Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

RUSSIA, THE CRIMINAL CODE OF.

RUSSIA, THE PRESS OF, IN 1868. 685

[ocr errors]

will be inflicted upon him who maliciously cir- special privileges of his rank, loses only his
culates writings of this description, or aids and titles, marks of distinction, nobility, and rank,
abets the perpetrators of these crimes. $350 and is subjected to the following regulations:
says: "He who is cognizant of the existence 1. He is forbidden to enter the service of the
of a society not permitted, and does not in- state or of any corporation; 2. He cannot
form the authorities of it, will be imprisoned enter any guild nor obtain the license required
for from three to seven days; nor shall he be for carrying on mercantile affairs; 3. He cannot
permitted to plead that the character and ob- be a witness to any contract or other legal
jects of the society were not fully known to document, nor give evidence, whether under
him.” $ 354: “He who leaves the fatherland, oath or not, in civil lawsuits, unless the court
and, without the permission of the Govern- should deem his testimony indispensable; 4.
ment, enters the service of a foreign power, or He cannot be chosen arbiter; 5. He cannot
becomes the subject of a foreign Government officiate as guardian or curator; 6. He cannot
will be divested of all the rights and privileges hold any powers of attorney. Persons sen-
of his rank for this violation of his duties as a tenced to lose some special privileges of their
subject, and of his oath, exiled from the em- rank, when noblemen, cannot enter the service
pire for evermore, and, in case of his unauthor- of the state nor that of any corporation, par-
ized return, transported to Siberia and colo- ticipate in the elections, hold electoral offices,
nized for life.” $ 355 : “He who leaves the and officiate as guardians; when clergymen,
fatherland, and does not return at the order they are deprived of the faculty of filling cler-
of the Government, will lose, in punishment ical positions; when merchants and honorary
of this disobedience, all the rights and privi- citizens, they cannot participate in the muncipal
leges of his rank and be exiled from the em- elections, nor be elected to any positions of
pire for evermore, unless he proves, within the honor or trust.
time fixed by the court, that his absence was RUSSIA, THE PRESS OF, IN 1868. The sta-
caused by circumstances over which he had tistics, regarding the periodical press of Russia,
no control. Until then he will be treated as are so meagre and incomplete that it is very
having left Russia forever, and his property difficult to decide whether the statement in
will be placed in the hands of the public ad- Texier's work on “European Journalism,” that,
ministrator. Transportation to the districts in the year 1864, there was in Russia only one
of Tomsk and Tobolsk and colonization for newspaper to every four hundred and twenty-
life awaits, furthermore, all Russians who, five thousand inhabitants, is reliable or not.
without special permission from the Govern- Since that time the number of daily and weekly
ment, remain abroad longer than they have papers, published in Russia, has decreased
been authorized to do, or who invite Russians rather than increased. Thus, for instance, in
to emigration."

St. Petersburg there were published in the It should be borne in mind, however, that year 1863 eleven daily papers with an aggresome of these rigorous paragraphs of the Rus- gate circulation of sixty thousand copies. On sian code are, in praxi, not carried into execu- the 1st of January, 1868, there were only ion to the full extent of the law, especially in seven of these papers still in existence, and he western provinces, where considerable their aggregate circulation barely exceeded atitude is allowed to the judges of the crim- forty thousand copies. Warsaw had in 1860 nal courts. This latitude seems to be indirect- eight daily newspapers, with an aggregate ciry recognized by certain paragraphs, relating culation estimated at fifty thousand copies. co the mode of criminal procedure, in the Five years afterward it had but three daily revised penal code.

papers, whose aggregate circulation fell short As regards the loss of "all the rights and of fifteen thousand copies. Kieff, one of the privileges of his rank," which the criminal largest inland cities of the Russian empire, gode of Russia mentions so often, it is a phrase had in 1862 two daily papers, both of which mbracing all personal and real rights. There were suppressed by order of the Government; ire three degrees of the loss of these rights: in 1867 only one small official weekly journal Loss of all rights and privileges, loss of all was issued in this place, which has nearly one pecial privileges

