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will be inflicted upon him who maliciously cir- special privileges of his rank, loses only his culates writings of this description, or aids and titles, marks of distinction, nobility, and rank, abets the perpetrators of these crimes.. $350 and is subjected to the following regulations: says: “He who is cognizant of the existence 1. He is forbidden to enter the service of the of a society not permitted, and does not in- state or of any corporation; 2. He cannot form the authorities of it, will be imprisoned enter any guild nor obtain the license required for from three to seven days; nor shall he be for carrying on mercantile affairs; 3. He cannot permitted to plead that the character and ob- be a witness to any contract or other legal jects of the society were not fully known to document, nor give evidence, whether under him." $ 354: “He who leaves the fatherland, oath or not, in civil lawsuits, unless the court and, without the permission of the Govern- should deem his testimony indispensable; 4. ment, enters the service of a foreign power, or He cannot be chosen arbiter; 5. He cannot becomes the subject of a foreign Government, officiate as guardian or curator; 6. He cannot will be divested of all the rights and privileges hold any powers of attorney: Persons senof his rank for this violation of his duties as a tenced to lose some special privileges of their subject, and of his oath, exiled from the em- rank, when noblemen, cannot enter the service vire for evermore, and, in case of his unauthor- of the state nor that of any corporation, parzed return, transported to Siberia and colo- ticipate in the elections, hold electoral offices, lized for life.” § 355 : “He who leaves the and officiate as guardians; when clergymen, atherland, and does not return at the order they are deprived of the faculty of filling clerof the Government, will lose, in punishment ical positions; when merchants and honorary of this disobedience, all the rights and privi- citizens, they cannot participate in the muncipal eges of his rank and be exiled from the em- elections, nor be elected to any positions of ire for evermore, unless he proves, within the honor or trust. ime fixed by the court, that his absence was RUSSIA, THE PRESS OF, IN 1868. The staaused by circumstances over which he had tistics, regarding the periodical press of Russia, o control. Until then he will be treated as are so meagre and incomplete that it is very aving left Russia forever, and his property difficult to decide whether the statement in ill be placed in the hands of the public ad- Texier's work on “European Journalism,” that, ministrator. Transportation to the districts in the year 1864, there was in Russia only one f Tomsk and Tobolsk and colonization for newspaper to every four hundred and twentyfe awaits, furthermore, all Russians who, five thousand inhabitants, is reliable or not. rithont special permission from the Govern- Since that time the number of daily and weekly vent, remain abroad longer than they have papers, published in Russia, has decreased een authorized to do, or who invite Russians rather than increased. Thus, for instance, in o emigration.”

St. Petersburg there were published in the It should be borno in mind, however, that year 1863 eleven daily papers with an aggreome of these rigorous paragraphs of the Rus- gate circulation of sixty thousand copies. On ian code are, in praxi, not carried into execu- the 1st of January, 1868, there were only ion to the full extent of the law, especially in seven of these papers still in existence, and be western provinces, where considerable their aggregate circulation barely exceeded atitude is allowed to the judges of the crim- forty thousand copies. Warsaw had in 1860 nal courts. This latitude seems to be indirect- eight daily newspapers, with an aggregate ciry recognized by certain paragraphs, relating culation estimated at fifty thousand copies. o the mode of criminal procedure, in the Five years afterward it had but three daily evised penal code.

