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RUSSIA, THE CRIMINAL CODE OF.
will be inflicted upon him who maliciously circulates writings of this description, or aids and abets the perpetrators of these crimes. $350 says: "He who is cognizant of the existence of a society not permitted, and does not inform the authorities of it, will be imprisoned for from three to seven days; nor shall he be permitted to plead that the character and objects of the society were not fully known to him." $354: "He who leaves the fatherland, and, without the permission of the Government, enters the service of a foreign power, or becomes the subject of a foreign Government, will be divested of all the rights and privileges of his rank for this violation of his duties as a subject, and of his oath, exiled from the empire for evermore, and, in case of his unauthorized return, transported to Siberia and colonized for life." 355: "He who leaves the fatherland, and does not return at the order of the Government, will lose, in punishment of this disobedience, all the rights and privileges of his rank and be exiled from the empire for evermore, unless he proves, within the time fixed by the court, that his absence was caused by circumstances over which he had Until then he will be treated as having left Russia forever, and his property will be placed in the hands of the public administrator. Transportation to the districts of Tomsk and Tobolsk and colonization for life awaits, furthermore, all Russians who, without special permission from the Government, remain abroad longer than they have been authorized to do, or who invite Russians to emigration."
It should be borne in mind, however, that some of these rigorous paragraphs of the Russian code are, in praxi, not carried into execuion to the full extent of the law, especially in he western provinces, where considerable atitude is allowed to the judges of the crimnal courts. This latitude seems to be indirecty recognized by certain paragraphs, relating o the mode of criminal procedure, in the revised penal code.
As regards the loss of "all the rights and rivileges of his rank," which the criminal code of Russia mentions so often, it is a phrase mbracing all personal and real rights. There re three degrees of the loss of these rights: Loss of all rights and privileges, loss of all pecial privileges, and loss of some special privleges. Noblemen, deprived of all the rights and privileges of their rank, lose their herediary and personal nobility, and all prerogatives connected therewith; clergymen, in the same ase, are expelled from the clergy; persons Dossessed of hereditary or personal honorary itizenship, and merchants of the first two uilds, lose their good name and prerogatives. Besides, the loss of all rights and privileges nvolves the loss of all titles, orders, and marks of distinction, and the confiscation of all dilomas, grants, patents, and certificates. On he other hand, he who is deprived of all the
RUSSIA, THE PRESS OF, IN 1868. 685 special privileges of his rank, loses only his titles, marks of distinction, nobility, and rank, and is subjected to the following regulations: 1. He is forbidden to enter the service of the state or of any corporation; 2. He cannot enter any guild nor obtain the license required for carrying on mercantile affairs; 3. He cannot be a witness to any contract or other legal document, nor give evidence, whether under oath or not, in civil lawsuits, unless the court should deem his testimony indispensable; 4. He cannot be chosen arbiter; 5. He cannot officiate as guardian or curator; 6. He cannot hold any powers of attorney. Persons sentenced to lose some special privileges of their rank, when noblemen, cannot enter the service of the state nor that of any corporation, participate in the elections, hold electoral offices, and officiate as guardians; when clergymen, they are deprived of the faculty of filling clerical positions; when merchants and honorary citizens, they cannot participate in the muncipal elections, nor be elected to any positions of honor or trust.