, and loss of some special priv. hundred thousand inhabitants. Vilna, the leges. "Noblemen, deprived of all the rights capital of Lithuania, had in 1862 four daily ind privileges of their rank, lose their heredi- newspapers; it has now only one, the official ary and personal nobility, and all prerogatives Russian Gazette, with a circulation of less connected therewith; clergymen, in tho same than one thousand copies. Moscow has several ase, are expelled from the clergy; persons daily papers; two of them have a very conpossessed of hereditary or personal honorary siderable circulation. One of the latter, the itizenship, and merchants of the first two Moskva, edited by M. Katkoff, is the most inuilds, lose their good name and prerogatives. fluential paper in Russia, and its circulation, in Besides, the loss of all rights and privileges 1867, was believed to be upward of forty thounvolves the loss of all titles, orders, and marks sand copies. Being the ablest and most outof distinction, and the confiscation of all di- spoken organ of the National (Old Russian) lomas, grants, patents, and certificates. On party, it was not long in achieving a success he other hand, he who is deprived of all the unparalleled in the history of Russian journal

ism. But, although it confined its polemical Throughout the year 1868, there has been articles mostly to subjects connected with the going on a bitter war between the Russian foreign policy of Russia, and, in treating of journals of St. Petersburg and Moscow, on De domestic topics, took pains to pursue a most hand, and the German papers of Riga, Dorpat, conciliatory course toward the Imperial Gov- Mitau, etc., in regard to the Russificat of ernment, it was involved in endless conflicts measures strenuously advocated by the former, with the latter, prosecuted for violations of the and as resolutely resisted by the latter. Alpress laws every month or two, frequently sub- though most of the German papers of the jected to heavy fines, and, on the 27th of De- Baltic provinces are managed and edited with cember, 1868, ordered by the Government to considerable ability, their circulation. owing to suspend publication for six months, a measure the limited extent of the field, to which they which is likely to result in the definite sup- are confined, is not very large. pression of this most popular and influential of By far more successful than in the Baltio Russian newspapers. In Odessa, where there provinces have been the efforts of the Passia is a comparatively large foreign population, Government to extirpate the independini and where the administration has always dis- organs of the Polish press. The number of played more lenity toward the press than in political papers published in 1868 in Pour any other large city of the empire, there were was considerably smaller than it was duris published in the year 1867 six daily papers, the most oppressive periods of the reign of the with a circulation of twenty-five thousand Emperor Nicholas. Nearly all the Polish copies. One of these daily papers is published newspapers at the present time are of. in the French language; and two of the Rus- organs of the Government, and, owing to the sian journals of Odessa, so far as editorial hostility with which the vast majority of the ability is concerned, are equal to any of the population looks upon the adıninistrats St. Petersburg papers. The National party, whose views and policy they support, their is which is very strong in St. Petersburg, and, fluence and circulation are very limited. above all, in Moscow, controls most of the There exist, however, in Poland six or einh papers published in those two capitals; but it papers, which are printed clandestinely, an! is exceedingly weak in Odessa, the population which circulate in large numbers all over the of which has more of a cosmopolitan char- country. acter, and, in consequence, only one of the In the Old Russian provinces of the empire, dailies in that southern city, and, moreover, too, there are issued numerous clandestine sathe one having the smallest circulation, advo- pers, whose aggregate circulation Alerarla cates Old Russian principles.

Hertzen, an excellent authority in regard t5 In the Baltic provinces of Russia there were this point, estimates at one hundred thousa published in the year 1866 thirty-one dailies copies. Most of these clandestine papers 2 and weeklies in the German language, and printed at Moscow and St. Petersburg. They seven in the Russian language. In 1867 and are almost without an exception organs of the 1868 the Old Russian party made energetic ef- Nihilists, and advocate the consolidation of se forts to increase the number of Russian organs Slavic races into a great Panslaronic Repebuie in the principal cities of those provinces; but In one respect these clandestine papers of Ros these efforts, though indirectly supported by sia, objectionable as their language and tenda the St. Petersburg administration, had re- cies frequently are, certainly exercise & Ters mained fruitless until the middle of the year salutary influence, and that is by the oppt 1868, when, for the first time after several nity which they constantly afford to their et years, a new daily paper, printed in the Rus- ors to expose the crimes committed by tyranno sian language, made its appearance at Riga. and dishonest functionaries, etc. Besides i Owing to the disinclination of the population papers secretly printed in Russia, larze c to encourage the growth of Russian organs in bers of the two democratic journals public their city, while the German papers were in the Russian language in London and Geo-T3 sorely oppressed by all sorts of vexatious are smuggled every week into the various :v measures on the part of the authorities, the inces of the empire. At one time, ten thosjournal had to suspend publication in Octo- sand copies of the celebrated Kolokol K. ber, 1868.

