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II. THE NORWEGIAN Press.-According to I. SCHWARZBURG-SONDERSHAUSEN. Reigning the newspaper statistics published in the Prince, Günther, born September 24, 1801; szeChristiania Maanedskrift for March, 1868, ceeded his father August 19, 1835. Area, 393 there were issued in Norway, in the year 1867, square miles; population, according to the censeventeen daily papers, sixty-two tri-weeklies, sus of 1867, 67,500. Rerenue, in 1866, 64semi-weeklies, weeklies, and semi-monthlies, 367 thalers; expenditures, 637,728; publie and soven monthly magazines and quarterly debt, in 1868, 1,441,079. The capital
, Sonderreviews. The aggregate circulation of the hausen, had, in 1867, 6,275 inhabitants
. The daily papers was thirty-seven thousand five troops of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, in corhundred copies; of the tri-weeklies, semi- sequence of a military convention with Prasweeklies, weeklies, and semi-monthlies, forty sia, serve, since October 1, 1867, in the Prasthousand copies. Christiania has five daily sian army. papers, with an aggregate circulation of nine- II. SCHWARZBURG - RUDOLSTADT. Reigning teen thousand copies. Seven of the Norwegian Prince, Albert, born April 30, 1798; succerded dailies receive brief telegraphic reports from his brother June 28, 1867. Area, 374 square Stockholm, Copenhagen, and other northern miles; population, 75,074, of whom 74,805 are points. No Norwegian paper has a circulation Protestants, 93 Roman Catholics, and 115 Lsof over five thousand copies. The advertising raelites. The capital, Rudolstadt, had, in 1857
, receipts of the Christiania, Bergen, and Dron- 6,953 inhabitants. The receipts for the period theim papers are considerably smaller than from 1864 to 1866 were 2,582,322; the efthose of their Stockholm and Copenhagen con- penditures, 2,582, 332. The troops of Schwarz temporaries. The poverty and sparseness of the burg-Rudolstadt form, together with those c? population in the rural districts, the lack of the two principalities of Reuss and Sare-Alietrailroad, mail, and telegraphic communications, burg, one of the infantry regiments of Threxercise a depressing influence upon the Nor- ringia. wegian press, some of whose organs are edited SERVIA, MICHAEL III. OBRENOVITCH, Prince and managed with considerable ability; and, of, born in Belgrade, September 4, 1825; 95kes in consequence, the compensation paid to Nor- sinated in that city, June 10, 1868. He was wegian journalists and feuilletonists is not very the younger son of Prince Milosh Obrenovitch, liberal.
ruling prince of Servia, 1817–1839, and 1858The literary and scientific press of Norway 1860, who died in 1860.' He was educated with consists of nineteen weeklies, and seven maga- his elder brother Milan, by a Russian proesse
! zines and reviews, most of which are edited named Zoritch. In 1839 his father was 006by eminent Norwegian authors and savants. pelled to abdicate, and his brother Milaa With one exception, their circulation is very made hospodar or prince, but died in about limited.
three months, when Michael was proclaimed SCHÖNBEIN, CHristian, a distinguished his successor. He was at that time but fua chemist, was born at Metzingen, Wurtemberg, teen years of age, and the principality was in a October 18, 1779; died at Baden-Baden August condition bordering on anarchy, from Rusia 28, 1868. He was in early life apprenticed to a intrigues, the schemes of other aspirants to the manufacturer of chemical products, but, having hospodarship, and the bickerings of the Senate been conscripted, ho declined to take the oath, In September, 1842, he was deposed, and Alex
asserting that he would only give his word. ander Karageorgevitch, a scion of a rival borse "The King of Wurtemberg, having heard of this, proclaimed prince. While in exile, he spent interrogated young Schönbein, and was so much much time in travel and study, making ti pleased with his answers, that he acquitted home in Vienna and in Wallachia
. After si him
from military service, and assisted him in teen years of exile, a revolution in 1858 rester completing his education at the University of his
father to power, and on his father's desde Tübingen and then of Erlangen. After the com- in 1860, he succeeded to the hospodarship pletion of his studies at the universities, Schön- ruled with great ability. In 1867 he succeeded bein made a trip through France and England, in compelling Turkey to withdraw the and at the age of twenty-nine became a profess- sons of the five fortresses in the posses: 0g of or of the University of Basle. Among the that Government. His assassination was de chemical discoveries of Schönbein are the gen- lieved
to be instigated by the deposed prinse eral phenomena of passiviti, or the property Karageorgevitch. which many metals have of acquiring, under cer- SEYMOUR, THOMAS Hart, a political leader tain conditions, new properties; the discovery and former Governor of Connecticut
, bere of the cause of the production of electricity Hartford, Conn., in 1809; died in that cits in Grove's pile; the discovery of ozone, of gun- tember 3, 1868. His early education Fas cotton, and of collodion. Schönbein has pub- tained in the excellent schools of his narra lished two stories of travel, and a Programme, city, and, his tastes leading him to prefer sal a kind of general plan indicating the end and itary education, he entered the Military In aim of science.
