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selves, until the entire development, that new life of grace without which no one can ever merit or obtain life eternal, so that the same Church which constitutes the mystical body shall remain until the end of time, firm, and indestructible in its own constitution, developed in vigor and furnishing to its children all that is necessary to life eternal.
Now, whoever wishes well to consider and examine with attention the different religious societies divided among themselves, and separated from the Catholic Church, which, since the time of the Lord Jesus Christ and His Apostles, has always uninterruptedly exercised, and still exercises by means of its legitimate pastors, the power intrusted to her by our Lord Himself-whoever, we say, shall thus examine, will easily convince himself that not one of those religious societies, nor all the religious societies together, constitutes, or in any way can be considered as the one and only Catholic Church which our Lord Jesus Christ founded, constituted, and desired-should see that they cannot in any way be regarded as a member or as a part of that same Church, because they are visibly separated from all Catholic unity. As, in fact, those societies are deprived of that living authority established by God, who pointed out to mankind, before all things, the matter of faith and the rule of morality, who directed and presided over them in all things affecting their eternal welfare, therefore those societies themselves constantly varied in their doctrine, and thus this instability is unceasing.
Every one can easily comprehend that this state of things is altogether opposed to the Church established by Christ our Lord-a Church in which the truth must always rest unaltered, without being the subject of any change, as a charge intrusted to that same Church, in order that she may preserve it in all its integrity, a charge for the care of which the ence of the Holy Ghost and its aid has been granted forever to this Church.
No one can ignore the fact that these differences of doctrine and opinion give rise to the social schisms, and that therefrom spring those innumerable sects and communions which are daily increasing to the detriment of Christian and civil society.
Whoever, in fact, recognizes religion as the foundation of human society, cannot refuse to admit and avow the influence exercised over civilized society by those divisions and disagreements of principles of that nature, and of religious societies struggling one with the other; and also with what power the denial of authority established by God to regulate the convictions of the human intelligence, and to direct the actions of men, both in their social and private life, has excited, has developed, and has fomented those most unfortunate troubles, those events, and those disturbances which agitate and affect almost all nations in a most deplorable manner.
Therefore, in order that all those who are not instilled with the principles of the unity and truth of he Catholic Church should seize the occasion offered o them by this Council, in which the Catholic Church, to which their ancestors belonged, shows a roof of its complete unity, of its vigor, and of its nextinguishable vitality; that they should obey the ecessities of their hearts; that they should strive to ear themselves away from that state in which they nnot be assured of their salvation; that they should ddress without ceasing the most fervent prayers to od that He should dissipate the cloud of error, and at He should bring them back into the bosom of Le Church, our holy mother, where their ancestors ceived the salutary nourishment of life, and alone eserves in its integrity the doctrine of Jesus Christ, nding it down, and dispensing the mysteries of lestial grace.
We, therefore, who ought most zealously to fulfil the duties of a good pastor, in accordance with the arge of our apostolic ministry, intrusted to us by rist our Lord Himself, and who ought to embrace
all men in the world in our paternal charity, address this letter to all Christians separated from us-a letter in which we exhort and supplicate them to hasten to return to the fold of Christ.
It is because we heartily desire their salvation in Jesus Christ, and fear one day to have to render an account of their souls to that same Jesus Christ, our Judge, if we do not point out to them, and open to them as in us the way which they must follow if they would gain their salvation.
Also, in all our prayers and supplications, and while performing acts of grace, we never cease humbly to ask for them, both by night and day, the celestial light and the abundance of grace from the Eternal Pastor of souls. And, whereas, despite our unworthiness, we fulfil upon earth the functions of the vicar of Christ, we await with open arms the return of those wandering sons to the Catholic Church, in order that we may be able to receive them with all affection into the dwelling of the celestial Father, and make them participators in His everlasting treasures. communion of the Catholic Church upon which depends not only the salvation of each one in particufar, but of the whole Christian Society; and the world will never enjoy true peace until it forms one flock under one pastor.
It is that much-wished-for return to the truth and
Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, September 14, 1868, in the 23d year of our Pontificate.