RUSSIA, THE PRESS OF, IN 1868. The statistics, regarding the periodical press of Russia, are so meagre and incomplete that it is very difficult to decide whether the statement in Texier's work on "European Journalism," that, in the year 1864, there was in Russia only one newspaper to every four hundred and twentyfive thousand inhabitants, is reliable or not. Since that time the number of daily and weekly papers, published in Russia, has decreased rather than increased. Thus, for instance, in St. Petersburg there were published in the year 1863 eleven daily papers with an aggregate circulation of sixty thousand copies. On the 1st of January, 1868, there were only seven of these papers still in existence, and their aggregate circulation barely exceeded forty thousand copies. Warsaw had in 1860 eight daily newspapers, with an aggregate circulation estimated at fifty thousand copies. Five years afterward it had but three daily papers, whose aggregate circulation fell short of fifteen thousand copies. Kieff, one of the largest inland cities of the Russian empire, had in 1862 two daily papers, both of which were suppressed by order of the Government; in 1867 only one small official weekly journal was issued in this place, which has nearly one hundred thousand inhabitants. Vilna, the capital of Lithuania, had in 1862 four daily newspapers; it has now only one, the official Russian Gazette, with a circulation of less than one thousand copies. Moscow has several daily papers; two of them have a very considerable circulation. One of the latter, the Moskwa, edited by M. Katkoff, is the most influential paper in Russia, and its circulation, in 1867, was believed to be upward of forty thousand copies. Being the ablest and most outspoken organ of the National (Old Russian) party, it was not long in achieving a success unparalleled in the history of Russian journal
ism. But, although it confined its polemical articles mostly to subjects connected with the foreign policy of Russia, and, in treating of domestic topics, took pains to pursue a most conciliatory course toward the Imperial Government, it was involved in endless conflicts with the latter, prosecuted for violations of the press laws every month or two, frequently subjected to heavy fines, and, on the 27th of December, 1868, ordered by the Government to suspend publication for six months, a measure which is likely to result in the definite suppression of this most popular and influential of Russian newspapers. In Odessa, where there is a comparatively large foreign population, and where the administration has always displayed more lenity toward the press than in any other large city of the empire, there were published in the year 1867 six daily papers, with a circulation of twenty-five thousand copies. One of these daily papers is published in the French language; and two of the Russian journals of Odessa, so far as editorial ability is concerned, are equal to any of the St. Petersburg papers. The National party, which is very strong in St. Petersburg, and, above all, in Moscow, controls most of the papers published in those two capitals; but it is exceedingly weak in Odessa, the population of which has more of a cosmopolitan character, and, in consequence, only one of the dailies in that southern city, and, moreover, the one having the smallest circulation, advocates Old Russian principles.
In the Baltic provinces of Russia there were published in the year 1866 thirty-one dailies and weeklies in the German language, and seven in the Russian language. In 1867 and 1868 the Old Russian party made energetic efforts to increase the number of Russian organs in the principal cities of those provinces; but these efforts, though indirectly supported by the St. Petersburg administration, had remained fruitless until the middle of the year 1868, when, for the first time after several years, a new daily paper, printed in the Russian language, made its appearance at Riga. Owing to the disinclination of the population to encourage the growth of Russian organs in their city, while the German papers were sorely oppressed by all sorts of vexatious measures on the part of the authorities, the journal had to suspend publication in October, 1868.
In consequence of the persistent attempts of the Imperial Government to Russify all the border provinces inhabited by non-Russian populations, the German papers, published in the Baltic provinces, were subjected in the year 1868 to a series of persecutions, which would have certainly resulted in the ruin of most of them but for the great firmness with which the population stands by them, and the resolute resistance which it offers to the efforts of the administration to lessen the circulation' and influence of the German press of Russia.
Throughout the year 1868, there has been going on a bitter war between the Russian journals of St. Petersburg and Moscow, on one hand, and the German papers of Riga, Dorpat, Mitau, etc., in regard to the Russification measures strenuously advocated by the former, and as resolutely resisted by the latter. Although most of the German papers of the Baltic provinces are managed and edited with considerable ability, their circulation, owing to the limited extent of the field, to which they are confined, is not very large.
By far more successful than in the Balt: provinces have been the efforts of the Russian Government to extirpate the independen organs of the Polish press. The number d political papers published in 1868 in Polar was considerably smaller than it was during the most oppressive periods of the reign of the Emperor Nicholas. Nearly all the Polish newspapers at the present time are of organs of the Government, and, owing to the hostility with which the vast majority of the population looks upon the administration, whose views and policy they support, their influence and circulation are very limited.
There exist, however, in Poland six or eight papers, which are printed clandestinely, and which circulate in large numbers all over the country.
In the Old Russian provinces of the empire, too, there are issued numerous clandestine papers, whose aggregate circulation Alexander! Hertzen, an excellent authority in regard to this point, estimates at one hundred thousand copies. Most of these clandestine papers are printed at Moscow and St. Petersburg. They are almost without an exception organs of the Nihilists, and advocate the consolidation of the Slavic races into a great Panslavonic Republic In one respect these clandestine papers of R sia, objectionable as their language and ten ler cies frequently are, certainly exercise a very salutary influence, and that is by the opport nity which they constantly afford to their eators to expose the crimes committed by tyrannos and dishonest functionaries, etc. Besides t papers secretly printed in Russia, large ne bers of the two democratic journals publis in the Russian language in London and Gezers are smuggled every week into the various prov inces of the empire. At one time, ten thessand copies of the celebrated Kolokol (Pez, edited by Alexander Hertzen, were really sent to St. Petersburg.
