767, are enrolled as pupils; average daily of shipping, in 1866, was as follows: attendance, 397,436, of whom 3,036 were German, and 5,083 colored. Number of teachers, 21,568—male, 8,348, female, 13,220; average nonthly wages of male teachers, $38.52, of females, $23.80. Returns from 647 private of which Oldenburg

7,671 177,956 7,912 188,675 schools show an enrolment of 26,450 pupils;

4,785 80,086 5,100 89,106 there were 65 academies with 6,167 students;

The merchant navy, on January 1, 1867, con43 ladies' seminaries with 4,217 students; and sisted of 190 vessels, of 26,863 lasts. Besides, 26 colleges with 4,738 students, only 1,113 of there were 443 coasting vessels, of 7,227 lasts. whom were pursuing a regular collegiate course. OREGON. The relative strength of polit

Some alarm was created in the grazing dis- ical parties in Oregon was reversed during the tricts of Ohio during the summer by the ap- year, and the Democrats carried the State by pearance of what is known as the Texas cattle

an unusual majority. On March 9th, the fever, and in a few localities serious losses were Democratic State Convention assembled at occasioned by this malady. In the absence of Portland, and adopted the following series of any legislative provision on the subject, the

resolutions : Governor issued a proclamation, and appointed commissioners to prevent the spread of the dis- and unswerving fidelity to the time-honored prin

Resolved, That we renew our pledge of adherence ease and prohibit the introduction of diseased ciples of the Democratic party.

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Resolved, That the Federal Government is one of fifty miles was sent forward at the beginlimited powers, granted by the States in a written ning of the year. It is anticipated that the Constitution, which is the sole measure of its authority in war and in peace, and is alike law for the ruler Union Pacific road will connect with the and the people.

Columbia River and Paget's Sound road, br Resolved, that this Union under the Constitution crossing the Blue Mountains and following up is the only solid foundation of our strength and pros- the waters of the Malhuer, using & natural perity as a people, equally conducive to the welfare division, and proceeding down the John Day of all the States, both North and South.

Resolved, that the Constitution of the United River through a rich and extensive region, and States confers no power on Congress to legislate up- reaching the Columbia at Dalles City. on the internal affairs of the States composing this The commerce of the State is rapidly growUnion. Risolved, That it is the highest duty of every lar lines of transportation are established tij

ing. Grain is shipped to Liverpool; regsAmerican citizen to maintain against all their enemies the obligations of the Constitution, and the

New York, and others are proposed to At integrity of the Union under it.

tralia, China, and Japan. The population di servile races the priceless political heritage achieved wealth and commerce.

Resolved, That we are opposed to sharing with the State is also greatly increasing with its alone by white men, and by them transmitted to us, their posterity, as a sacred trust forever.

OSGOOD, Mrs. HELEN LOUISE GILSOs, 22 Resolved, That good faith and justice to all de- eminently practical and active philanthropis, mand that the public debt shall be paid in like cur- whose services to the sick and wounded sol rency as contracted, and we favor action by Congress diers of the Union army, during the late Fe. submitting United States securities to be taxed as other property.

secured her the love and admiration of thoz Rosolved, that the burdens of taxation ought to be sands. She was born in Boston about 1835, 21 equal among the people, and should be upon prop- died at Newton Centre, Mass., April 20, 1845 erty instead of the industry of the country, as by She removed with her parents, during her ebini present laws provided.

Resolved, That we protest against the reconstruc- hood, to Chelsea, Mass., and after their desti tion acts of Congress as unwarranted by the Consti

was the ward of Frank B. Fay, of Chelsch tution, revolutionary in tendency, and in positive in whose family she lived for some years. violation of the faith of the General Government She had received an excellent education, and pledged to the people of the United States,

was endowed with extraordinary musical 1) Resolved, That we utterly condemn the attempt of Congress, to usurp the powers of the executive and conversational talent, and with an executite i

judicial departments of the Government, as a flagrant ability rare even in the most accomplished bas. outrage upon the Constitution and the liberties of ness men. When the war commenced she gate the people.

herself at once to the work of caring for the Resolved, That we sympathize with the Irish peo- soldiers, first at home, and afterward in the ple in their efforts to secure to themselves civil lib- field. She was among the first to organiz