edited by Alexander Hertzen, were real In consequence of the persistent attempts sent to St. Petersburg. of the Imperial Government to Russify all the As regards the relations of the independe: border provinces inhabited by non-Russian Russian newspapers toward the administrat? populations, the German papers, published in the year 1868, like the preceding one presented the Baltic provinces, were subjected in the an unbroken series of prosecutions and sich year 1868 to a series of persecutions, which vexatious measures which the Russian pas would have certainly resulted in the ruin of code enables the Government to bring to be most of them but for the great firmness with upon the journals that incur its displein which the population stands by them, and the Since the year 1865, when the attack is resolute resistance which it offers to the efforts upon the life of the Emperor Alexander II of the administration to lessen the circulation' put an end to the moderately liberal poc and influence of the German press of Russia. which he had pursued during the first decau

of his reign, the reforms in the press laws, a circulation of between six and seven thouwhich had been granted shortly after the sand copies. emancipation of the serfs, were neutralized by A notice issued by the Russian post-office the spirit of severity and intolerance displayed department in July, 1868, places all Russian by the functionaries that were intrusted with papers on a footing of equality in regard to the surveillance and censorship of the news- tho rates of postage, which until then had papers. In consequence of this rigor, the con• been fixed in the most arbitrary manner; the dition of the Russian press, in 1867 and 1868, papers devoted to the Government paying only was little better than during the reign of the half as much postage as the independent and Emperor Nicholas. Many of the most talented Liberal journals. Russian journalists abandoned in the last two Twenty-nine literary papers, seven monthly years the journalistic career, and quite a num- literary magazines, and three quarterly reber of journals suspended publication during views, are published in St. Petersburg and that time.

Moscow. Five of the literary weeklies are The most important event in the journalistic illustrated, and have a relatively large circulahistory of St. Petersburg, during the year 1868, tion. The Wjestnik (Messenger) stands at the was the promulgation of an imperial ukase head of the monthly magazines, both as redirecting the Minister of the Interior to con- gards editorial ability and popularity. Its cirsolidate the existing official and semi-official culation in the year 1867 was larger than that journals into one official paper, to be called of any magazine published on the Continent. the Russian Moniteur. The Journal de St. The literary periodials of Russia, limited as Petersbourg, the Russian Invalide, and the their number is, as a general thing, suffer from Northern Bee, have, in consequence, been dis- lack of able contributors, inasmuch as eminent continued.

Russian writers are mostly averse to writing The St. Petersburg Gazette has the largest for the papers. In consequence of this peculiar circulation of any of the daily papers of the state of affairs, the compensation paid to the capital. It prints daily between nine and ten writers for the literary press is comparatively thousand copies. Next comes the Golos, with liberal in Russia.

S

SAN DOMINGO, or the Dominican Repub- SAXE, the name of one grand-duchy (Saxelic, a state of the West Indies, comprising the Weimar) and three duchies (Saxe-Altenburg, eastern portion of the Island of Hayti. Area, Saxe-Meiningen, and Saxe-Coburg-Gotha), be17,826 square miles; population, 136,500 longing to the North-German Confederation. (mostly mulattoes or whites). The value of Reigning princes, Grand-duke Karl Albert, of imports in 1867 was $520,000, and that of ex- Saxe-Weimar, born June 24, 1818, succeeded ports $690,000. The tax on imports is about his father July 8, 1853; Duke George II., of 10 per cent. ad valorem. The number of ves- Saxe-Meiningen, born April 2, 1826, succeeded els entering the ports of San Domingo and his father September 20, 1866 ; Duke Ernst I., Puerto Plata in 1867 was 62 (together of 8,699 of Saxe-Altenburg, born September 16, 1826, tons), of which 27 were German and 17 English. succeeded his father August 3, 1853; Duke President, in 1868, Buenaventura Baez. Min- Ernst II., of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, born June isters, in May, 1868: Justice, Felix Delmonte; 21, 1844. Area and population (according to Foreign Affairs and Agriculture, Gautier; War, the census of 1867) are as follows: Hungria ; Finance and Commerce, Curiel.