papers, whose aggregate circulation fell short As regards the loss of "all the rights and of fifteen thousand copies. Kieff, one of the rivileges of his rank,” which the criminal largest inland cities of the Russian empire, ode of Russia mentions so often, it is a phrase had in 1862 two daily papers, both of which mbracing all personal and real rights. There were suppressed by order of the Government; re three degrees of the loss of these rights: in 1867 only one small official weekly journal Oss of all rights and privileges, loss of all was issued in this place, which has nearly one Decial privileges, and loss of some special priv- hundred thousand inhabitants. Vilna, the eges. Noblemen, deprived of all the rights capital of Lithuania, had in 1862 four daily nd privileges of their rank, lose their heredi- newspapers; it has now only one, the official ary and personal nobility, and all prerogatives Russian Gazette, with a circulation of less onnected therewith; clergymen, in the same than one thousand copies. Moscow has several ase, are expelled from the clergy; persons daily papers; two of them have a very conossessed of hereditary or personal honorary siderable circulation. One of the latter, the itizenship, and merchants of the first two Moskwa, edited by M. Katkoff, is the most inuilds, lose their good name and prerogatives. fluential paper in Russia, and its circulation, in Besides, the loss of all rights and privileges 1867, was believed to be upward of forty thounvolves the loss of all titles, orders, and marks sand copies. Being the ablest and most outof distinction, and the confiscation of all di- spoken organ of the National (Old Russian) lomas, grants

, patents

, and certificates. On party, it was not long in achieving a success che other hand, he who is deprived of all the unparalleled in the history of Russian journal

ism. But, although it confined its polemical articles mostly to subjects connected with the foreign policy of Russia, and, in treating of domestic topics, took pains to pursue a most conciliatory course toward the Imperial Government, it was involved in endless conflicts with the latter, prosecuted for violations of the press laws every month or two, frequently subjected to heavy fines, and, on the 27th of December, 1868, ordered by the Government to suspend publication for six months, a measure which is likely to result in the definite suppression of this most popular and influential of Russian newspapers. In Odessa, where there is a comparatively large foreign population, and where the administration has always displayed more lenity toward the press than in any other large city of the empire, there were published in the year 1867 six daily papers, with a circulation of twenty-five thousand copies. One of these daily papers is published in the French language; and two of the Russian journals of Odessa, so far as editorial ability is concerned, are equal to any of the St. Petersburg papers. The National party, which is very strong in St. Petersburg, and, above all, in Moscow, controls most of the papers published in those two capitals; but it is exceedingly weak in Odessa, the population of which has more of a cosmopolitan character, and, in consequence, only one of the dailies in that southern city, and, moreover, the one having the smallest circulation, advocates Old Russian principles.

In the Baltic provinces of Russia there were published in the year 1866 thirty-one dailies and weeklies in the German language, and seven in the Russian language. In 1867 and 1868 the Old Russian party made energetic efforts to increase the number of Russian organs in the principal cities of those provinces; but these efforts, though indirectly supported by the St. Petersburg administration, had remained fruitless until the middle of the year 1868, when, for the first time after several years, a new daily paper, printed in the Russian language, made its appearance at Riga. Owing to the disinclination of the population to encourage the growth of Russian organs in their city, while the German papers were sorely oppressed by all sorts of vexatious measures on the part of the authorities, the journal had to suspend publication in October, 1868.

In consequence of the persistent attempts of the Imperial Government to Russify all the border provinces inhabited by non-Russian populations, the German papers, published in the Baltic provinces, were subjected in the year 1868 to a series of persecutions, which would have certainly resulted in the ruin of most of them but for the great firmness with which the population stands by them, and the resolute resistance which it offers to the efforts of the administration to lessen the circulation' and influence of the German press of Russia.

Throughout the year 1868, there has been going on a bitter war between the Russian journals of St. Petersburg and Moscow, on one hand, and the German papers of Riga, Dorpat, Mitau, etc., in regard to the Russification measures strenuously advocated by the former, and as resolutely resisted by the latter. Although most of the German papers of the Baltic provinces are managed and edited with considerable ability, their circulation, owing to the limited extent of the field, to which they are confined, is not very large.

By far more successful than in the Balt: provinces have been the efforts of the Russian Government to extirpate the independen organs of the Polish press. The number d political papers published in 1868 in Polar was considerably smaller than it was during the most oppressive periods of the reign of the Emperor Nicholas. Nearly all the Polish newspapers at the present time are of organs of the Government, and, owing to the hostility with which the vast majority of the population looks upon the administration, whose views and policy they support, their influence and circulation are very limited.