One of the most important events in the history of the relations between the Pope and the Catholic states, during the year, is the abolition of the Austrian Concordat of 1855. In reference to this subject, the Pope, at the secret consistory of the 2d of June, delivered the following allocution:
VENERABLE BRETHREN: We should never have imagined that, after the convention agreed to nearly thirteen years ago between us and the Emperor and Apostolic King of Austria, to the great joy of all well-minded men, we should be obliged to lament the miseries and serious misfortunes which, by the machinations of evil-disposed men, now afflict and annoy in a deplorable manner the Catholic Church in the empire of Austria. In fact, the enemies of our divine religion have been unceasing in their efforts to destroy the said convention, and to do the greatest harm to the Church, to us, and to this Apostolic See. On the 21st of December last, the Austrian Government passed an odious law to be carried out and strictly observed in every district of the empire, even in those districts where the Catholic religion exclusively prevails. That law establishes liberty for all opinions-liberty of the press, of all faith, and no matter of what confession or doctrine; it grants to the members of every confession the right of establishing public schools and colleges, and members of every confession are allowed to be admitted on the same footing with the sanction of the state. Although we felt great grief on being informed of the fact, and wished to raise our voice against it, we nevertheless gave proof of forbearance, and we deemed it advisable then to keep silent, chiefly supported by the hope that the Austrian Government, lending a docile ear to the just complaints of our venerable brethren (the holy prelates of Austria), would return to more wholesome ideas and adopt a sounder determination. But our hopes have been frustrated. In fact, the same Government, on the 25th of May of this present year, issued another law which compels all the subjects, even the Catholic ones of the empire, deciding that sons born of a mixed marriage must follow the religion of the father, and the daughters that of the mother; and that under seven years of age they must follow in the stray path of their parents from the true faith. Moreover, the same law suppresses entirely the validity of the promises which the Catholic
Church, with reason and with the greatest justice, exacts and prescribes absolutely before the celebration of mixed marriages. It makes apostasy itself a civil law both as regards the Catholic religion and the Christian religion generally; it suppresses all authority of the Church over cemeteries, and Catholics are bound to allow the bodies of heretics to be buried in their churchyard if they have not any of their own. Moreover, the same Government, on the said 25th day of May of this present year, did not hesitate to promulgate a law on marriage which entirely cancels all the enactments agreed to in the convention already alluded to. This law restores the former Austrian laws, which are contrary to the laws of the Church; it admits, and even confirms, that form of marriage absolutely condemnable, called civil marriage, when the authority of any confession whatever refuses the celebration of the marriage on grounds which are not admitted as valid, as legal by the civil authorities. By this law, this same Government has suppressed all the authority and jurisdiction of the Church on matters relative to marriage, as also all competent ecclesiastical tribunals on the subject. It has also promulgated a law on education which suppresses all the influence of the Church over education, decreeing that the whole superior su
pervision of education, literature, and science, as also the inspection of schools, appertains to the State, which finally decrees that religious teaching in the public schools must be placed in the hands of members of each separate confession; that any religious society may open private or special schools for the use of its faith; that those schools shall also be subject to the supreme inspection of the State, and that the school-books shall be submitted to the approval of the civil authorities; with the exception, however, of such books as are meant for religious instruction, books which must be submitted to the approval of the competent authorities of each confession. You see, consequently, venerable brethren, how necessary it is strongly to reprove and condemn those abominable laws sanctioned by the Austrian Government-laws which are in flagrant contradiction with the doctrines of the Catholic religion; with its venerable rights, its authority, and its divine institution; with our power and that of the Apostolic See, as also with our concordat already quoted, and with natural right itself. In virtue, then, of the care of all churches intrusted to us by the Lord Jesus Christ, we raise our voice in your most illustrious assembly; we reprove and we condemn by our Apostolic authority the laws which we have enumerated, and every thing, general or special, in those same laws, or in matters which refer to ecclesiastical right which has been decreed or attempted unjustly, in any manner whatsoever, by the Austrian Government, or its subordinates, whomsoever they may be. In virtue of this same authority which appertains to us, we declare those decrees null and powerless in themselves and in their effect, both as regards the present and the future. As regards the authors of those laws, especially those who congratulate themselves on being Catholics, and have not feared to propose, establish, approve, and carry out the above laws and acts, we conjure and entreat them not forget the censures and spiritual punishments which the ecclesiastical institutions and the decrees of the œcumenical councils inflict, as having been deserved ipso facto by the violators of the rights of the Church. Meantime, we rejoice greatly in the Lord, and we give our well-deserved praise to our venerable brothers, the archbishops and bishops of the Austrian empire, who, with truly episcopal energy, have not ceased to warn their flocks of their duties' boldly to defend and protect, by speech as well as writing, the cause of the Church and the said concordat concluded with us. We also desire from our hearts that our venerable brothers, the archbishops and bishops of Hungary, following the examples of their colleagues, will show themselves disposed to display the same
zeal and the same 'ardor to protect the rights of the Church and defend the said concordat against the attacks which are directed against it. Nevertheless under these calamities which in these sad times a the Church everywhere, we do not cease, vetera brothers, with the deepest fervor and humility f heart, to pray to God that He may upset all the inal designs of His enemies and those of His H Church, suppress their impious efforts, and, in Es mercy, lead them back into the paths of justice salvation.