tuto at Middletown, Conn., then under the SCHWARZBURG, the name of two princi- care of Captain Alden Partridge, and, pursus palities belonging to the North-German Con- the full course, graduated there, we beliete federation.
in 1829. He was, for some time after bis te · turn to Hartford, the commanding officer of running a long subterranean canal under the
the Hartford Light Guard, a well-trained and Seine, from the bridge of Alma to a point of aristocratic voluntary organization. After some junction with the main sewer of the right delay, finding the prospects of a military career bank, near the street Courcelles. This was a not promising, he turned his attention to the great undertaking. The excavated canal at its study of law, and was admitted to the bar in lowest level has a depth of 30 metres. StartHartford about 1833. He soon attained to a ing from the lower level of the Seine, this fair practice, but never aspired to a high posi- subterranean channel runs under the Avetion in his profession. In 1837–'38 he became nue Josephine, crosses the Arc de Triomphe de editor of a Democratic paper, The Jeffersonian, l'Étoile (its point of greatest depth), the Aveand about the same time was Judge of Probate nue of Wagram, the street of Courcelles, and of for the district. His popular manners and fine Villiers, and turns at right angles to form a address, together with his zeal, soon threw him junction with the main sewer of Asnières near into the arena of politics, and in 1843 he was the point where it empties into the Seine. elected to Congress from the Hartford district. Three years were required for this work, At the expiration of his term he declined a re- which was carried on its completion withnomination. In March, 1846, he was commis- out the use of any structure above-ground insioned major of the Ninth or New England dicating the work going on beneath. The Regiment of Volunteers, in the Mexican War, canal was excavated by means of shafts, openwhere he distinguished himself by his gallant ing at unequal distances at the surface, after conduct. On the 13th of October, 1847, Colo- the manner of those for opening a railwaynel Ransom, the commander of the Ninth Regi- tunnel, or a mining-gallery. Starting from ment, having fallen in the assault on Chapulte- the Place de l'Étoile, and running on the line pec, Major Seymour led the troops, scaled the of the Avenue Josephine, the Place de l'Alma, height, and with his command was the first to etc., through a series of pits, for a long time enter that strong fortress. He was promoted noticeable on that route, the deblai, or excato the command of the regiment, and took part vated matter, was brought to the surface by in the capture of Mexico. In 1849 he was steam-power. nominated for Governor, but, though gaining In July, 1868, the work was completed, tho largely over the vote of the preceding year, he shafts filled up, without in the least interfering was not elected. The next year he was again with the public travel, or giving any indicaa candidate, and was chosen Governor by a tion at the surface to show the extent and handsome majority, being reëlected in 1851, severity of the labors which had been per1852, and 1853. In 1852 he was presidential formed beneath. The junction sewer being elector. In the autumn of 1853, President completed, the sewage of the left bank was Pierce nominated him as United States min- now to be passed through it under the Seine. ster to Russia, and he filled the office for four To effect this object a great metallic siphon fears with marked ability. He formed a warm was early in September, 1868, sunk in the bed personal friendship both with the Czar Nich- of the Seine at the bridge of Alma. This las and his son, the present Emperor, and re- siphon consists of two tubes, 124 metres in eived from them many valuable and costly length. The difference of one yard in the okens of their regard. After nearly a year of grade, between the openings of the opposito European travel he returned to the United ends of this vast tube, creates a current and States in 1858. When the war commenced, his forces the flow of the sewage at the rate of two ympathies were largely with the South, and yards in a second. These tubes of which this le continued his opposition to the war until its siphon consists are not cast, like gas or water lose. In 1863 he was again a candidate for pipes, but formed of two wrought-iron plates he governorship, but was defeated.