There exist, however, in Poland six or eight papers, which are printed clandestinely, and which circulate in large numbers all over the country.

In the Old Russian provinces of the empire, too, there are issued numerous clandestine papers, whose aggregate circulation Alexander! Hertzen, an excellent authority in regard to this point, estimates at one hundred thousand copies. Most of these clandestine papers are printed at Moscow and St. Petersburg. They are almost without an exception organs of the Nihilists, and advocate the consolidation of the Slavic races into a great Panslavonic Republic In one respect these clandestine papers of R sia, objectionable as their language and ten ler cies frequently are, certainly exercise a very salutary influence, and that is by the opport nity which they constantly afford to their eators to expose the crimes committed by tyrannos and dishonest functionaries, etc. Besides t papers secretly printed in Russia, large ne bers of the two democratic journals publis in the Russian language in London and Gezers are smuggled every week into the various prov inces of the empire. At one time, ten thessand copies of the celebrated Kolokol (Pez, edited by Alexander Hertzen, were really sent to St. Petersburg.

As regards the relations of the independent Russian newspapers toward the administration the year 1868, like the preceding one, presented an unbroken series of prosecutions and all those vexatious measures which the Russian pres code enables the Government to bring to beer upon the journals that incur its displeasur Since the year 1865, when the attack_ms upon the life of the Emperor Alexander IL put an end to the moderately liberal poly which he had pursued during the first decad

of his reign, the reforms in the press laws, a circulation of between six and seven thouwhich had been granted shortly after the sand copies. emancipation of the serfs, were neutralized by A notice issued by the Russian post-office the spirit of severity and intolerance displayed department in July, 1868, places all Russian by the functionaries that were intrusted with papers on a footing of equality in regard to the surveillance and censorship of the news- tho rates of postage, which until then had papers. In consequence of this rigor, the con• been fixed in the most arbitrary manner; the dition of the Russian press, in 1867 and 1868, papers devoted to the Government paying only was little better than during the reign of the half as much postage as the independent and Emperor Nicholas. Many of the most talented Liberal journals. Russian journalists abandoned in the last two Twenty-nine literary papers, seven monthly years the journalistic career, and quite a num- literary magazines, and three quarterly reber of journals suspended publication during views, are published in St. Petersburg and that time.

Moscow. Five of the literary weeklies are The most important event in the journalistic illustrated, and have a relatively large circulahistory of St. Petersburg, during the year 1868, tion. The Wjestnik (Messenger) stands at the was the promulgation of an imperial ukase head of the monthly magazines, both as redirecting the Minister of the Interior to con- gards editorial ability and popularity. Its cirsolidate the existing official and semi-official culation in the year 1867 was larger than that journals into one official paper, to be called of any magazine published on the Continent. the Russian Moniteur. The Journal de St. The literary periodials of Russia, limited as Petersbourg, the Russian Invalide, and the their number is, as a general thing, suffer from Northern Bee, have, in consequence, been dis- lack of able contributors, inasmuch as eminent continued.

Russian writers are mostly averse to writing The St. Petersburg Gazette has the largest for the papers. In consequence of this peculiar circulation of any of the daily papers of the state of affairs, the compensation paid to the capital. It prints daily between nine and ten writers for the literary press is comparatively thousand copies. Next comes the Golos, with liberal in Russia.