(For the reply of the Austrian Government see AUSTRIA.)
ROSSINI, GIOACCHINO ANTONIO, a celebrat ed and brilliant musical composer, bor Pesaro, near Bologna, or, as some say, at La in Ravenna, February 29, 1792; died in Paris November 13, 1868. His parents were b poor, and connected with a company of str ing players, his mother as a singer, his father as an indifferent performer upon the Fr horn. At the age of ten or twelve he we able to accompany his father on the horn the performances of the company, and derd oped so much talent that, at the age of fifteen the Countess Perticari, discovering his abilites sent him to the Lyceum of Bologna, where he studied counterpoint and composition th the celebrated Stanislao Mattei. The sez rules and hard details of Mattei's system not satisfy the young composer, who gave bi days and nights to the study of the best co posers, and especially of Mozart. He specy attempted the composition of lyric music, bet his first opera, La Cambiale de Matrimes published in 1810, is entirely forgotten, and c his second, Demetrio e Polibio, published in 1811, only a quartette and the overture se now known. Of the next seven, published in 1812-'13, but little more than the titles now preserved, though one of them, L'Ing Felice, possesses considerable merit. Far ferent was the fate of the next, Tancredi, p lished at Venice in 1813. This at once a its author famous, and placed him in the fro rank of his profession. Tancredi was the opera which contained the distinguishing mark of his originality and peculiarities as a c poser. It was the foundation of whats been since known as "the school of Rossi a school which has had more disciples exerted greater influence on lyric musie perhaps any other in any art. A few m later, he published L'Italiano in Algieri, wa his reputation equally in opera seria af was equally successful, and thus establiste opera buffa. These were followed by Ale ano in Palmyra, a work of less merit, and Turco in Italia, an opera buffa which appointed very popular. In 1815 Rossini was musical director of the Theatre of San Carlo Naples, and produced with marvellous rap opera after opera, both for his own theatre at those of other cities. Some of these prove failures, but Elisabetta, Regina d'Inghilte which had a great success, and Il Barbier Seviglia, the best of all his humorous opera
and one which has given him permanent fame, Otello, Cenerentola (Cinderella), La Gazza Ladra, Armida, Mosé in Egitto, Maometto Secondo, and Semiramide, still retain much of their popularity. Thirteen other operas of this period, 1815-'23, have gone into oblivion. In February, 1823, Rossini left Italy, and spent the next year and a half in Germany and England. In the latter country he was warmly received, and realized, it was said, $50,000 in a few months for his vocal performances and tuition. In October, 1824, he made Paris his home, and there produced Le Comte Ory, and altered and rewrote his Maometto, which now took the name of Le Siege de Corinth, and his Mosé in Egitto, which was christened anew Moise en Egypt. He was naturally indolent and epicurean in his taste, and having been appointed director of the Italian Opera in Paris, he was inclined to do as little as possible, and, for three or four years, merely retouched and renamed his old operas. Stung by the reproaches of the musical world, he at last produced, in 1829, his Guillaume Tell, his greatest masterpiece, a work of far higher elevation of sentiment and heroic dignity than even his admirers had given him the credit of being able to produce. From that time till his death, a period of almost forty years, he produced no other opera, unless a mere collection of fragments, under the title of Robert Bruce, may be dignified with that name. He himself believed that he could not equal his Guillaume Tell, and he was unwilling to try. He did, however, produce an exquisite oratorio, the Stabat Mater, and several Soirées Musicales (chamber pieces for one or two voices), and some symphonies. But his later years were given to society, to gastronomy, and to the reception of homage. From 1836 to 1855 he resided in Italy, first at Bologna and afterward at Florence; but in the latter year he returned to Paris, where he spent the remainder of his life. He was amiable and kindly in his nature, especially to young and struggling musicians. Several of the most eminent operasingers of the day had been his pupils. His property, which was quite large, was left (subject to a life-interest to his widow) to found and endow a conservatory of music at Pesaro, This reputed birthplace.