one centimetre in thickness, placed one upon SIPHON OF THE BRIDGE OF ALMA. the other and riveted together. They were The river Seine divides the city of Paris and brought from the workshop in pieces of 14 ts sewers into two parts or districts, that yards in length, and put together on the bank f the right and that of the left bank of the of the river. Eacho tube being double, as iver. In consequence of this division, two above described, is nearly an inch in thickness. ystems of sewers are required, one for either The diameter of each tube is one metre. The ank. The main sewer of the right bank, a bed of the Seine where this metallic siphon ort of confluent of the Seine, empties into it at was to be placed had been dredged to the Asnières. The main sewer of the left bank depth of two metres. The ditch caused by this mpties at the bridge of Alma. It was impor- dredging had been filled up with mortar, in the int to avoid infecting the waters of the river midst of which the siphon being placed, will
ith the current of the last-mentioned sewer. thus lie and be enveloped in a bed of inortar of 'o effect this, it was determined to connect about 16 inches in thickness. In the sinking of he two sewers by continuing the main sewer the siphon a great and unanticipated difficulty f the left bank to the point where that of the was encountered. The ends had been closed ght bank empties into the Seine at Asnières. before it was moved into the water, in order, his necessitated the excavation of a tunnel being filled with air, that it might be moved nder the river. The plan was adopted of and guided with less difficulty to its place over the ditch prepared for it. Once in the line of and took part in the battle of Stone River, Deposition, the ends were to be opened, and the cember 31, 1862, where he was severely woundsiphon sunk to its proper place in the bed of ed, and received a brevet of lieutenant-colond the stream. The two tubes were firmly joined in the Regular Army for his gallant conduct. at the ends with plate-iron couplings, or col- He was disabled by his wound from further lars, moved to the surface line over the ditch active service during the war, but perforined referred to, and loaded down with pig-iron to some garrison and other duties. On the 82 sink them. But scarcely had they been sub- of February, 1864, he was promoted to be lietmerged to the depth of one-half their diam- tenant-colonel of the 4th Infantry, and in March, eter, when the water checked in its current, 1865, was brevetted colonel and brigadier-garand, seeking an outlet, boiled up over the upper eral for his meritorious services. After being tubé, fell into the interval between the two, and mustered out of the volunteer service in Azthen leaped up again over the lower tube, there- gust, 1865, he was employed in garrison duty by causing a formidable oscillation and rolling at Fort Schuyler and Sackett's Harbor, N. Y. movement, which shook off a great part of the till October 1, 1865; was on Board of Eranziiron by which the siphon was being sunk. nation of Cadetship for promotion in the Arme This iron was raised and the ditch cleaned out for over a year, and then was assigned to the by divers, and meanwhile additional precautions command of the post of Fort Laramie
, D. I, were taken to make the next attempt a success, where he died of disease of the heart. by constructing a double stockade of piles on SMITH, Seba, an American journalist and the upper side of the siphon, in the manner of author, born at Buckfield, Me., September 14 those on its lower side, to the end that the 1792; died at “The Willows," Patchogue LL siphon, sustained and held in a horizontal po- July 29, 1868. He graduated at Bowdoin Cod sition, might more effectually resist the forco lege, Maine, in 1818, and subsequently settle of the current. The siphon was again loaded in Portland, Me., as a writer for the periodica with iron, guys were attached to control and press. While there he wrote the popalar seregulate its descent, and, at its second trial, it ries of humorous political letters under the was subm red, without accident or obstruc- pseudonyme of “Maj Jack Downing," EN tion, to the entire length of the stockades, published collectively in 1833, and which after which to a certain extent served the purpose ward passed through sereral editions. In of slides or runways. Water-gauges placed on 1842 he removed to New York, in which city, different parts of the double tube, and indica- or in its neighborhood, he continued to reside ting by their scales the depth attained, marked, until his death. His remaining publication as they sunk, the progress of the immersion. comprise “Powhatan,” & metrical roman2 When the index showed the proper depth, the (1841); “New Elements of Geometry" (155) siphon had reached its bed; and thenceforth an ingenious but paradoxical attempt to ore it has received the sewage which it is destined turn the common definitions of geometry
, in to bear from bank to bank, and nothing betrays which he maintained the position that the three where it lies in the bed of the Seine.