As regards the relations of the independent Russian newspapers toward the administration the year 1868, like the preceding one, presented an unbroken series of prosecutions and all those vexatious measures which the Russian pres code enables the Government to bring to beer upon the journals that incur its displeasur Since the year 1865, when the attack_ms upon the life of the Emperor Alexander IL put an end to the moderately liberal poly which he had pursued during the first decad
of his reign, the reforms in the press laws, which had been granted shortly after the emancipation of the serfs, were neutralized by the spirit of severity and intolerance displayed by the functionaries that were intrusted with the surveillance and censorship of the newspapers. In consequence of this rigor, the condition of the Russian press, in 1867 and 1868, was little better than during the reign of the Emperor Nicholas. Many of the most talented Russian journalists abandoned in the last two years the journalistic career, and quite a number of journals suspended publication during
The most important event in the journalistic history of St. Petersburg, during the year 1868, was the promulgation of an imperial ukase directing the Minister of the Interior to consolidate the existing official and semi-official journals into one official paper, to be called the Russian Moniteur. The Journal de St. Petersbourg, the Russian Invalide, and the Northern Bee, have, in consequence, been discontinued.
The St. Petersburg Gazette has the largest circulation of any of the daily papers of the capital. It prints daily between nine and ten thousand copies. Next comes the Golos, with
a circulation of between six and seven thousand copies.
A notice issued by the Russian post-office department in July, 1868, places all Russian papers on a footing of equality in regard to the rates of postage, which until then had been fixed in the most arbitrary manner; the papers devoted to the Government paying only half as much postage as the independent and Liberal journals.
Twenty-nine literary papers, seven monthly literary magazines, and three quarterly reviews, are published in St. Petersburg and Moscow. Five of the literary weeklies are illustrated, and have a relatively large circulation. The Wjestnik (Messenger) stands at the head of the monthly magazines, both as regards editorial ability and popularity. Its circulation in the year 1867 was larger than that of any magazine published on the Continent.
The literary periodials of Russia, limited as their number is, as a general thing, suffer from lack of able contributors, inasmuch as eminent Russian writers are mostly averse to writing for the papers. In consequence of this peculiar state of affairs, the compensation paid to the writers for the literary press is comparatively liberal in Russia.
SAN DOMINGO, or the Dominican Republic, a state of the West Indies, comprising the eastern portion of the Island of Hayti. Area, 17,826 square miles; population, 136,500 (mostly mulattoes or whites). The value of imports in 1867 was $520,000, and that of exports $690,000. The tax on imports is about 40 per cent. ad valorem. The number of vessels entering the ports of San Domingo and Puerto Plata in 1867 was 62 (together of 8,699 tons), of which 27 were German and 17 English. President, in 1868, Buenaventura Baez. Ministers, in May, 1868: Justice, Felix Delmonte; Foreign Affairs and Agriculture, Gautier; War, Hungria; Finance and Commerce, Curiel.
The insurrection, which in the latter part of 1867 had broken out against President Cabral, rapidly gained ground in January, 1868, and in February President Cabral, with his whole Cabinet, fled from the capital, which was taken by the insurgents. The leader of the insurrection, General Buenaventura Baez, who in January had been formally proclaimed President, took possession of the government, and maintained himself throughout the year, though he did not succeed in ending the civil war. Cabral himself remained in the field against Baez, and in December, 1868, was reported to have gained some advantages. Besides him, the chief opponents of Baez, and leaders of the insurrection, were Generals Polanco, Luperon, Morena, Castillo, Ogando, and Adzu.
SAXE, the name of one grand-duchy (SaxeWeimar) and three duchies (Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Meiningen, and Saxe-Coburg-Gotha), belonging to the North-German Confederation. Reigning princes, Grand-duke Karl Albert, of Saxe-Weimar, born June 24, 1818, succeeded his father July 8, 1853; Duke George II., of Saxe-Meiningen, born April 2, 1826, succeeded his father September 20, 1866; Duke Ernst I., of Saxe-Altenburg, born September 16, 1826, succeeded his father August 3, 1853; Duke Ernst II., of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, born June 21, 1844. Area and population (according to the census of 1867) are as follows:
Saxe-Altenburg had, in 1867, 141,149 Protestants, 240 Roman Catholics, 36 persons belonging to other religions, and 1 Israelite. Saxe-Meiningen, in 1867, had 177,279 Protestants, 1,102 Roman Catholics, 44 Mennonites, 1,629 Israelites, and 139 members of other congregations. In Saxe-Weimar there were, in 1864, Protestants, 269,007; Roman Catholics, 9,927; Greek Catholics, 48; Mennonites, 2; other Christians, 43; Israelites, 1,129.