ROST, PIERRE A., an eminent Louisiana juist, born in France, about 1797; died in New Orleans, La., September 6, 1868. He received is academic and scientific education in Paris, where he was, in the time of Napoleon I., a pupil of the Polytechnic School. He emigrated o the United States in 1824 or 1825, and at first ettled in the Red River district, where he enered upon the practice of the law. Being of a high order of intellect, of studious habits, and suerior education, he soon rose to a conspicuous osition at the bar. Afterward marrying a lady f one of the leading Creole families on the oast, he removed to St. Charles Parish, and ntered largely into planting, in which pursuit
his ingenious and scientific mind rapidly made him conspicuous and prosperous. Upon the reorganization of the Supreme Court under the constitution of 1845, he was tendered by Governor Isaac Johnson a seat upon that bench, his associates being George Eustis, Thomas Slidell, and George R. King. As a judge, he ranked among the foremost Louisiana has ever had, for he was not only versed in the learning of the civil, but also in that of commercial law. For clearness of diction and logical perspicacity in the application of legal principles to the facts of the case in hand, his decisions will stand comparison with those rendered by the foremost jurists of the land. On the formation of the Provisional Confederate Government he was named as its commissioner to Spain, and remained abroad until the war had terminated. On his return he found his beautiful plantation a scene of almost utter desolation; but, disheartening as the prospect before him seemed to be, he set to work with all the native energy of his nature to retrieve his shattered fortunes. In person, Judge Rost was a remarkably fine-looking man, tall, erect in his carriage, and with a most striking head and face. In manner he was habitually rather reserved, and at times somewhat cynical; but in society he could and frequently did unbend from this reserve, and show a genial humor which added greatly to the enjoyment of the company in which he mingled.
ROTHSCHILD, Baron JAMES, the youngest and last surviving child of Meyer Anselm Rothschild, the founder of the great banking-house of the Rothschilds, and himself for fifty-six years past the head of the Paris house, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, May 15, 1792; died in Paris, November 15, 1868. His early training in finance was under his brother Solomon at Vienna, but in 1812, when but little past twenty years of age, he was sent to Paris to establish the French house. His management here in concert with his brothers was admirable, and the $200,000, which was his capital at starting, grew in the lapse of a little more than fifty years to more than three hundred millions of dollars. He had the confidence of the Bourbons and their adherents after the restoration, and was for many years the banker of those of the ancien noblesse who had regained their estates. At the Revolution of 1830, his liberal contributions for the wounded, and the interest he manifested in the government of Louis Philippe, gave him the confidence of that monarch, and he was largely engaged in public financial operations. He was also interested in the construction of the principal railways of France. In the Revolution of 1848, in common with his brothers, he lost heavily. His country-seat at Saresnes was sacked, and he was for a time very unpopular; but his liberality to the wounded eventually produced a revulsion of feeling in his favor. Still, he had not during Napoleon III.'s administration taken as active a part in public affairs as for
merly, the Pereires being the favorite bankers In Europe.-Russia proper.
Not included in the statement of the area and
RUSSIA, an empire in Europe and Asia. Emperor, Alexander II., born April 17 (new style, April 29), 1818; succeeded his father February 18 (March 2), 1855. Heir-apparent, Grand-duke Alexander, born February 26 (March 10), 1845; married November 9, 1866, to Maria Dagmar, born November 26, 1847, daughter of king Christian IX. of Denmark; offspring of this union, a son, Nicholas, born May 18, 1868.
The total area of Russia is about 7,860,000 square miles, of which 2,050,313 belong to Europe. The population of the great divisions of the empire is as follows:
The statistics of the several nationalities of Russia, according to Von Buschen (“Apere Statistique des Forces Productives de la Russie," Paris, 1867), are as follows:
Population. Per ret
Orthodox Greek Ch'h'
2,732,000 57,161,000 742
the increase in the revenue to a satisfactory harvest, and to the stimulus given to commerce by the extension of the railway system.
At the beginning of the year 1866, the nu ber of generals, officers of the staff, and off -9,857,292 +29,160,953 cers, was 30,507; that of under-officers and soldiers, 697,137. The latter were divided as follows: Infantry, 538,887; cavalry, 63,440; tillery, 80,172; engineers, 14,683--total, 697.187. Of irregular troops there are 132 regiments and 24 battalions, with 200 guns. The fleet, in 1866, was composed as follows: Vessels. Horse power. TODA
21,583,932 60,602,176 +39,018,245 In the estimated budget for 1868 (inclusive of Poland), revenue and expenditures are set down as follows: Revenue, 468,131,382 rubles; expenditures, 480,593,518 rubles. Deficit, 12,462,136 rubles. The public debt, on January 1, 1867, amounted to 1,809,942,693 rubles.
The budget for 1869 amounts to 482,000,000 rubles. In the revenue account appears a surplus of 4,000,000 from the budget of 1867 and a surplus of 10,000,000 from the budget of 1868, these amounts serving to cover the increase of 13,000,000 in the expenditure. Sailing-vessels Thirty-one million rubles are appropriated from special sources for the construction of railway lines and for harbor works at Riga and Odessa. The Minister of Finance ascribes
The movement of shipping, in 1866, was as follows:
Exclusive of precious metals Precious metals.