dimensions of space — length, breadth, qui SLEMMER, Brevet Brigadier-General Adam thickness — were predicated upon lines, s** J., Lieutenant-Colonel 4th Infantry, an Amer- faces, and solids--the book excited little & ican army officer conspicuous for his gallantry tention, and has long been out of print; ssd and meritorious conduct, born in Montgom- “Way Down East, or Portraitures of Yanke ery County, Pa., about 1828; died at Fort Life" (1855). Mr. Smith was the husband d Laramie, Dakota Territory, where he was com- Mrs. Elizabeth Oakes-Smith, whose miscellane! mander, October 7, 1868. He entered West ous writings are familiar to numerous resden Point in September, 1846, and graduated July, His last illness was protracted and painful. 1850, twelfth in his class. He was assigned a SOMMERS, Rev. Charles G., D.D., a Re position in the 1st Artillery, and, after a short tist clergyman and author, born in Londo campaign against the Seminole Indians in Flor- 1793 ; died in New York, December 19, 1 ida, was four years on frontier service in Cali- In 1802 he emigrated with his parents to the fornia. In 1855, after a short period of garri- United States, and was in 1811" employed son duty at Fort Moultrie, Charleston harbor, John Jacob Astor as his confidential clerk 23 he was appointed assistant professor at West travelling agent. He made long journtys to Point, where he remained four years, and then Canada and elsewhere in his employer's incat returned to garrison duty at Fort Moultrie and and while engaged on one of these met Barrancas Barracks, Fla., till January 10, 1861, such a change in his religions riews that he when he was transferred to Fort Pickens, decided upon entering the Christian miris which he gallantly held till May 9, 1861, He accordingly stated to Mr. Astor his pura against the attempts to besiege it. He was pro- and his reasons for it, and his employer para? moted to be major of 16th Infantry May 14, with him kindly though reluctantly. He cc1861, and served in Virginia and the Western pleted his studies and began his labors Department, being engaged under General preacher
at the Old Almshouse in the Paris Buell in his march from Corinth to Louisville, where he was very useful. From thenee be and back to Nashville. He was made briga- was called to the pastorate of the First Bapais dier-general of volunteers, November 29, 1862, Church in Troy, and after several years To
called to New York to the pastorate of the trusted to them respectively, some measures South Baptist Church there (1823), worship- of general legislation were adopted. The exping in Nassau Street near Fulton. Ho re- penses of the body were provided for by an mained their pastor till 1856, when he retired ordinance to raise a special tax for that purto private life. For twenty-three years he was pose, which was carried into effect by an the recording secretary of the Executive Com- order of the military commander. One of the mittee of the American Tract Society. He was subjects demanding the most serious attention also an officer of the American Bible Society, of the convention was that of relieving the and subsequently of the American and Foreign people from their numerous pecuniary embarBible Society, one of the founders of the rassments, by some enactment having the force American Baptist Home Mission Society, and a of law. Among the poorer classes, especially director almost from the first of the Home for the freedmen, a degree of want existed amountAged and Indigent Females. He published ing almost to destitution, but this was relieved several tracts of the American Tract Society, a in some measure by the United States Governnumber of sermons and occasional addresses, ment through the agency of the Freedmen's and a few small denominational books; he was Bureau. Advances were also made to planters, also one of the editors of The Baptist Library: to a moderate extent, from the same source, Madison University conferred the degree of which became a lien upon their property, by D. D. upon him in 1852,
order of the military commander, to secure reSOUTH CAROLINA. The convention, payment. It was also proposed to make apcalled by order of General Canby, “to frame a peals directly to Congress for loans or donaconstitution and civil government” for the tions, to relieve the people from pressing State of South Carolina, under the provisions wants, but none of the propositions of this of the reconstruction acts of Congress, assem- kind prevailed. bled in the city of Charleston on the 14th of By far the most important measures of reJanuary, and organized by the election of Dr. lief ordained by the convention was a “stay A. G. Mackey, as permanent president. The law,” which was matured by long deliberation convention finished its work in fifty-three days, and finally adopted on the last day of the sesand adjourned on the 17th of March.