SAN DOMINGO, or the Dominican Repub- SAXE, the name of one grand-duchy (Saxelic, a state of the West Indies, comprising the Weimar) and three duchies (Saxe-Altenburg, eastern portion of the Island of Hayti. Area, Saxe-Meiningen, and Saxe-Coburg-Gotha), be17,826 square miles; population, 136,500 longing to the North-German Confederation. (mostly mulattoes or whites). The value of Reigning princes, Grand-duke Karl Albert, of imports in 1867 was $520,000, and that of ex- Saxe-Weimar, born June 24, 1818, succeeded ports $690,000. The tax on imports is about his father July 8, 1853; Duke George II., of 10 per cent. ad valorem. The number of ves- Saxe-Meiningen, born April 2, 1826, succeeded els entering the ports of San Domingo and his father September 20, 1866 ; Duke Ernst I., Puerto Plata in 1867 was 62 (together of 8,699 of Saxe-Altenburg, born September 16, 1826, tons), of which 27 were German and 17 English. succeeded his father August 3, 1853; Duke President, in 1868, Buenaventura Baez. Min- Ernst II., of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, born June isters, in May, 1868: Justice, Felix Delmonte; 21, 1844. Area and population (according to Foreign Affairs and Agriculture, Gautier; War, the census of 1867) are as follows: Hungria ; Finance and Commerce, Curiel.

Square Miles. Population. The insurrection, which in the latter part of Saxe-Weimar....

1,494 283,044 1867 had broken out against President Cabral,

" Meiningen

180,335 rapidly gained ground in January, 1868, and in

“ Altenburg

141,426 February President Cabral, with his whole

" Coburg-Gotha.... 760 168,735 Cabinet, fled from the capital, which was Saxe-Altenburg had, in 1867, 141,149 Protaken by the insurgents. The leader of the estants, 240 Roman Catholics, 36 persons bensurrection, General Buenaventura Baez, who longing to other religions, and i Israelite, n January had been formally proclaimed Saxe-Meiningen, in 1867, had 177,279 ProtesPresident, took possession of the government, tants

, 1,102 Roman Catholics

, 44 Mennonites

, and maintained himself throughout the year, 1,629 Israelites, and 139 members of other conhough he did not succeed in ending the civil gregations. In Saxe-Weimar there were, in war. Cabral himself remained in the field 1864, Protestants, 269,007; Roman Catholics, against Baez, and in December, 1868, was re- 9,927; Greek Catholics, 48; Mennonites, 2; ported to have gained some advantages. Be- other Christians, 43; Israelites, 1,129. sides him, the chief opponents of Baez, and According to a military convention concluded leaders of the insurrection, were Generals on June 26, 1867, by Prussia with Saxe-WeiPolanco, Luperon, Morena, Castillo, Ogando, mar, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxeand Adzu.

Coburg - Gotha, Schwarzburg - Rudolstadt,

956 510

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I observe, with especial satisfaction, that you have been enabled in the latter part of the session to adopt the bills introducing trial by jury. With the political education which the Saxon people has ne quired by a long participation in public affairs, I hope that this institution will rapidly take rost among us, and will produce results all the more eati> factory since its principle is already fully realized in the law, and is freed from all inconvenient formalties. An important, and, with the aid of God, a beneficent, progress has also been achieved by the abolition of capital punishment. The question is of so grave a nature, and touches so closely the human conscience, that every sincere conviction, even when differing from our own, demands respect, and esequently the opposition I have met with on this subject has been neither against my expectations L my desires; and, moreover, my resolution is formed with difficulty. But it did not arise from purely theoretical reflections. I thought that, considering the character of the Saxon people, it is po sible to dispense with this punishment under l nary circumstances, and that its retention could not be justified in presence of the doubts which are arisen respecting it. I consequently hope that the success of the experiment will confer upon Sare the honor of having first taken a step which perhaps be followed elsewhere at a later period Finally, you gave a new proof of your patriote seatiments in agreeing to the changes proposed in the electoral laws, which involved the sacrifice of so many institutions and relations we all were sous

In Saxe-Coburg-Gotha the financial administration is still separated for the two former duchies of Coburg and Gotha. In Coburg the receipts, in 1867, were 417,000 florins; expenditures, 407,000 florins; public debt, 1,686,574 florins: Gotha, receipts and revenue, 624,890 thalers each; public debt, in 1868, 333,134