According to a military convention concluded on June 26, 1867, by Prussia with Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Meiningen, SaxeCoburg - Gotha, Schwarzburg - Rudolstadt,
SAXONY, a kingdom belonging to the North-German Confederation. King, Johann I., born December 12, 1801; succeeded his brother Friedrich August II. on August 9, 1854. Heir-apparent, Albert, born April 23, 1828. Area, 5,779 square miles; population, according to the census of 1867, 2,423,401. The population of the largest cities, in 1867, was as follows: Dresden, 156,024; Leipsic, 90,824; Chemnitz, 58,573. The ecclesiastical statistics of the kingdom, in 1867, were as follows: Lutherans, 2,361,861; Roman Catholics, 51,478; Reformed, 5,566; German Catholics, 1,649; Anglicans, 458; Greek Catholics, 413; Israelites, 2,103; others, 58. The revenue and expenditures are estimated, in the budget for the year 1868-'69, at 13,371,057 thalers each. The public debt, at the close of the year 1867, was 75,264,062 thalers. The Saxon army, which now constitutes the Twelfth army corps of the North-German Confederation, numbers, in time of peace, 24,143 men.
Among the important acts of the Saxon Diet was the abolition of capital punishment, and the adoption of a new constitution for the Lutheran Church, giving to that church a higher degree of self-government. The King, in his closing speech, thus referred to these and some other bills adopted by the Diet:
An important affair, on which you had been already occupied, namely, the new ecclesiastical and synodal organization of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Saxony, has this time been brought to a satisfactory result. If the position of the church toward the state has thus become more free and more clearly defined, I also hope that the more unrestricted participation in ecclesiastical affairs, accorded to the parishes and to the church in its collective form, will contribute to vivify and strengthen the religious and moral element, deeply enrooted in the people. Not only does the bill you have adopted on the retiring pensions of schoolmasters greatly improve their position, but you have also shown, by allowing different credits, the lively interest you feel in our educational establishments. The revision of the mining regulations which you have terminated, and by which the principle of the liberty of trade has been applied to that branch of production, must be counted, with the voting of other bills which are not without importance, among the happiest results of this session.
I observe, with especial satisfaction, that you have been enabled in the latter part of the session to adopt the bills introducing trial by jury. With the political education which the Saxon people has ne quired by a long participation in public affairs, I hope that this institution will rapidly take rost among us, and will produce results all the more eati> factory since its principle is already fully realized in the law, and is freed from all inconvenient formalties. An important, and, with the aid of God, a beneficent, progress has also been achieved by the abolition of capital punishment. The question is of so grave a nature, and touches so closely the human conscience, that every sincere conviction, even when differing from our own, demands respect, and esequently the opposition I have met with on this subject has been neither against my expectations L my desires; and, moreover, my resolution is formed with difficulty. But it did not arise from purely theoretical reflections. I thought that, considering the character of the Saxon people, it is po sible to dispense with this punishment under l nary circumstances, and that its retention could not be justified in presence of the doubts which are arisen respecting it. I consequently hope that the success of the experiment will confer upon Sare the honor of having first taken a step which perhaps be followed elsewhere at a later period Finally, you gave a new proof of your patriote seatiments in agreeing to the changes proposed in the electoral laws, which involved the sacrifice of so many institutions and relations we all were sous
tomed to venerate.
