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quarters in Paraguay might be. These (in January, 1869) were said to be about 50 miles from Asuncion, and he was said to be intrenched with 5,000 men.
Early in the year, the Government of Paraguay believed to have discovered a wide-spread conspiracy against the rule and even the life of President Lopez, and a number of the most prominent men of the country were arrested. No trustworthy information about the origin of the pretended conspiracy was ascertained during the year, but in January, 1869, it appeared from documents said to have been found in the camp of Lopez, after the capture of Angostura, and from the statement of several Paraguayans, that the suspicion of Lopez was awakened in February, 1869, when the iron-clads appeared before Asuncion, carrying with them the news that they had passed the hitherto invincible Humaita. There was a general desire for a gathering, according to these statements, to talk of common danger, and to devise means of defence. Lopez regarded all the men who had met that day, and all the foreigners of the city, as conspirators against him. The military officers he shot at sight, the civilians were imprisoned and in the course of time tortured until they perished, or else he had them executed in some barbarous manner. From the papers found in the camp of Lopez, it was ascertained that, at San Fernando, 90 prisoners were shot, among whom was the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Berges. On December 21st, a large number of prisoners were shot at Loma Negra, among whom were Barrios and his wife, a sister of Lopez, Benigno Lopez, a brother of the President, and the Bishop of Asuncion. The mother of Lopez had been exiled for having asked him to pardon her children.
Closely connected with this pretended conspiracy was the difficulty between President Lopez and the Minister of the United States in Asuncion, Charles A. Washburn. Previous to February, 1868, Mr. Washburn was on good terms with the Paraguayan Government. On the 22d February, a decree came ordering every one to leave Asuncion. Mr. Washburn refused to remove, alleging that his Legation was American territory. All the foreign consuls fled the city, and, with the exception of the American minister, none dared to disobey. Some twenty-two English, some two or three Americans, and a few others, sought refuge at the Legation. Mr. Washburn advised those people first to apply to the Vice-President, and that, if the Government had no objection, he would take them in. The Government consented, and accordingly Messrs. Carreras, Rodriguez, and servant, Bliss, Manlove, and Duffeld, besides twenty-two English, took up their quarters at the American Legation. Masterman, it appears, had been a resident at Mr. Washburn's house for fully eight months previously. Most of the foreigners after a while left the Legation, and as soon as they left it were arrested.
On the 16th of June, the acting Portuguese Consul, Pereira, fled from his chacra at Trinidad, and sought refuge at the American Legation. He was induced to this step in consequence of a notice he got from the French Consul of the feelings of Lopez toward him. Mr. Washburn at once admitted Pereira, although at the time there were four pickets of soldiers around the Legation. On the 20th of June, the Paraguayan Government demanded of Mr. Washburn a list of all parties at the Legation, which Mr. Washburn supplied on the 22d of June.
On June 27th, Gumecindo Benitez, Minister of Foreign Affairs, demanded almost peremptorily that Pereira be delivered over to the police officers. Mr. Washburn, in reply, reminded the foreign minister of the strange character of this request addressed to him. He pointed out, also, that the character of a consul is considered almost as sacred as that of a minister, and declined to give Pereira up.
Minister Benitez, on July 4th, pointed out that, from Mr. Washburn's letter, stating that it was in consequence of a communication from the French Consul that Pereira had gone to the Legation, it would seem that he received Pereira as a refugee, and not merely as a guest, and therefore "requested " that Pereira and all others "who, not belonging to the Legation, are at present in it, some as guests and others in other capacities," be dismissed from the hotel before sunset the next day.
Mr. Washburn replied that all the gentlemen referred to in the correspondence, in order to save him from embarrassment, had declared their readiness to leave, and would leave the same day. There would only remain Dr. Carreras, formerly Vice-President of Uruguay, Señor Rodriguez, formerly Secretary of the Uruguayan Legation, Mrs. Pereira, and two American ladies.
Minister Benitez, in his reply of July 12th, insists that the Orientals, Dr. Carreras and Dr. Rodriguez, should be dismissed from the Legation. He permits, however, the ladies, friends and attendants of Mrs. Washburn, to remain. The demand was again complied with, although Mr. Washburn, in his reply, stated that he was fully convinced of the entire innocence of the two Uruguayans, both of whom had been steadfast friends of the cause of Paraguay.