Square Miles. Population. The insurrection, which in the latter part of Saxe-Weimar....

1,494 283,044 1867 had broken out against President Cabral,

" Meiningen

180,335 rapidly gained ground in January, 1868, and in

“ Altenburg

141,426 February President Cabral, with his whole

" Coburg-Gotha.... 760 168,735 Cabinet, fled from the capital, which was Saxe-Altenburg had, in 1867, 141,149 Protaken by the insurgents. The leader of the estants, 240 Roman Catholics, 36 persons bensurrection, General Buenaventura Baez, who longing to other religions, and i Israelite, n January had been formally proclaimed Saxe-Meiningen, in 1867, had 177,279 ProtesPresident, took possession of the government, tants

, 1,102 Roman Catholics

, 44 Mennonites

, and maintained himself throughout the year, 1,629 Israelites, and 139 members of other conhough he did not succeed in ending the civil gregations. In Saxe-Weimar there were, in war. Cabral himself remained in the field 1864, Protestants, 269,007; Roman Catholics, against Baez, and in December, 1868, was re- 9,927; Greek Catholics, 48; Mennonites, 2; ported to have gained some advantages. Be- other Christians, 43; Israelites, 1,129. sides him, the chief opponents of Baez, and According to a military convention concluded leaders of the insurrection, were Generals on June 26, 1867, by Prussia with Saxe-WeiPolanco, Luperon, Morena, Castillo, Ogando, mar, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxeand Adzu.

Coburg - Gotha, Schwarzburg - Rudolstadt,

956 510

[ocr errors]

Revenue.

[ocr errors]

Reuss-Greitz, and Reuss-Schleitz, the troops of į observe, with especial satisfaction, that you here these states are organized by Prússia into three been enabled in the latter part of the session to infantry regiments of Thuringia, of three bat- adopt the

bills introducing trial by jury. With tse

political education which the Saxon people kaa na talions each.

quired by a long participation in public affairs, I Revenue, expenditure, and public debt, were hope that this institution will rapidly take rect in 1867 as follows (value expressed in thalers): among us, and will produce results all the more satis

factory since its principle is already fully realized a Expenditure. Public Debt.

the law, and is freed from all inconvenient formal

ties. An important, and, with the aid of God, a Saxe-Weimar... 1,730,131 | 1,700,088 4,000,000 beneficent, progress has also been achieved by the " Meiningen... 2,137,895 2,032,152 4,116,143

abolition of capital punishment. The question is of Altenburg... 878,904 878,888

so grave a nature, and touches so closely the bomas

conscience, that every sincere conviction, even than In Saxe-Coburg-Gotha the financial admin- differing from our own, demands respect, and ecistration is still separated for the two former sequently the opposition I have met with on this duchies of Coburg and Gotha. In Coburg the subject has been neither against my expectations La receipts, in 1867, were 417,000 florins; expen- formed with difficulty. But it did not arise fre ditures, 407,000 florins; public debt, 1,686,574 purely theoretical reflections. I thought that

, of florins: Gotha, receipts and revenue, '624,890 sidering the character of the Saxon people, it is post thalers each; public debt, in 1868, 333,134 nary circumstances, and that its retention could be

sible to dispense with this punishment under of thalers.