SCANDINAVIAN PRESS, THE, IN 1889. I. THE SWEDISH PRESS. On the opening of the year 1868, there were published in the kingdom of Sweden one hundred and thirtythree political papers, fifty-nine literary journals, twenty-seven papers devoted to scientite agricultural, and mechanical subjects, te sheets containing only advertisements and official publications, thirteen literary and scie tific monthly magazines, five quarterly and three annual reviews. Of the political ne papers, thirty-four were dailies, thirty triweeklies and semi-weeklies, and sixty-ni weeklies, and semi-monthlies. Fifteen new political journals were established in the course of 1867, of which three were dailies, three sem weeklies, and nine weeklies. Seven of the po litical papers of Sweden suspended publicstin or were entirely discontinued in the
The aggregate circulation of the daily re pers of Sweden in the year 1867 was, on average, one hundred and eleven thens copies daily; of the tri-weeklies, fourte thousand; of the semi-weeklies, sixteen the sand; and of the weeklies and semi-montes, forty-one thousand copies. In the months o January and February, 1868, there was a siderable increase in the circulation of of the Swedish newspapers, owing to the in tense excitement to which the important po ical struggle, taking place at that time, ha given rise; but, as the interest soon afterward subsided to a great extent, there was sible falling off in the circulation, especial in that of the daily papers published in Stock holm and the other large cities of the king dom. The largest circulation of any daily p per published in Sweden (that of the Steck
holm Aftonblad, Evening Journal) is between eleven and twelve thousand copies; the circulation of three other daily papers exceeds seven thousand copies; four other dailies have a circulation of upward of three thousand copies; a few other papers print between one thousand and fifteen hundred copies; and most of the small country dailies have a very limited circulation, frequently not exceeding two hundred copies. All the daily papers published at Stockholm, Gothenburg, Calmar, Ystadt, and Upsala, receive regular telegraphic dispatches from all parts of Europe, although, with the exception of the Stockholm press, they do not get near as full telegraphic reports as the Danish press. Very few of the Swedish country dailies received any telegraphic dispatches at all until the excitement, brought about by the elections of members for the new Swedish Parliament, and the debates of the Chambers, caused a majority of the country journals to have the most important news on those subjects telegraphed to them from Stockholm; and some of them, afterward, made arrangements for the publication of special dispatches from the capital whenever important events should take place. The total sum paid by the Stockholm press for telegraphic disDatches in the year 1867 is estimated at fortywo thousand rix-dollars. It must have been considerably larger in 1868, in the first place, wing to the great political excitement which revailed at certain periods of the year; and, hen, in consequence of the painful and intense nterest excited all over Sweden by the appallng famine which, in the early part of the year 868, desolated certain provinces of the king.om. While the exciting political struggles which took place in Sweden at the beginning f the year, and the interest so generally taken a the developments of the extensive famine ne of the most terrible calamities which ever efell the Scandinavian Peninsula-added coniderably to the circulation of the newspapers, specially in the large cities, where some of he most enterprising and popular journals ucceeded in selling twice as many copies as ver before, the general stagnation of business, rising from the same causes, on the other and, reacted injuriously upon the prosperity f Swedish journalism, and the advertising eceipts of most of the Swedish newspapers, in e early part of 1868, were considerably naller than in the same length of time in the receding year.
Seven political dailies and five weeklies were ablished in Stockholm in February, 1868; e aggregate circulation of these seven dailies as, on an average, forty-six thousand copies aily; the Aftonblad (Evening Journal) had he largest circulation. The annual advertising eceipts of all the Stockholm dailies rarely exeed one hundred and twenty-five thousand x-dollars. They are mostly edited with marked spirit and ability, as regards both heir political and literary matter. The comVOL. VIII.-44
pensation paid to Swedish journalists and feuilletonists, as a general thing, is more liberal than that obtained by their Copenhagen colleagues. Some of the most eminent Swedish authors and savants are connected with the press of Stockholm, whose influence over the educated classes of the population is very great, and which played an important part in the momentous struggles which have agitated the kingdom since the year 1865. But for the boldness and talent with which the organs of the Liberal party in the Stockholm press attacked the old Constitution of the kingdom and advocated the necessity of reforms more in keeping with the progressive spirit of the times, the struggle against the aristocratic system of the "Four Estates " and the transformation of Sweden into one of the most liberal constitutional monarchies in Europe could not have been carried into effect at so early a day. The daily journals of some of the other large cities of Sweden are but little inferior to the metropolitan press, as regards ability and enterprise; but little can be said in praise of the Swedish country press. Owing to the sparseness of the population in most of the central and northern districts of the kingdom, the imperfect character of the railroads, and postal and telegraphic communications, few of these country papers are in a prosperous condition. As a general thing, they are even smaller, and contain less reading-matter, than the Danish country papers; but, as the resources of the country are being more and more developed, and railroads and telegraph lines multiplied, their condition and prospects cannot but greatly improve.
The press laws of Sweden are not fully as liberal as those of Denmark, and administrations of reactionary tendencies might subject the press of the country to many vexations; but, fortunately, the Swedish Government, for many years past, has displayed a spirit of unusual moderation in this respect, and press prosecutions are of very rare occurrence, notwithstanding the marked boldness with which the opposition papers frequently attack the measures of the administration.
Some of the literary papers published in Sweden have a comparatively large circulation; one of them, the Stockholm Miscellany, prints over twenty thousand copies. The compensation paid to contributors by some of these literary journals is larger than that obtained by the periodical writers in other countries of Northern Europe.
Two of the monthly magazines published at Stockholm are printed in the French language. Most of the others, as the quarterly and annual reviews, are edited by university professors and distinguished savants. A feature, peculiar to the periodical literature of Scandinavia, is the fact that quite a number of these magazines and reviews contain only articles written by the editor and proprietor. Their circulation, with few exceptions, is limited.