On July 13th, Minister Benitez demanded the dismissal of the American citizen Cornelius Bliss, and of the Englishman, George Masterman, "accused of crimes not less grave than the others" already dismissed. On July 14th, Mr. Washburn declined to accede to this request, stating that Mr. Masterman was the medical attendant of his family, had been mentioned as such in his communications to the Foreign Ministry, and that he considered him recognized as a member of the Legation. On July 23d, Minister Benitez demanded the immediate delivery of a sealed packet of communications which the ex-Minister of Foreign Af
fairs, Jose Berges, "personally delivered to your Excellency." Mr. Washburn denied that he ever received such a package. In a long letter, on July 23d, Benitez distinctly charged Bliss with conspiring to accomplish the "treacherous assassination of the President of the Republic," and denied emphatically that they were recognized as members of the American Legation.
Minister Benitez, in a long letter dated July 31st, gave the substance of an interview he had with Mr. Washburn, in which he charged him with conspiring with the ex-Minister of Foreign Affairs, Señor Berges. On August 3d, Mr. Washburn categorically denied the accusations made against himself personally.
Benitez replied, quoting at length, against Mr. Washburn, statements of Carreras and others at that time in Lopez's power, which seemed to implicate Mr. Washburn. Mr. Washburn, in reply, explained at great length the circumstances under which he sent letters abroad, and repeated again and again his denials of complicity with the alleged conspirators. The correspondence was continued in this style until the arrival of the United States war vessel Wasp. At the first interview of Captain Kirkland, of the Wasp, with President Lopez, the latter threatened to keep the United States Minister as a prisoner in the country, to which Captain Kirkland replied, that in that case the Government of the United States would not only use its whole power promptly to punish him, but would hunt him, if necessary, through all South America and even through Europe. Mr. Washburn was subsequently allowed to go on board the Wasp, but Messrs. Masterman and Bliss, while on the way to the vessel, were arrested. On board the Wasp, Mr. Washburn, on September 12th, sent a final letter to Lopez, in which he says:
The declarations of Berges, your two brothers, Venancio and Benigno, and Sr. Urdepilletta, as given in the notes of your two last Ministers of Foreign Relations, in so far as they implicate me of having any knowledge of a conspiracy, are entirely false, and you know it; and you know that not one of them would confirm or affirm the declaration imputed to him if he were out of your power, but would deny it in toto, and declare that he had never made it, or that he had done so under torture. Declarations of that kind, your Excellency ought to know, will have no weight outside of Paraguay. Not one word of them will be believed, and, that all may not be denied by them, you must not only kill off all the persons who have made them, but all by whom they were extorted. Before finally leaving Paraguay, is my duty to make my solemn protest against the arrest of those two members of my Legation, Porter Cornelius Bliss and George F. Masterman. Their arrest in the street, as they were going with me from the Legation to pass on board the steamer, was as gross a violation of the laws of nations as would have been their seizure by force in my house. It was an act, not only against my government, but against all civilized powers, and places Paraguay outside the pale of the family of nations; and for this act you will be regarded as a common enemy-one denying allegiance to the laws of nations.
You will also be regarded as a common enemy for having seized and made prisoners, and loaded with
fetters, nearly all the foreigners in Paraguay, and af terward entered their houses and taken away their money on the miserable pretext that, finding less in your treasury than you expected, those who had any money in the country, must, therefore, have robbed it from the government.
In November, Rear-Admiral Davis, commanding the United States squadron in the Paraguayan waters, accompanied, with several vessels, the new Minister of the United States to Paraguay, General McMahon, to the place of his destination. On December 3d, Admiral Davis anchored at Angostura and communicated with Lopez. The Dictator came to the river-bank, had an interview of three hours duration with the Admiral, was courteous and frank in his demeanor, and declared that he intended to accede to the demand of the United States and deliver up the captives Bliss and Masterman. Some correspondence ensued, and, on December 10th, Bliss and Masterman were sent on board the flagship. On the 12th the new American Minister, General MeMahon, landed, presented his credentials, and was received by Lopez with great friendliness and the customary honors. The American vessel withdrew to Montevideo.