Resolved, That it is the duty of the Federal Gov- Soldiers' Aid Societies in her own city, to pre ernment to extend protection alike to all native and pare and collect supplies, and to arrange them naturalized citizens both at home and abroad.

for transportation. Finding that many of the The Republican State Convention assembled wives and daughters of soldiers were in stre at the same place on a later date, but their ened circumstances, she took a contract for the proceedings have failed to reach us.

manufacture of army clothing from the Gore The election was held on the first Monday ernment, and not only gave her own services in June, and resulted in the choice of a Demo- in the preparation of the work, but, raising, or cratic member of Congress, by a majority of her own subscription and the contributions 1,209 in a total vote of 22,369, and a Legisla- .others, a fund for the purpose, she furnists: ture with four Democratic majority in the employment to these poor women at Fus Senate and thirteen in the lower House. At which were much higher than those paid by the Presidential election in November the the contractors, and which enabled them to live total vote was 22,086, and the Democratic comfortably. In the early spring of 1862, sta majority 164.

felt strongly moved to go to the army and rei The Legislature assembled in September, der personal service in the care of the sick a and its action was confined to measures of wounded soldiers; and, when the Secretary of economy and of local interest, except the adop- the Sanitary Commission called for volunteer tion of a resolution, withdrawing the consent nurses for the hospital transport service en te of the State to the passage of the Fourteenth peninsula, she gladly made one of the numer Amendment to the Federal Constitution. who entered upon that hervic work. Hora

Preparations have been made to construct woman so delicately reared, and fragile in form railroads in the State, as has been stated in could endure all the labors and hardships wie previous volumes. To the Oregon Central fell to the lot of those noble women who for Railroad Congress has granted 1,280 acres nearly three months worked incessantly in that of land for each mile of roadway constructed malarious climate,

must remain a mystery: bat to the California border, which is a distance though doubtless wearied and worn with de: of 300 miles. The State has also given a work, Miss Gibson (she was not married to guarantee to pay seven per cent. on $1,000,000 after the close of the war) did her work wel of the company's bonds. The material for and cheerfully, and her coming among the ** the construction and operation of the first diers was always like a ray of sunshine. After s

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brief period of rest, she was again upon the field were more gentle or more skilful than she. with Mr. Fay and his party, and through the When this work slackened, she set herself the campaign around Washington, at Antietam and task of creating a model hospital for the sick Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, was ever and wounded colored soldiers of the army of active and welcome. Another brief period of the Potomac, who had previously been much rest passed, and she then went to Gettysburg, neglected. From the most unpromising matewhere her gentle attentions, her sweet voice, rials, from inefficient help, and but limited and her great executive power, endeared her means, she succeeded by her executive skill in to the men, who almost worshipped her, and organizing and conducting, for many months, a enabled her to bring order out of chaos, and hospital for 900 to 1,000 patients, which had no subdue even the most turbulent spirits with a superior in the numerous army hospitals clusword or look. Though thoroughly self-con- tered in that vicinity. Every thing done in trolled she was naturally diffident and retiring that large hospital was under her personal in her manner; but her heart was so full of the direction, and not only was every patient well sufferings and heroism of the soldiers, that, cared for, and pains taken in their restoration, whenever she was away from the battle-field, and their religious and intellectual interests she could not refrain from pleading their cause carefully watched, but she found time amid all and extolling their endurance and sacrifices; her other duties to provide for the comfort and she did this so simply and naturally that and improvement of the poor negro washershe always won the tears, the sympathy, and women attached to the camp. She remainthe liberal contributions of those who lis- ed with the army, and at the hospitals in tened.

Richmond and its vicinity, till July, 1865; But her greatest work was accomplished dur- spent the remainder of the summer in a ing the last year of the war, that year of ter- quiet retreat on Long Island, and in the rible slaughter and suffering. She went to the autumn returned with partially recovered front with Mr. Fay and other friends in May, health to Chelsea, Massachusetts. She so far 1864, and at Belle Plain, at Fredericksburg, at regained her strength, and apparently her White House, and at City Point, she was in- health, as to be married the following year to defatigable in her labors, so systematizing her Mr. Osgood, who had formed one of the party work, even amid those scenes, as to be able of Mr. Fay in the sanitary work in the army without distraction to administer comfort, re- of the Potomac. For a time her new life and lief, ease, and solace to thousands of the se- its happiness sustained her spirits and gave verely wounded and dying. Her cheering promise of future usefulness and peace; but words, her sweet songs and hymns, sung as soon the overtasked powers of nature began she only could sing them, and the benediction to fail, and she died a martyr to her patriotof her presence, exerted a powerful influence ism and philanthropy. The Third Army Corps, in sustaining the courage and supporting the to which she had so faithfully ministered, strength of the wounded soldiers, and in all have taken measures to erect a monument to the ministrations of love and tenderness none her memory.