sion, and afterward carried into effect by As soon as the work of organizing the con- military order. While this ordinance was vention was completed, Governor Orr was pending in the convention, a temporary stay of invited to address the delegates. This he did in sales on execution for a period of three months an earnest speech, in which he expressed his re- was effected by an order of the district comgret that the white citizens who were entitled to mander issued in response to a request of the vote under the reconstruction acts had very gen- convention. The stay law, as finally passed, erally abstained from exercising the privilege, continued all civil actions pending in the Suand that, as a consequence, the “intelligence, perior Courts, to the spring term of 1869, and refinement, and wealth of the State," were not provided that execution on all judgments then represented in the convention. He therefore rendered should be for only one-tenth of the all the more earnestly recommended wise and amount due; further execution for one-fifth to. moderate action on the part of the delegates, be issued in 1870, for one-half the residue in and suggested some of the features which he con- 1871, and for the balance in 1872. Such prosidered most essential in the new constitution. visions were made as were necessary to render Above all, he urged the removal of all political this ordinance effectual, and its operation was disabilities from the white citizens, but advised limited to debts and demands contracted prior an educational or property qualification, appli- to May, 1865. Another ordinance was passed cable to blacks and whites alike. In regard to declaring null and void all contracts the con1 time-honored doctrine in the South, he said: sideration of which was the purchase of slaves, * The doctrine of State rights, as taught in and prohibiting all proceedings for their enSouth Carolina, has been exploded by the war. forcement. The allegiance of the citizen, according to the During the deliberations of the convention, esults of that controversy, is due to the Gov- the following resolutions, which exhibit the rnment of the United States, and not to the views of a portion of the members, were subtate. I recognize this doctrine to the fullest mitted, and referred to the Committee on the xtent, and, in my inaugural message as Gov- Executive : rnor of the State, I announced my judgment
Whereas, a large majority of the people heretofore bat hereafter the supremacy of the United constituting the government of the state of South tates Government over the State was undis- Carolina have, by unjustifiable rebellion, forfeited uted and indisputable. I am aware that their political rights, and are hostile to every act of iany of my contemporaries deny the propo- Union, claiming, as they do, every political right
Congress for the reconstruction of the State to the tion, but, if I can properly comprehend the under the Constitution, which properly defines their gitimate sequences of war, no other result late acts as treason and authorizes even the penalty resents itself to my mind.”
of death for crimes thus committed, instead of equal During the first weeks of the session, while rights with those who love the Government which
they so madly attempted to destroy, and le various committees were occupied in pre- Whereas, the officers of the present provisional uring the portions of the constitution in- government of the State, from the highest to the lowest, have generally exercised their influence and sary for an election to or the holding of ery used the emoluments of their offices in a manner and no office shall be created, the appointra: highly prejudicial to the claims of loyal citizens, and which shall be for a longer time than good batin. in opposition to the laws of Congress, looking to a After the adoption of this constitution, are speedy reconstruction, the only competent authority who shall fight a duel, or send or accept a che we recognize, and are now marshalling their forces to for that purpose, or be an aider or abettor in igati defeat any constitution, however faultless it may be, a duel, shall be deprived of holding any of: that this convention may frame as the fundamental honor or trust in this State, and shall be az law of the State: therefore, be it
punished as the law shall prescribe. Resolved, That we, the representatives of the loyal Sec. 39. No title of nobility or hereditarse people, having accepted in good faith the terms of- ment shall ever be granted in this State. Den fered by Congress for the restoration of the State to tion on account of race or color, in any case her proper relations in the Union, demand for our- ever, shall be prohibited, and all classes of clients selves and our constituents, under the law and the shall enjoy equally all common, public, lepi, constitution, present and prospective, every right political privileges. which these embittered and incorrigible enemies to the Government claim as exclusively their own. The House of Representatives is to be as
Resolved, That the continued efforts of the present posed of 124 members, apportioned among : disloyal officers of the provisional government of the counties according to population, who . State, to continue themselves in power as such, while looking to a speedy reinstatement to place in the hold office two years. There is to be es Federal positions so lately and contemptuously desert- Senator for each county elected for a terme ed by many of them, and their systematic efforts to four years. The regular State elections as escape the just penalties of violated faith, while their be held on the third Wednesday in October active hostility to the essential principles of republicanism remain, are substantial and positive proofs every second year, beginning with 1842. L. that the safety of the Government and the welfare the sessions of the General Assembly an : of the people demand their removal.