PARSONS, USHER, M. D., a physician, medical professor, and author, born in Alfred, York County, Me., in 1788; died in Provi dence, R. I., December 17, 1869. The early education of Dr. Parsons was obtained in the vicinity of his native town, the schools and academies of that part of Maine having kong had a high reputation. Having acquired a good academic education, he went to Boston, and entered the office of Dr. John Warren as a medical student, and had just become quafied to practice when, in 1811, he entered the naval service, and joined the frigate Joha Adams, in 1812, as surgeon's mate. The of ficers and crew of the vessel volunteering for service on the lakes, Dr. Parsons went with them, reaching Erie in June, 1813. Great sickness prevailed in the fleet at this time, to such an extent, indeed, that finally the only surgeon fit for duty was the deceased, on whom devolved the task of attending to the sick men. At the battle of September 10th, he was the only medical officer on duty, and was board the flagship Lawrence, commanded by Commodore Perry, during the engagement. His efficiency and courage during the day won the admiration of his commander, who, in his report to the Secretary of the Navy, referred in most flattering terms to the young surgeon, closing his remarks by stating that in the event of his having another command he should consider himself peculiarly fortunate in having Dr. Parsons with him as surgeon. For his conduct on this occasion, Dr. Parsons was ap pointed a full surgeon in the navy, with a coramission bearing date of September 10th, the day of the battle. In May, 1814, he was ordered on board the Lawrence, which, with the fleet under Commodore Sinclair, sailed to Mackinse for the purpose of transporting the troops
destined to attack Detroit. The attack failed, and in November following the deceased was ordered to the frigate Java, at the request of Commodore Perry. His services from this time were not of particular importance. In 1823 he resigned his commission, married, and settled in his profession in Providence, R. I. Dr. Parsons was at one time Professor of Anatomy at Dartmouth College, Professor in Brown University at Providence, President of the Rhode Island Medical Society, and first Vice-President of the American Medical Association. He was also the author of several medical works and other literary productions. PENNSYLVANIA. The financial condition of this State shows considerable improvement during the year. On the 1st of December, 1867, there was a balance in the treasury of $4,661,836.46. The ordinary receipts for the fiscal year ending November 30, 1868, amounted to $5,216,049.55. The ordinary expenses of the government for the same period were $2,454,506.09; loans were redeemed to the amount of $4,417,463.64, and $1,979,690.91 were paid in interest on the various State loans. Other payments were made to the amount of $12,800, and at the close of the year there were $1,013,415.37 in the public treasury. The State debt of Pennsylvania amounted on the 1st of December, 1867, to $37,704,409.77. During the year following that date it was reluced to $33,286,946.13. The indebtedness of the Commonwealth on the 1st of December, 868, was made up of the following items:
The average cost for the tuition of each pupil is about $7.743. The average amount paid to each teacher is 195.17, the average wages for male teachers being $37.28 a month, and those of females $28.76. It is a noteworthy fact, that, while the number of male teachers in the State, exclusive of the city of Philadelphia, has diminished by 1,256, the number of female teachers has increased by 3,932. The average length of the school term for the year is 5 months, 193 days.
An inquiry was set on foot, during the past year, by the board of controllers of the city of Philadelphia, to ascertain how many children in that city did not attend schools of any kind. The census was taken by the police, under the direction of the mayor, and revealed the somewhat startling fact that, out of 150,000 children between the ages of six and eighteen, 20,534 attended neither public nor private schools. A similar state of things has been found in other places, and it is estimated that in the whole State there are 75,000 children whose education is entirely neglected. In connection with this subject of popular education the following facts are of interest:
There were admitted into the houses of refuge of the State, during the past year, 536 children, whose average age was 14 years. Of this number there were, who did not know the alphabet, 57; who knew the alphabet only, 92; who could read poorly, 262; who could read well, 21; who could not write, 246; who ably, 94; who could write well, 19. could write poorly, 177; who could write toler
There were in the almshouses of forty-six counties in the year 1867, when visited by the county superintendents who made the reports, 2,809 persons over ten years of age. Of these The number who could not read was..
The number who could read a little.
There were in the jails of the same number 13,666 2,382 of counties, as reported by the same officers at 11,698 the same time, 1,601 occupants. Of whom
Yumber of schools.
amber of graded schools..
Number of school directors..
yumber of superintendents.
Yumber of teachers.
Number of pupils..
Average number of pupils..
Cost of tuition for the year.
The number who could not read was..
Cost of building, purchasing and renting school-houses..
Cost of contingencies..
Total cost for tuition, building, etc., and
854,253 21 6,118,675 19
Total cost, including expenditures of all
Estimated value of school property..........
There were received in the Eastern Penitentiary, for the year 1867, 291 convicts. The classification of these, by the officers of the prison, according to their educational relations, is as follows:
The normal school system of Pennsylvania contemplates the ultimate establishment of twelve institutions in different parts of the State. Of these, four are already in operation and two others have their buildings in process of erection. The number of students at the four schools already established was 2,121 during the past year; 1,702 were in the normal department and 419 in the model schools. The number of graduates at all the schools was 77, all of whom declared their intention to become teachers in the common schools of the State.