P PAGE, CHARLES GRAFTox, M. D., an emi- examiners, instead of twenty, of whom the nent physicist, professor, and author, born in corps is now composed, and this position since Salem, Mass., January 25, 1812 ; died in Wash- that date he occupied with some brief excepington, D. O., May 5, 1868. He was early tions until the day of his decease.

From a distinguished for his intellectual and and philo- very early day he was a contributor to the sophical tendencies; when only ten years of various literary and scientific periodicals, and age he constructed an electrical machine. He particularly to the American Journal of Science, was prepared for college, in Salem, by General or, as it is more frequently called, Silliman's H. K. Oliver, entered Harvard College in 1828, Journal. Within the last four or six months and graduated with distinction in 1832. After of his life he wrote and caused to be published learing college he studied at the medical school one of the most concise, full, and elaborate in Boston. He made himself thoroughly ac- treatises upon the subject of electrical science quainted with the science and practice of med- and discovery which has yet appeared. It is icine, and in 1838 went to Virginia, where he now proved and admitted that to him, as much, pursued the practice of his profession for a if not more than to any other man, either on this period of two years. He was appointed Pro- or the other side of the Atlantic, are due the fessor of Chemistry in Columbia College, Dis- suggestions of that electric cable which, in the trict of Columbia, in 1839. In 1840 he was hands of others, at last spanned the broad called to a position of trust and responsibility ocean and made one great whispering gallery in the capacity of Examiner in the Patent of all the continents of the world. He had Office, under the Government of the United been for years engaged in perfecting machinery States, at a time when there were but two for the effective and economical use of electro

magnetism as a motive power, and had so far succeeded as to be able to use it for the propulsion of machinery and to some extent as a locomotive force. Had his life been spared he would undoubtedly have completed this great work.

PAIGE, Hon. ALONZO CHRISTOPHER, a distinguished jurist of New York, born in Scaghticoke, N. Y., July 31, 1797; died in Schenectady, N. Y., March 31, 1868. He was the son of Rev. Winslow Paige, D. D., and received his early education under his father's direction. He entered Williams College in 1808, and graduated second in his class in 1812. His father was desirous that he should become a clergyman, and after his graduation placed him with Rev. Dr. Banks, of the Scotch Church in Montgomery County, to study theology. But not being interested in theological studies, he removed to Schenectady after a time, and studied law, being admitted to the bar in 1819. Young as he was, his graceful and elegant manners, his fine scholarship, and his remarkable attainments in the law, commanded success almost from the beginning. In 1828 he was appointed Reporter of the Court of Chancery, and remained till 1846, publishing in the meanwhile 11 volumes of Chancery reports. In 1826 he was elected to the Legislature, and served for four successive years. In 1838 he was elected Senator, and served with distinction in the State Senate four years, and was subsequently reelected. He was elected Justice of the Supreme Court in June, 1847, and drew for the term of four years, and in 1855 was elected for the term of two years to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Justice Cady. In June, 1867, he was elected to the Constitutional Convention, where his efforts, in connection with those of J. S. Landon, to purify the ballot-box entitled him to the lasting gratitude of the people whom in every capacity he served so well. This was the last public office which he filled. He had been for thirty years a Trustee of Union College, and his finished education and wide culture rendered him an invaluable guardian of that institution. As a lawyer, he was remarkably able, reaching at once beyond trivial and unimportant issues to the great principles on which the law is based. As a judge, his decisions were regarded by his brethren on the bench, and by the legal profession generally, as among the most valuable in the records of judicial opinions. Clear and unimpassioned in judgment and embodying the results of careful and extended research, they are and will be highly prized. Though never a professed politician, and incapable alike from his character and disposition of resorting to political trickery and management, the sympathies of Judge Paige had always been with the old Democratic party, but he loved his country better than his party, and at the outbreak of the late war no political affiliation could restrain him from earnest and active efforts in

behalf of the cause of the Union. In all the relations of life he maintained a simple dignity of manner, a winning and gentle courtesy, a tender and cordial sympathy with the poor and the suffering, and a large-handed liberality for every worthy object.