SAXONY, a kingdom belonging to the North-German Confederation. King, Johann I., born December 12, 1801; succeeded his brother Friedrich August II. on August 9, 1854. Heir-apparent, Albert, born April 23, 1828. Area, 5,779 square miles; population, according to the census of 1867, 2,423,401. The population of the largest cities, in 1867, was as follows: Dresden, 156,024; Leipsic, 90,824; Chemnitz, 58,573. The ecclesiastical statistics of the kingdom, in 1867, were as follows: Lutherans, 2,361,861; Roman Catholics, 51,478; Reformed, 5,566; German Catholics, 1,649; Anglicans, 458; Greek Catholics, 413; Israelites, 2,103; others, 58. The revenue and expenditures are estimated, in the budget for the year 1868-'69, at 13,371,057 thalers each. The public debt, at the close of the year 1867, was 75,264,062 thalers. The Saxon army, which now constitutes the Twelfth army corps of the North-German Confederation, numbers, in time of peace, 24,143 men.

Among the important acts of the Saxon Diet was the abolition of capital punishment, and the adoption of a new constitution for the Lutheran Church, giving to that church a higher degree of self-government. The King, in his closing speech, thus referred to these and some other bills adopted by the Diet:

An important affair, on which you had been already occupied, namely, the new ecclesiastical and synodal organization of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Saxony, has this time been brought to a satisfactory result. If the position of the church toward the state has thus become more free and more clearly defined, I also hope that the more unrestricted participation in ecclesiastical affairs, accorded to the parishes and to the church in its collective form, will contribute to vivify and strengthen the religious and moral element, deeply enrooted in the people. Not only does the bill you have adopted on the retiring pensions of schoolmasters greatly improve their position, but you have also shown, by allowing different credits, the lively interest you feel in our educational establishments. The revision of the mining regulations which you have terminated, and by which the principle of the liberty of trade has been applied to that branch of production, must be counted, with the voting of other bills which are not without importance, among the happiest results of this session.

tomed to venerate.

SCANDINAVIAN PRESS, THE, IN 1889. I. THE SWEDISH PRESS. On the opening of the year 1868, there were published in the kingdom of Sweden one hundred and thirtythree political papers, fifty-nine literary journals, twenty-seven papers devoted to scientite agricultural, and mechanical subjects, te sheets containing only advertisements and official publications, thirteen literary and scie tific monthly magazines, five quarterly and three annual reviews. Of the political ne papers, thirty-four were dailies, thirty triweeklies and semi-weeklies, and sixty-ni weeklies, and semi-monthlies. Fifteen new political journals were established in the course of 1867, of which three were dailies, three sem weeklies, and nine weeklies. Seven of the po litical papers of Sweden suspended publicstin or were entirely discontinued in the


The aggregate circulation of the daily re pers of Sweden in the year 1867 was, on average, one hundred and eleven thens copies daily; of the tri-weeklies, fourte thousand; of the semi-weeklies, sixteen the sand; and of the weeklies and semi-montes, forty-one thousand copies. In the months o January and February, 1868, there was a siderable increase in the circulation of of the Swedish newspapers, owing to the in tense excitement to which the important po ical struggle, taking place at that time, ha given rise; but, as the interest soon afterward subsided to a great extent, there was sible falling off in the circulation, especial in that of the daily papers published in Stock holm and the other large cities of the king dom. The largest circulation of any daily p per published in Sweden (that of the Steck