The prosperous condition of these institutions is shown by the fact that they expended $30,991.47 in improvements during the year. The two schools not yet completed are at Bloomsburg and California.
The Agricultural College in Centre County, which has been heretofore considered a comparative failure, has received the attention of the Legislature, and is in a fair way to be put on a basis which promises much for its future usefulness. The interest upon a fund of $318,500 has been appropriated to the endowment of this institution, and $43,886 have been devoted to the purchase of three model and experimental farms-the largest at the college in Centre County, one in Chester County, and the other in Indiana County. The board of trustees has reorganized the faculty, and remodelled the course of study, and the new order of things is expected to go into full operation some time during the year 1869.
There are several schools for the instruction of soldiers' orphans, which are supported by the State. The total expenditure for this purpose, from the 1st of December, 1867, to the 31st of May, 1868, was $236,370.26, and the total number of pupils in the schools was 3,431. At Media is a training-school for feeble-minded children, where physical, mental, and moral training is systematically applied to those defective natures which develop only under the most assiduous care. Since the foundation of the institution in 1853, 501 inmates have been received, and, in most cases, a very satisfactory degree of improvement has been attained in the condition of those generally regarded as hopeless. This school is supported by funds established by the States of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware, and by private benefactions.
attempt was made to have the question of so amending the constitution of the State as to give the rights of suffrage to negroes, submitted to a vote of the people, but the proposition received only 13 votes in its favor in the House of Representatives, while 73 were recorded against it.
The following resolution was introduced, and referred to the Committee on Federal Rela tions:
Resolved, That we, the representatives of the people of Pennsylvania, urge upon the Secretary of State, Hon. William H. Seward, the propriety and impor mand of the British Government the immediate retance of instructing the United States Minister to de lease of all American citizens imprisoned for alleged political offences, and to insist upon the adoption of some fixed policy that will insure to every America citizen on British soil such immunities and prozeetion as he is entitled to under the laws of a proud republic.
When Edwin M. Stanton (who was a citi zen of Pennsylvania), was removed from the office of Secretary of War, by the President, of Congress, the following joint resolution was and restored to that position by the action the Senate of the United States, where it was adopted by the Legislature and forwarded to allowed to lie on the table:
1. Resolved by the Senate and House of Representstives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in Genera wealth hail with joy the restoration of Hon. Edva Assembly met, That the loyal men of this Comme M. Stanton to the office from which he has been ille gally excluded, and that the thanks of the people of Pennsylvania are hereby tendered to the Senates meritorious officer and rebuked an apostate Presi who have by their action in this case vindiested
2. Resolved, That it is the universal wish of the loyal men of Pennsylvania that Hon. Edwin M. Starton shall retain the office he now holds; that he sink his personal wishes for the public good, and t the country, more than ever requiring his services, may again rest in security with the unflinching retary at the head of military affairs.
3. Resolved, That while the suspension of Mr. Su ton for a time so unnecessarily and unjustly from the to the country that the great leader of the Uni War Office is lamented, it is cause of congratulate armies, General U. S. Grant, was the Secretary interim, who brought to the administration of th office that courage, energy, ability, and loyalty, the delighted the heart of the nation in the darkness of and confidence in future. rebellion in the past, and directs it to him with boge
4. Resolved, That the Governor of the Comme wealth be requested to forward copies of these res lutions to the Secretary of War and the Senate of the
ELISHA W. DAVIS, Speaker of the House of Representatives JAMES L. GRAHAM Speaker of the Senate. Approved the 11th day of February, A. D., 186 JOHN W. GEARY. The following relates to the impeachment of President Johnson:
Whereas, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, in disregard of a law passed by constitutional majority of Congress over his veta, is sued an order to remove E. M. Stanton as Secretary General of the United States Army, Secretary of War of War, and appointed Lorenzo Thomas, Adju An ad interim; and whereas, E. M. Stanton has refused
The Legislature of Pennsylvania meets on the first Tuesday in January. The last session continued until the early part of May, but no laws of general interest were passed.
to obey the illegal order to remove him from office, and the national House of Representatives has passed a resolution to impeach Andrew Johnson of high crimes and misdemeanors; therefore
Resolved, That the prompt action of the majority of the members of Congress in passing the resolution for the impeachment of Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, of high crimes and misdemeanors, be and the same are hereby commended and approved.