PAPAL STATES, present pope, Pius IX. (before his elevation to the Papal See, Giovanni Maria, Count Mastai Ferretti), born at Sinigaglia, May 13, 1792; elected June 16, 1846. The ministry at the close of the year 1868 was composed as follows: Secretary of State, Car dinal Giac. Antonelli, President; Finances and Treasury, Giuseppe Ferrari (December 1, 1854); Interior, Augusto Negroni (February 8, 1868); War, Brigadier-General Hermann Kanzler (October 28, 1865); Commerce, Arts, and Public Works, Cardinal J. Berardi (April 1868); Police, Lorenzo Randi (October 28, 1865).

President of the Council of State, Cardinal Teodolpho Mertel (since 1863). The area amounts to 4,552 square mlles; the poplation, to 723,121. The population of the city of Rome, in 1867, was 215,573; in 1868, 217,378; among whom there were 4,650 Is raelites, 457 non-Catholics, and 6,429 persons belonging to the clergy. In the budget for 1867, the revenue amounted to 36,431,058 lire (1 lira: =1 franc = 19 cents); the expenditure, to 73,838,754 lire; deficit, 37,407,696 lire. For the year 1868, the revenue was estimated st 28,845,359 lire; the expenditures, at 73,949.803 lire; deficit, 45,104,444 lire. Public debt, in 1867, 37,402,695 lire rente; which, at the rate of five per cent., would be equal to a capital of 748,053,900 lire. According to a convertion concluded on December 7, 1866, the Gro ernment of Italy assumed, in consideration o the annexation of Romagna, the Marches, Un bria, and Benevento, a part of the Papal dest and bound itself to pay to the Papal Govern ment the sum of 20,642,292 francs, and an annual rente of 18,627,773 lire.

The arrivals and clearances of merchant vessels in the ports of Civita Vecchia, Fumicino, Badino, and Terracina, amounted to 3,654; together, 493,217 tons.

According to the "official statistics of the Pontifical army for the year 1869, the Papal army was composed of 16,334 (officers, underofficers, and soldiers), among whom there were: Italians of all provinces, 8240; Frenchmen, 2,930; Belgians, 678; Dutch 1,713; Swiss, 970; Germans, 1,154; A trians, 88; Spaniards, 42; Americans, Bra zilians, 27. The Corps of Zouves is composed of 4,342 soldiers, of whom 230 are Italians, 1,211 Frenchmen, 1,683 Dutch, 233 Canadiazs A proposal was made in 1868 by the American General Carroll Lewis, to raise a battalion of 1,200 men in the United States for the Pontifical army, which was abandoned in conse quence of the opposition of the Roman Catho lic archbishops and bishops. Four of the archbishops published, with regard to this subject, the following card:

The publication in the newspapers of a circular from Rome, to the effect that the Holy Father had consented to accept the services of a battalion of one thousand men, to be raised in the United States, on condition that the said men shall be carefully chosen, and be equipped and supported for three years by the Catholics of these States, seems to call for some official notice from the prelates to whom the circular is exclusively addressed, and to whose discretion, as guardians of the interests of the church in this country, the subject is committed. For this reason and for the purpose, at the same time, of satisfying inquiries which have reached us from various quarters, we deem it proper thus publicly to define our position with reference to a matter of so much importance; and in so doing we have the best reasons for knowing that we do but speak not alone our own sentiments, but those also of our venerable brethren in the