The official returns of the trade of Russia with European countries in 1867 show that the entire value of the exports and imports of the empire to and from those countries, including Finland, amounted to 457,000,385 rubles (3s. 2d.), an increase of 75,377,706 rubles over 1866. The exports, 220,154,666 rubles, present an increase of 19,105,195 rubles; and the imports, 236,845,719 rubles, an increase of 56,272,511 rubles. Ten years before, in 1857, the exports were only 157,700,000 rubles, and the imports, 132,300,000 rubles. The precious metals are subject to great fluctuations; the exports of these amounted to 12,130,714 rubles in 1867-a decrease of 13,696,039 rubles as compared with 1866, and the imports reached no less than 33,228,647 rubles an increase of 30,856,055 rubles. The chief articles of export to European countries were cereals, 93,978,052 rubles-an increase of 20,000,000 rubles; flax, 19,827,052 rubles; flax-seed (linseed), 18,360,342 rubles; tallow, 11,826,288 rubles; wood, various kinds, 10,650,753 rubles; raw wool, 9,613,615 rubles-a decrease of 6,000,000 rubles; hemp, 8,674,182 rubles. The principal imports from Europe were raw cotton, 38,039,858 rubles; unwrought metals, 21,520,081 rubles-an increase of nearly 13,000,000 rubles; machinery, 15,022,671 rubles- -an increase of nearly 5,000,000 rubles; metal wares, 14,709,268 rubles-an increase of 4,000,000 rubles; tea, 14,345,575 rubles, an increase of 5,000,000 rubles; colors, 11,030,861 rubles. Among the other imports are wool above 8,000,000 rubles, and woollen goods, 6,000,000, an increase of 3,000,000 and 2,000,000; cotton goods, nearly 4,000,000 rubles, an increase of 1,000,000; spun cotton, nearly 5,000,000; silk, 5,000,000, and ilk goods, 5,000,000, an increase of more than ,000,000 in the former article, and nearly 000,000 in the latter; linen tissues, 3,500,000, n increase of 1,000,000; agricultural impleents, nearly 1,500,000, an increase of 800,000 bles: drinks, 8,000,000, an increase of 1,000,00; fruit, 5,000,000; ladies' dresses, 500,000; lle and lace, 500,000 rubles. Among the exrts may be observed cattle, 4,000,000, an inease of 1,000,000; horses, 354,000; furs, 732,0; cloth, 363,000; rags, 353,000 rubles. Mr. mbold, secretary of the British embassy, from
whose report to the British Government these facts are taken, remarks that the Russian transit trade, though showing a tendency to increase, is insignificant; but the development of the foreign trade has been immense in the last ten years. The value of the exports by the Baltic, in that period, has increased 10,000,000, and reaches 85,000,000; the value of the exports by the southern ports and the western land frontier has nearly doubled, and become 81,000,000 and 34,500,000; and the imports have increased nearly threefold by the land frontier, and now reach 71,000,000, while they have nearly doubled in the Baltic ports and ports of the White Sea, and become nearly 135,000,000 and 789,000 rubles respectively. Great Britain, by a long way, heads the list of states importing Russian goods, taking 107,000,000 rubles' worth in 1867, or nearly four times as much as Prussia, the next largest customer of the empire. France and Turkey follow, but at a long distance. The imports from foreign states show the largest share falling to Prussia and Great Britain, 92,000,000 and 75,000,000 rubles respectively, these two holding by far the highest rank in the list of countries exporting goods to Russia. In 1867, 11,047 vessels, measuring 1,385,738 tons, entered Russian ports, 5,667 of the vessels in ballast; 2,381 sailed under the British flag, 1,241 under the Russian, 1,052 under the Italian, 1,134 Swedish and Norwegian-11,090 vessels, of 1,400,552 tons, cleared out. The customs receipts in 1867 reached 37,000,000 rubles.
On the 29th of February, an imperial decree was published by which the Government Commission for Internal Affairs in the kingdom of Poland was abolished, and its administrative jurisdiction handed over to the respective authorities of the empire. The complete union of the former kingdom of Poland with the other portions of the empire is hereby effected. The place of what was formerly the semi-independent kingdom of Poland has now been taken by ten governments (provinces), which are in every respect to be put on an equal footing with the governments of Russia Proper. The rigorous measures of the Government for suppressing the Polish language, and substituting in its place the Russian, continued throughout the year.