be held annually on the 4th Monday cd ) The following were referred to the Commit- vember. Ministers of the Gospel are el tee on Miscellaneous Provisions :
ineligible to seats in the Legislature. ) : Whereas, the prosperity of States, like that of All members of the Assembly, and all of:**
the office of Governor or Lieutenant-Goven? families, depends upon the harmony existing among its meinbers, and the precepts of truth and religion before entering upon their duties, and all er. teach us to do unto others as we would they should bers of the bar, before commencing the pas do unto us ; And whereas, our newly-enfranchised citizens have and subscribe the following oath:
tice of their profession, are required in the displayed their good sense and strong love of country, by a cordial and unassuming coöperation with
“I do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case the rest of their fellow-citizens, in promoting the true may be) that I am duly qualified accordin; interests of our beloved State and glorious Republic, the Constitution of the United States and be it Resolved, That this convention take such action as
this State, to exercise the duties of the or it may in its wisdom deem compatible with its powers,
to which I have been elected (or app irc. and conducive to the public weal, to expunge forever and that I will faithfully discharge, to the from the vocabulary, of South Carolina the epithets of my abilities, the duties thereof; and E
negro," " nigger," and "Yankee,” as used in an recognize the supremacy of the Constituza opprobrious sense. That the exigencies and im- and laws of the United States over the more proved civilization of the times demand that this convention, or the legislative body created by it, tution and laws of any State; and that I . enact such laws as will make it a penal offence to use support, protect, and defend the Constit the above epithets, in the manner described, against of the United States, and the constitatiu any American citizens of this state, and to punish South Carolina, as ratified by the people : the insult by fine or imprisonment.
So help me God." The first article of the constitution embraces The Governor and Lieutenant-Gorerne 49 only the Declaration of Rights, which consists to be chosen for a term of two years and of forty-one sections. Besides the provisions invested with the functions usual to otices ordinarily contained in documents of the kind, the same grade in other States. Amca? the following may bo selected as somewhat disqualifications for these positions, issé peculiar:
nial of the “existence of a Supreme Brits Section 2. Slavery shall never exist in this state; A Comptroller-General, Treasurer, and Series neither shali involuntary servitude, except as a pun: tary of State are to be chosen, to holi iš ishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been for a term of four years, duly convicted.
Seo. 5. This State shall ever remain a member The judicial power of the State is rested : of the American Union, and all attempts, from what- a Supreme Court; in two Circuit Conra ever source, or upon whatever pretext, to dissolve a Court of Common Pleas having ciril jer. the said Union shall be resisted with the whole diction, and a Court of General Sessions ** power of Sec. 12. No person shall be disqualified as a witz and justices of the peace. The Generis
criminal jurisdiction only; in Probate Cuza ness, or be prevented from acquiring, holding, and transmitting property, or be hindered in acquiring sembly may also establish sach municipals education, or be liable to any other punishment for other inferior courts as may be deemed Deert straints or disqualifications in regard to any personal rights than such as are laid upon others under like chief justice, and two associate jostices com circumstances.
by a joint vote of the General Assemblies Seo. 82. No property qualification shall be neces- term of six years. The Circuit Judgen