holm Aftonblad, Evening Journal) is between pensation paid to Swedish journalists and eleven and twelve thousand copies; the cir- feuilletonists, as a general thing, is more liberal culation of three other daily papers exceeds than that obtained by their Copenhagen colseven thousand copies; four other dailies have leagues. Some of the most eminent Swedish & circulation of upward of three thousand authors and savants are connected with the copies; a few other papers print between press of Stockholm, whose influence over the one thousand and fifteen hundred copies ; educated classes of the population is very ind most of the small country dailies have great, and which played an important part in 3 very limited circulation, frequently not ex- the momentous struggles which have agitated reeding two hundred copies. All the daily the kingdom since the year 1865. But for the papers published at Stockholm, Gothenburg, boldness and talent with which the organs of Jalmar, Ystadt, and Upsala, receive regular the Liberal party in the Stockholm press atelegraphic dispatches from all parts of Europe, tacked the old Constitution of the kingdom Ithough, with the exception of the Stockholm and advocated the necessity of reforms more ress, they do not get near as full telegraphic in keeping with the progressive spirit of the eports as the Danish pr Very few of the times, the struggle against the aristocratic wedish country dailies received any telegraphic system of the "Four Estates" and the transispatches at all until the excitement, brought formation of Sweden into one of the most bout by the elections of members for the new liberal constitutional monarchies in Europe wedish Parliament, and the debates of the could not have been carried into effect at so hambers, caused a majority of the country early a day. The daily journals of some of the ournals to have the most important news on other large cities of Sweden are but little lose subjects telegraphed to them from Stock- inferior to the metropolitan press, as regards olm; and some of them, afterward, made ar- ability and enterprise; but little can be said ingements for the publication of special dis-, in praise of the Swedish country press. Owing itches from the capital whenever important to the sparseness of the population in most of rents should take place. The total sum paid the central and northern districts of the king

the Stockholm press for telegraphic dis- dom, the imperfect character of the railroads, itches in the year 1867 is estimated at forty- and postal and telegraphic communications, so thousand rix-dollars. It must have been few of these country papers are in a prosperous insiderably larger in 1868, in the first place, condition. As a general thing, they are even ving to the great political excitement which smaller, and contain less reading-matter, than evailed at certain periods of the year; and, the Danish country papers; but, as the reen, in consequence of the painful and intense sources of the country are being more and terest excited all over Sweden by the appall- more developed, and railroads and telegraph g famine which, in the early part of the year lines multiplied, their condition and prospects 68, desolated certain provinces of the king- cannot but greatly improve.

While the exciting political struggles The press laws of Sweden are not fully as hich took place in Sweden at the beginning liberal as those of Denmark, and administrathe year, and the interest so generally taken tions of reactionary tendencies might subject the developments of the extensive famine- the press of the country to many vexations ; e of the most terrible calamities which ever but, fortunately, the Swedish Government, for fell the Scandinavian Peninsula—added con- many years past, has displayed a spirit of unlerably to the circulation of the newspapers, usual moderation in this respect, and press pecially in the large cities, where some of prosecutions are of very rare occurrence, note most enterprising and popular journals withstanding the marked boldness with which cceeded in selling twice as many copies as the opposition papers frequently attack the er before, the general stagnation of business, measures of the administration. ising from the same causes, on the other Some of the literary papers published in nd, reacted injuriously upon the prosperity Sweden have a comparatively large circulation;

Swedish journalism, and the advertising one of them, the Stockholm Miscellany, prints ceipts of most of the Swedish newspapers, in over twenty thousand copies. The compensae early part of 1868, were considerably tion paid to contributors by some of these aller than in the same length of time in the literary journals is larger than that obtained eceding year.

by the periodical writers in other countries of Seven political dailies and five weeklies were Northern Europe. blished in Stockholm in February, 1868; Two of the monthly magazines published at

aggregate circulation of these seven dailies Stockholm are printed in the French language. es, on an average, forty-six thousand copies Most of the others, as the quarterly and annual Fly; the Aftonblad (Evening Journal) had reviews, are edited by university professors and e largest circulation. The annual advertising distinguished savants. A feature, peculiar to ceipts of all the Stockholm dailies rarely ex- the periodical literature of Scandinavia, is the ed one hundred and twenty-five thousand fact that quite a number of these magazines -dollars. They are mostly edited with and reviews contain only articles written by rked spirit and ability, as regards both the editor and proprietor. Their circulation, ir political and literary matter. The com- with few exceptions, is limited.


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