be justified in presence of the doubts which bare SAXONY, a kingdom belonging to the arisen respecting it. I consequently hope that the North-German Confederation. King, Johann success of the experiment will confer upon San I., born December 12, 1801; succeeded his the honor of having first taken a step which brother Friedrich August II. on August 9, Finally, you gave a new proof of your patriotes

perhaps be followed elsewhere at a later pride 1854. Heir-apparent, Albert, born April 23, timents in agreeing to the changes proposed in the 1828. Area, 5,779 square miles; population, electoral laws, which involved the sacrifice ci so according to the census of 1867,“ 2,423,401. many institutions and relations we all were eamThe population of the largest cities, in 1867,

tomed to venerate. was as follows: Dresden, 156,024; Leipsic, 90,824; Chemnitz, 58,573. The ecclesiastical 1. THE SWEDISH Press. On the opening of

SCANDINAVIAN PRESS, Tueen 1869. statistics of the kingdom, in 1867, were as fol- the year 1868, there were published in the lows: Lutherans, 2,361,861; Roman Catholics, kingdom of Sweden one hundred and thirts. 51,478; Reformed, 5,566; German Catholics

, three political papers, fifty-nine literary 1,649 ; Anglicans, 458; Greek Catholics, 413; nals, twenty-seven papers devoted to scientia Israelites, 2,103 ; others, 58. The revenue and expenditures are estimated, in the budget sheets containing only advertisements set

agricultural, and mechanical subjects la each. The public debt, at the close of the year tific monthly magazines, five quarterly sad for the year 1868–69, at 13,371,057 thalers official publications, thirteen literary and set 1867, was 75,264,062 thalers. The Saxon army, which now constitutes the Twelfth army papers, thirty-four were dailies, thirty to

three annual reviews. Of the political DPTE corps of the North-German Confederation, weeklies and semi-weeklies, and sisty-bit numbers, in time of peace, 24,143 men.

Among the important acts of the Saxon weeklies, and semi-monthlies. Fifteen Der Diet was the abolition of capital punishment, of 1867, of which three were dailies, three ser

political journals were established in the case and the adoption of a new constitution for the weeklies, and nine weeklies. Seven of the you Lutheran Church, giving to that church a

litical higher degree of self-government.

The King,

papers of Sweden suspended publicada in his closing speech, thus referred to these

or were entirely discontinued in the year 193. and some other bills adopted by the Diet:

The aggregate circulation of the daily pe An important affair, on which you had been al- pers of Sweden in the year 1867 was

, des ready occupied, namely, the new ecclesiastical and average, one hundred and eleven thense synodal organization of the Evangelical-Lutheran copies daily; of the tri-weeklies, fours.I Church of Saxony, has this time been brought to a thousand; of the semi-weeklies, sixteen tik satisfactory result. If the position of the church tow- sand; and of the weeklies and semi-monie ard the stato has thus become more free and more forty-one thousand copies

. In the monios de clearly defined, I also hope that the more unrestricted January and February, 1868, there was a participation in ecclesiastical affairs, accorded to the parishes and to the church in its collective form, will siderable increase in the circulation of 33 contribute

to vivify and strengthen the religious and of the Swedish newspapers, owing to the is moral element, deeply enrooted in the people. Not tense excitement to which the important pour mly does the bill you have adopted on the retiring ical struggle, taking place at that time, bx position, but you have also shown, by allowing dir given rise; but, as the interest soon afterward ferent credits, the lively interest you feel in our edu- subsided to a great extent, there was regulations which you have terminated, and by which in that of the daily papers published in Seous cational establishments. The revision of the mining sible falling off in the circulation, especie the principle of the liberty of trade has been applied holm and the other large cities of the line the voting of other bills which are not without im- dom. The largest circulation of any dalsi portance, among the happiest results of this session, per published in Sweden (that of the Sus