Resolved, That the refusal of E. M. Stanton to obey the illegal order to remove him from office meets with the approval of the Union-loving and law-abiding citizens of Pennsylvania.
Resolved, That the Governor be and is hereby requested to forward a copy of these resolutions to the Speaker of the national House and to Mr. Stanton.
The Democratic State Convention met in the chamber of the House of Representatives at Harrisburg, on the 4th of March. Delegates to the National Democratic Convention were chosen, and presidential electors and State officers nominated. Charles E. Boyle, of FaySette County, was nominated for the office of Auditor-General, and General Wellington Lut, of Columbia, for that of Surveyor-General. These were the only State officers to be filled at the election of the year. The platform of principles adopted by the convention was contained in the following resolutions:
Resolved, That the happiness of the people and the preservation and continuance of our power as a republic depend upon the perpetuity of the Union and the preservation of the constitution, and the prompt restoration of each and all of the States to the enjoy ment of their rights and functions in the Union is essential to our progress, our prosperity, and the protection of our liberties, and radical legislation is the barrier thereto.
Resolved, That the Constitution of the United States is the supreme law; it is binding upon the people and upon every department of the Government, and it is the highest duty of those in and out of official place to yield implicit obedience to all its provisions until it is changed in the manner provided therein; that the recent attempts of the legislative branch of the Government to usurp the office of the Executive and to destroy the independence of the judiciary, are deliberate attacks upon the plainest provisions of the Constitution, in utter violence of its spirit, and tend to the overthrow of the Govern
Resolved, That the radicals in Congress have wrung from the people enormous sums of money, which they have squandered in reckless extravagance; that their system of revenue is ill devised, incongruous and inequitable; that rigid economy in every branch of the public service, a decrease in the number of officials, a reduction in the army and navy, and reform in the collection of the revenue, are imperatively demanded; and only by this means can a reduction in the amount of taxation now imposed on the industrial and manufacturing interests be attained, and the payment of our indebtedness be assured.
Resolved, That the Republican party is responsible o the country for the delay in the restoration of the Southern States to their just relations in the Union, nd for the government of their people by military le; that the purpose of these measures is to peretuate radical power through the votes of illiterate
and defend the Constitution of the United States, and that it is the right of every branch of the Government and of every citizen to have the questions involving the constitutionality of any law speedily adjudicated by the Supreme Court of the United States, and the right of all the people to have said decision enforced.
Resolved, That the pending impeachment of the President of the United States is a gross and reckless abuse of partisan power, without justifiable cause, and intended for the attainment of party purposes at the sacrifice of the most vital interests of the country.
Resolved, That a return to a specie-paying basis at the earliest practicable moment is essential to the interests of the people and the prosperity of the nation.
Resolved, That the national debt should be paid as rapidly as is consistent with the terms of the laws upon which the several loans are based.
Resolved, That the five-twenty bonds and the legal tender notes are component parts of the same finance system, and, until the Government is able to redeem the legal tenders in coin, the holders of those bonds should be required to receive legal tenders in pay
citizens places them on the same footing as those Resolved, That the naturalization of foreign-born born in this country, and that it is the duty of the Government to see that all citizens, naturalized and native, are protected in their rights of life, liberty, and property, abroad as well as at home, and that, in the view of the democracy, the flag of the country ought and must be made to protect all our citizens.
The Republican State Convention assembled at the Academy of Music, in the city of Philadelphia, on the 11th of March. A vote of the delegates was taken, in order to ascertain their preferences with regard to candidates for President and Vice-President. The Convention pronounced unanimously in favor of General Grant for President; and, for VicePresident, gave 109 votes for Andrew G. Curtin, 22 for Benjamin F. Wade, and 1 for Edwin M. Stanton. General John F. Hartranft and Col. Jacob M. Campbell were unanimously nominated for reëlection to the offices of auditor and surveyor-general. The resolutions adopted were as follows:
Resolved, That the great Republican party of America, without which the rebellion against the Government would have consummated a division of the Union and perpetuated human slavery, with the aid, comfort, and full approval of the present Democratic party, is in the fore-front of another peril and another trial. Electing its candidate for President in 1860, and reelecting him in 1864, it is now called upon to decide whether all its sacrifices of blood and treasure have not only been vain, but were simply contributions for a restoration of treason under the influence of a man who, clothed with the confidence of his country, is prevented from overthrowing the Government solely by the wise and patriotic stand taken by a loyal Congress.
Resolved, That we add our voice to the loud acclaim