It is needless for us to say how sincerely we desire

to uphold and protect, as far as in us lies, the temporal independence of the Holy Father, being persuaded how essential it is to the free and unfettered exercise of his spiritual supremacy in the government of the universal church. Yet the proposal to raise and equip an American battalion did not originate with us. As far as we can learn, it has emanated from, and been persistently urged on the military authorities at Rome by, some party or parties who have assumed to represent us, not only without our sanction or authority, but even without our knowledge; and what renders this the more remarkable, is the fact, that the gentleman who has succeeded in securing for himself, in advance, the appointment of lieutenant-colonel, to have command of the proposed battalion, is one who, we feel bound to say, does not enjoy, and is not entitled to enjoy, our confidence; especially in a position of so high a responsibility and trust. If he has found encouragement and support from one or two journals, edited by Catholic laymen, which have given place to his ill-advised correspondence, this does not strengthen his claims; inasmuch as the journals in question are not to be recognized as reliable exponents of Catholic views or sentiments, still less as discreet or commendable dvocates of the Catholic cause. Besides, the proeet, as proposed, with the conditions which are anexed to it, cannot, in our judgment, be successfully arried out; and any attempt to do so would, we prehend, instead of serving the cause of our venable and beloved Holy Father, prove detrimental It is not necessary to enter into further details; it ll be enough to add, that we still have reason to ow that pecuniary aid is more needed at this moent than military aid, and will be more acceptable m us. We shall continue, therefore, as hitherto, arge our generous and faithful Catholic children Contribute abundantly, according to their means, the support of our common Father, who will emtheir offerings in such manner as may to him best: not doubting that, by our so doing, we I meet his warm approval, and merit his apostolic

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M. J. SPALDING, Archbishop of Baltimore. J. B. PURCELL, Archbishop of Cincinnati. JOHN MCCLOSKEY, Archbishop of N. Y. PETER RICHARD KENRICK, Archbishop of St. Louis, per Archbishop of New York. B.-The Archbishop of St. Louis, not having able to attend the meeting, empowered the ishop of New York, in writing, to sign this ent for him, having been fully apprised of would be its contents.

-onsequence of this attitude of the Cathshops of the United States with regard proposal of General Lewis, the Papal er of war forwarded a letter, dated July VOL. VIII.—39 A

25th, to General Lewis, communicating the positive instructions of the Pope to abandon recruiting in the United States for the projected volunteer battalion for the Papal service. The letter expresses the thanks of his Holiness for the General's zealous activity in the matter.

The political history of the Papal States during the year 1868 was of no great importance. Brigandage continued to be troublesome, especially in the provinces of Frosinone and Velletri.

On November 23d, the execution of two prisoners, named Monti and Tognetti, took place in Rome, for assisting in blowing up some barracks at Rome, in the autumn of 1867. The execution produced very great excitement throughout Italy, and resolutions, severely condemning the conduct of the Papal Government, were passed by the Italian Parliament (see ITALY). Two other prisoners were condemned to death. One of them, Ajani, was a woollen manufacturer in Rome, in 1867, and it was believed by the Papal Government that a large quantity of arms was concealed on his premises. They accordingly sent a strong force of soldiers and police to the place. Ajani and his workmen resisted, and a violent struggle took place. Sixteen of the workmen Some of the soldiers were also wounded, and were killed, and several others were wounded. one was killed.

PARAGUAY, a republic in South America. President, General Francisco Solano Lopez, born in 1827; assumed the presidency on September 10, 1862. Area of Paraguay proper (situated between the Rivers Parana and Paraguay), 73,000 English square miles; but, including part of the Grand Chaco, a disputed territory on the right bank of the Paraguay, between Bolivia, Paraguay, and the Argentine Republic, and a small tract of land between the Parana and Uruguay, to which Paraguay lays claim, the territory would exceed 200,000 square miles. The population, in 1867, amounted to 1,337,431. The only religion sustained is the Roman Catholic. There is one bishop at Asuncion. The standing army, in time of peace, is 15,000 men; the reserve, 46,000 men. According to recent documents, President Lopez had, in 1867, an army of 60,000 under arms: 40,000 in the South, to resist the main army of the allies, 10,000 reserve at Asuncion, and 10,000 in the Brazilian province of Matto-Grosso, which was conquered by the Paraguayans in 1865. But, at the beginning of 1868, the army had been considerably reduced.

At the close of the year 1867, the war of Paraguay with Brazil, the Argentine Republic, and Uruguay, continued without showing any prospect of a speedy termination. A new effort to mediate a peace had been made in September, 1867, by Mr. Gould, British Secretary of Legation at Buenos Ayres, who drew up and sent to Mr. Caminos, first secretary of

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