holm Aftonblad, Evening Journal) is between pensation paid to Swedish journalists and eleven and twelve thousand copies; the cir- feuilletonists, as a general thing, is more liberal culation of three other daily papers exceeds than that obtained by their Copenhagen colseven thousand copies; four other dailies have leagues. Some of the most eminent Swedish a circulation of upward of three thousand authors and savants are connected with the copies; a few other papers print between press of Stockholm, whose influence over the one thousand and fifteen hundred copies; educated classes of the population is very and most of the small country dailies have great, and which played an important part in a very limited circulation, frequently not ex- the momentous struggles which have agitated ceeding two hundred copies. All the daily the kingdom since the year 1865. But for the papers published at Stockholm, Gothenburg, boldness and talent with which the organs of Calmar, Ystadt, and Upsala, receive regular the Liberal party in the Stockholm press attelegraphic dispatches from all parts of Europe, tacked the old Constitution of the kingdom although, with the exception of the Stockholm and advocated the necessity of reforms more press, they do not get near as full telegraphic in keeping with the progressive spirit of the reports as the Danish press. Very few of the times, the struggle against the aristocratic Swedish country dailies received any telegraphic system of the “ Four Estates" and the transdispatches at all until the excitement, brought formation of Sweden into one of the most about by the elections of members for the new liberal constitutional monarchies in Europe Swedish Parliament, and the debates of the could not have been carried into effect at so Chambers, caused a majority of the country early a day. The daily journals of some of the journals to have the most important news on other large cities of Sweden are but little those subjects telegraphed to them from Stock- inferior to the metropolitan press, as regards holm; and some of them, afterward, made ar- ability and enterprise; but little can be said rangements for the publication of special dis- in praise of the Swedish country press. Owing patches from the capital whenever important to the sparseness of the population in most of events should take place. The total sum paid the central and northern districts of the kingby the Stockholm press for telegraphic dis- dom, the imperfect character of the railroads, batches in the year 1867 is estimated at forty- and postal and telegraphic communications, wo thousand rix-dollars. It must have been few of these country papers are in a prosperous onsiderably larger in 1868, in the first place, condition. As a general thing, they are even wing to the great political excitement which smaller, and contain less reading-matter, than revailed at certain periods of the year; and, the Danish country papers; but, as the rehen, in consequence of the painful and intense sources of the country are being more and aterest excited all over Sweden by the appall- more developed, and railroads and telegraph ng famine which, in the early part of the year lines multiplied, their condition and prospects 868, desolated certain provinces of the king- cannot but greatly improve.

While the exciting political struggles The press laws of Sweden are not fully as vhich took place in Sweden at the beginning liberal as those of Denmark, and administraf the year, and the interest so generally taken tions of reactionary tendencies might subject a the developments of the extensive faminethe press of the country to many vexations ; ne of the most terrible calamities which ever but, fortunately, the Swedish Government, for efell the Scandinavian Peninsula—added con- many years past, has displayed a spirit of uniderably to the circulation of the newspapers, usual moderation in this respect, and press specially in the large cities, where some of prosecutions are of very rare occurrence, nothe most enterprising and popular journals withstanding the marked boldness with which acceeded in selling twice as many copies as the opposition papers frequently attack the ver before, the general stagnation of business, measures of the administration. rising from the same causes, on the other Some of the literary papers published in and, reacted injuriously upon the prosperity Sweden have a comparatively large circulation; f Swedish journalism, and the advertising one of them, the Stockholm Miscellany, prints eceipts of most of the Swedish newspapers, in over twenty thousand copies. The compensahe early part of 1868, were considerably tion paid to contributors by some of these naller than in the same length of time in the literary journals is larger than that obtained receding year.

by the periodical writers in other countries of Seven political dailies and five weeklies were Northern Europe. ablished in Stockholm in February, 1868; Two of the monthly magazines published at 10 aggregate circulation of these seven dailies Stockholm are printed in the French language. 'as, on an average, forty-six thousand copies Most of the others, as the quarterly and annual aily; the Aftonblad (Evening Journal) had reviews, are edited by university professors and ne largest circulation. The annual advertising distinguished savants. A feature, peculiar to eceipts of all the Stockholm dailies rarely ex- the periodical literature of Scandinavia, is the zed one hundred and twenty-five thousand fact that quite a number of these magazines x-dollars. They are mostly edited with and reviews contain only articles written by barked spirit and ability, as regards both the editor and proprietor. Their circulation, heir political and literary matter. The com- with few exceptions, is limited.

VOL. VIII.-44

om.

A

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »