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II. THE NORWEGIAN PRESS. According to the newspaper statistics published in the Christiania Maanedskrift for March, 1868, there were issued in Norway, in the year 1867, seventeen daily papers, sixty-two tri-weeklies, semi-weeklies, weeklies, and semi-monthlies, and seven monthly magazines and quarterly reviews. The aggregate circulation of the daily papers was thirty-seven thousand five hundred copies; of the tri-weeklies, semiweeklies, weeklies, and semi-monthlies, forty thousand copies. Christiania has five daily papers, with an aggregate circulation of nineteen thousand copies. Seven of the Norwegian dailies receive brief telegraphic reports from Stockholm, Copenhagen, and other northern points. No Norwegian paper has a circulation of over five thousand copies. The advertising receipts of the Christiania, Bergen, and Drontheim papers are considerably smaller than those of their Stockholm and Copenhagen contemporaries. The poverty and sparseness of the population in the rural districts, the lack of railroad, mail, and telegraphic communications, exercise a depressing influence upon the Norwegian press, some of whose organs are edited and managed with considerable ability; and, in consequence, the compensation paid to Norwegian journalists and feuilletonists is not very


The literary and scientific press of Norway consists of nineteen weeklies, and seven magazines and reviews, most of which are edited by eminent Norwegian authors and savants. With one exception, their circulation is very limited.

SCHÖNBEIN, CHRISTIAN, a distinguished chemist, was born at Metzingen, Wurtemberg, October 18, 1779; died at Baden-Baden August 28, 1868. He was in early life apprenticed to a manufacturer of chemical products, but, having been conscripted, he declined to take the oath, asserting that he would only give his word. The King of Wurtemberg, having heard of this, interrogated young Schönbein, and was so much pleased with his answers, that he acquitted him from military service, and assisted him in completing his education at the University of Tübingen and then of Erlangen. After the completion of his studies at the universities, Schönbein made a trip through France and England, and at the age of twenty-nine became a professor of the University of Basle. Among the chemical discoveries of Schönbein are the general phenomena of passiviti, or the property which many metals have of acquiring, under certain conditions, new properties; the discovery of the cause of the production of electricity in Grove's pile; the discovery of ozone, of guncotton, and of collodion. Schönbein has published two stories of travel, and a Programme, a kind of general plan indicating the end and

aim of science.

SCHWARZBURG, the name of two principalities belonging to the North-German Confederation.

I. SCHWARZBURG-SONDERSHAUSEN. Reigning Prince, Günther, born September 24, 1801; succeeded his father August 19, 1835. Area, 333 square miles; population, according to the cer sus of 1867, 67,500. Revenue, in 1866, 614367 thalers; expenditures, 637,728; public debt, in 1868, 1,441,079. The capital, Sondershausen, had, in 1867, 6,275 inhabitants. The troops of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, in corsequence of a military convention with Prussia, serve, since October 1, 1867, in the Prus sian army.


II. SCHWARZBURG - RUDOLSTADT. Prince, Albert, born April 30, 1798; succeeded his brother June 28, 1867. Area, 374 square miles; population, 75,074, of whom 74,865 are Protestants, 93 Roman Catholics, and 113 Israelites. The capital, Rudolstadt, had, in 1857, 6,953 inhabitants. The receipts for the period from 1864 to 1866 were 2,582,322; the expenditures, 2,582,332. The troops of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt form, together with those of the two principalities of Reuss and Saxe-Altenburg, one of the infantry regiments of The ringia.

SERVIA, MICHAEL III. OBRENOVITCH, Prince of, born in Belgrade, September 4, 1825; sinated in that city, June 10, 1868. He was the younger son of Prince Milosh Obrenovitch, ruling prince of Servia, 1817-1839, and 18591860, who died in 1860. He was educated with his elder brother Milan, by a Russian professor named Zoritch. In 1839 his father was com pelled to abdicate, and his brother Milan was made hospodar or prince, but died in som three months, when Michael was proclaimed his successor. He was at that time but fourteen years of age, and the principality was in condition bordering on anarchy, from Russi intrigues, the schemes of other aspirants to the hospodarship, and the bickerings of the Senate. In September, 1842, he was deposed, and Aler ander Karageorgevitch, a scion of a rival house, proclaimed prince. While in exile, he spent much time in travel and study, making home in Vienna and in Wallachia. After s teen years of exile, a revolution in 1858 restored his father to power, and on his father's deat in 1860, he succeeded to the hospodarship ruled with great ability. In 1867 he succeeded in compelling Turkey to withdraw the ga sons of the five fortresses in the possession of that Government. His assassination was be lieved to be instigated by the deposed prince Karageorgevitch.

SEYMOUR, THOMAS HART, a political leader and former Governor of Connecticut, born in Hartford, Conn., in 1808; died in that city Se tember 3, 1868. His early education was ob tained in the excellent schools of his native city, and, his tastes leading him to prefers itary education, he entered the Military Insti tute at Middletown, Conn., then under the care of Captain Alden Partridge, and, pursting the full course, graduated there, we believe. in 1829. He was, for some time after his re

turn to Hartford, the commanding officer of running a long subterranean canal under the the Hartford Light Guard, a well-trained and Seine, from the bridge of Alma to a point of aristocratic voluntary organization. After some junction with the main sewer of the right delay, finding the prospects of a military career bank, near the street Courcelles. This was a not promising, he turned his attention to the great undertaking. The excavated canal at its study of law, and was admitted to the bar in lowest level has a depth of 30 metres. StartHartford about 1833. He soon attained to a ing from the lower level of the Seine, this fair practice, but never aspired to a high posi- subterranean channel runs under the 'Avetion in his profession. In 1837–38 he became nue Josephine, crosses the Arc de Triomphe de editor of a Democratic paper, The Jeffersonian, l'Étoile (its point of greatest depth), the Aveind about the same time was Judge of Probate nue of Wagram, the street of Courcelles, and of or the district. His popular manners and fine Villiers, and turns at right angles to form a address, together with his zeal, soon threw him junction with the main sewer of Asnières near nto the arena of politics, and in 1843 he was the point where it empties into the Seine. lected to Congress from the Hartford district. Three years were required for this work, It the expiration of his term he declined a re- which was carried on to its completion withbomination. In March, 1846, he was commis- out the use of any structure above-ground inioned major of the Ninth or New England dicating the work going on beneath. The Regiment of Volunteers, in the Mexican War, canal was excavated by means of shafts, openvhere he distinguished himself by his gallant ing at unequal distances at the surface, after onduct. On the 13th of October, 1847, Colo- the manner of those for opening a railwayel Ransom, the commander of the Ninth Regi- tunnel, or a mining-gallery. Starting from nent, having fallen in the assault on Chapulte- the Place de l'Étoile, and running on the line ec, Major Seymour led the troops, scaled the of the Avenue Josephine, the Place de l'Alma, eight, and with his command was the first to etc., through a series of pits, for a long time nter that strong fortress. He was promoted noticeable on that route, the deblai, or excao the command of the regiment, and took part vated matter, was brought to the surface by 1 the capture of Mexico. In 1849 he was steam-power. ominated for Governor, but, though gaining In July, 1868, the work was completed, the irgely over the vote of the preceding year, he shafts filled up, without in the least interfering as not elected. The next year he was again with the public travel, or giving any indicacandidate, and was chosen Governor by a tion at the surface to show the extent and andsome majority, being reëlected in 1851, severity of the labors which had been per852, and 1853. In 1852 he was presidential formed beneath. The junction sewer being lector.

In the autumn of 1853, President completed, the sewage of the left bank was ierce nominated him as United States min- now to be passed through it under the Seine. ter to Russia, and he filled the office for four To effect this object a great metallic siphon ears with marked ability. He formed a warm was early in September, 1868, sunk in the bed ersonal friendship both with the Czar Nich- of the Seine at the bridge of Alma. This las and his son, the present Emperor, and re- siphon consists of two tubes, '124 metres in cived from them many valuable and costly length. The difference of one yard in the kens of their regard. After nearly a year of grade, between the openings of the opposite uropean travel he returned to the United ends of this vast tube, creates a current and tates in 1858. When the war commenced, his forces the flow of the sewage at the rate of two mpathies were largely with the South, and yards in a second. These tubes of which this e continued his opposition to the war until its siphon consists are not cast, like gas or water ose. In 1863 he was again a candidate for pipes, but formed of two wrought-iron plates ne governorship, but was defeated.

one centimetre in thickness, placed one upon SIPHON OF THE BRIDGE OF ALMA. the other and riveted together. They were he river Seine divides the city of Paris and brought from the workshop in pieces of 14

sewers into two parts or districts, that yards in length, and put together on the bank the right and that of the left bank of the of the river. Each tube being double, as Fer. In consequence of this division, two above described, is nearly an inch in thickness. stems of sewers are required, one for either The diameter of each tube is one metre. The nk. The main sewer of the right bank, a bed of the Seine where this metallic siphon rt of confluent of the Seine, empties into it'at was to be placed had been dredged to the mières. The main sewer of the left bank depth of two metres. The ditch caused by this pties at the bridge of Alma. It was impor- dredging had been filled up with mortar, in the it to avoid infecting the waters of the river midst of which the siphon being placed, will th the current of the last-mentioned sewer. thus lie and be enveloped in a bed of inortar of effect this, it was determined to connect about 16 inches in thickness. In the sinking of e two sewers by continuing the main sewer the siphon a great and unanticipated difficulty Ehe left bank to the point where that of the was encountered. The ends had been closed ht bank empties into the Seine at Asnières. before it was moved into the water, in order, is necessitated the excavation of a tunnel being filled with air, that it might be moved ler the river. The plan was adopted of and guided with less difficulty to its place over

the ditch prepared for it. Once in the line of position, the ends were to be opened, and the siphon sunk to its proper place in the bed of the stream. The two tubes were firmly joined at the ends with plate-iron couplings, or collars, moved to the surface line over the ditch referred to, and loaded down with pig-iron to sink them. But scarcely had they been submerged to the depth of one-half their diameter, when the water checked in its current, and, seeking an outlet, boiled up over the upper tube, fell into the interval between the two, and then leaped up again over the lower tube, thereby causing a formidable oscillation and rolling movement, which shook off a great part of the iron by which the siphon was being sunk. This iron was raised and the ditch cleaned out by divers, and meanwhile additional precautions were taken to make the next attempt a success, by constructing a double stockade of piles on the upper side of the siphon, in the manner of those on its lower side, to the end that the siphon, sustained and held in a horizontal position, might more effectually resist the force of the current. The siphon was again loaded with iron, guys were attached to control and regulate its descent, and, at its second trial, it was submerged, without accident or obstruction, to the entire length of the stockades, which to a certain extent served the purpose of slides or runways. Water-gauges placed on different parts of the double tube, and indicating by their scales the depth attained, marked, as they sunk, the progress of the immersion. When the index showed the proper depth, the siphon had reached its bed; and thenceforth it has received the sewage which it is destined to bear from bank to bank, and nothing betrays where it lies in the bed of the Seine.

and took part in the battle of Stone River, December 31, 1862, where he was severely wounded, and received a brevet of lieutenant-colonel in the Regular Army for his gallant conduct. He was disabled by his wound from further active service during the war, but performed some garrison and other duties. On the 8th of February, 1864, he was promoted to be lientenant-colonel of the 4th Infantry, and in March, 1865, was brevetted colonel and brigadier-general for his meritorious services. After being mustered out of the volunteer service in August, 1865, he was employed in garrison duty at Fort Schuyler and Sackett's Harbor, N. Y.. till October 1, 1865; was on Board of Examination of Cadetship for promotion in the Army for over a year, and then was assigned to the command of the post of Fort Laramie, D. T., where he died of disease of the heart.


SMITH, SEBA, an American journalist and author, born at Buckfield, Me., September 14, 1792; died at "The Willows," Patchogue, LL July 29, 1868. He graduated at Bowdoin Col lege, Maine, in 1818, and subsequently settled in Portland, Me., as a writer for the periodica press. While there he wrote the popular series of humorous political letters under the pseudonyme of "Major Jack Downing," first published collectively in 1833, and which afterward passed through several editions. In 1842 he removed to New York, in which city, or in its neighborhood, he continued to reside until his death. His remaining publications comprise "Powhatan," a metrical romance (1841); "New Elements of Geometry" (185) an ingenious but paradoxical attempt to ove turn the common definitions of geometry, which he maintained the position that the three dimensions of space-length, breadth, and SLEMMER, Brevet Brigadier-General ADAM thickness- - were predicated upon lines, "J., Lieutenant-Colonel 4th Infantry, an Amer- faces, and solids-the book excited little s ican army officer conspicuous for his gallantry tention, and has long been out of print; and and meritorious conduct, born in Montgom- "Way Down East, or Portraitures of Yankee ery County, Pa., about 1828; died at Fort Life" (1855). Mr. Smith was the husband of Laramie, Dakota Territory, where he was com- Mrs. Elizabeth Oakes-Smith, whose miscellane mander, October 7, 1868. He entered West ous writings are familiar to numerous readers Point in September, 1846, and graduated July, His last illness was protracted and painful. 1850, twelfth in his class. He was assigned a position in the 1st Artillery, and, after a short campaign against the Seminole Indians in Florida, was four years on frontier service in California. In 1855, after a short period of garrison duty at Fort Moultrie, Charleston harbor, he was appointed assistant professor at West Point, where he remained four years, and then returned to garrison duty at Fort Moultrie and Barrancas Barracks, Fla., till January 10, 1861, when he was transferred to Fort Pickens, which he gallantly held till May 9, 1861, against the attempts to besiege it. He was promoted to be major of 16th Infantry May 14, 1861, and served in Virginia and the Western Department, being engaged under General Buell in his march from Corinth to Louisville, and back to Nashville. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers, November 29, 1862,


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SOMMERS, Rev. CHARLES G., D. D., a Ba tist clergyman and author, born in London 1793; died in New York, December 19, 19 In 1802 he emigrated with his parents to the United States, and was in 1811 employed by John Jacob Astor as his confidential clerk and ! travelling agent. He made long journeys Canada and elsewhere in his employer's interes and while engaged on one of these met with such a change in his religious views that he decided upon entering the Christian ministry. He accordingly stated to Mr. Astor his purp and his reasons for it, and his employer parted with him kindly though reluctantly. He copleted his studies and began his labors s preacher at the Old Almshouse in the Park where he was very useful. From thence be was called to the pastorate of the First Baptis Church in Troy, and after several years re

called to New York to the pastorate of the trusted to them respectively, some measures South Baptist Church there (1823), worship- of general legislation were adopted. The exping in Nassau Street near Fulton. He re- penses of the body were provided for by an mained their pastor till 1856, when he retired ordinance to raise a special tax for that purto private life. For twenty-three years he was pose, which was carried into effect by an the recording secretary of the Executive Com- order of the military commander. One of the mittee of the American Tract Society. He was subjects demanding the most serious attention also an officer of the American Bible Society, of the convention was that of relieving the and subsequently of the American and Foreign people from their numerous pecuniary embarBible Society, one of the founders of the rassments, by some enactment having the force American Baptist Home Mission Society, and a of law. Among the poorer classes, especially director almost from the first of the Home for the freedmen, a degree of want existed amountAged and Indigent Females. He published ing almost to destitution, but this was relieved several tracts of the American Tract Society, a in some measure by the United States Governnumber of sermons and occasional addresses, ment through the agency of the Freedmen's ind a few small denominational books; he was Bureau. Advances were also made to planters, ulso one of the editors of The Baptist Library: to a moderate extent, from the same source, Vladison University conferred the degree of which became a lien upon their property, by 1. D. upon him in 1852,

order of the military commander, to secure reSOUTH CAROLINA. The convention, payment. It was also proposed to make apalled by order of General Canby, "to frame á peals directly to Congress for loans or donaonstitution and civil government” for the tions, to relieve the people from pressing state of South Carolina, under the provisions wants

, but none of the propositions of this of the reconstruction acts of Congress, assem- kind prevailed. led in the city of Charleston on the 14th of By far the most important measures of reanuary, and organized by the election of Dr. lief ordained by the convention was a stay 1. G. Mackey, as permanent president. The law,” which was matured by long deliberation onvention finished its work in fifty-three days, and finally adopted on the last day of the sesnd adjourned on the 17th of March.

sion, and afterward carried into effect by As soon as the work of organizing the con- military order. While this ordinance was ention was completed, Governor Orr was pending in the convention, a temporary stay of avited to address the delegates. This he did in sales on execution for a period of three months n earnest speech, in which he expressed his re- was effected by an order of the district comret that the white citizens who were entitled to mander issued in response to a request of the ote under the reconstruction acts had very gen- convention. The stay law, as finally passed, rally abstained from exercising the privilege, continued all civil actions pending in the Sund that, as a consequence, the "intelligence, perior Courts, to the spring term of 1869, and efinement, and wealth of the State," were not provided that execution on all judgments then epresented in the convention. He therefore rendered should be for only one-tenth of the ll the more earnestly recommended wise and amount due; further execution for one-fifth to. noderate action on the part of the delegates, be issued in 1870, for one-half the residue in nd suggested some of the features which he con- 1871, and for the balance in 1872. Such proidered most essential in the new constitution. visions were made as were necessary to render

bove all, he urged the removal of all political this ordinance effectual, and its operation was isabilities from the white citizens, but advised limited to debts and demands contracted prior n educational or property qualification, appli- to May, 1865. Another ordinance was passed able to blacks and whites alike. In regard to declaring null and void all contracts the contime-honored doctrine in the South, he said: sideration of which was the purchase of slaves, The doctrine of State rights, as taught in and prohibiting all proceedings for their enSouth Carolina, has been exploded by the war. forcement. Che allegiance of the citizen, according to the During the deliberations of the convention, esults of that controversy, is due to the Gov- the following resolutions, which exhibit thé rnment of the United States, and not to the views of a portion of the members, were subtate. I recognize this doctrine to the fullest mitted, and referred to the Committee on the atent, and, in my inaugural message as Gov- Executive : rnor of the State, I announced my judgment

Whereas, a large majority of the people heretofore hat hereafter the supremacy of the United constituting the government of the State of South tates Government over the State was undis- Carolina have, by unjustifiable rebellion, forfeited uted and indisputable. I am aware that their political rights, and are hostile to every act of many of my contemporaries deny the propo- Union, claiming, as they do, every political right

Congress for the reconstruction of the State to the tion, but, if I can properly comprehend the under the Constitution, which properly defines their gitimate sequences of war, no other result late acts as treason and authorizes even the penalty resents itself to my mind."

of death for crimes thus committed, instead of equal During the first weeks of the session, while rights with those who love the Government which Ele various committees were occupied in pre

they so madly attempted to destroy, and

Whereas, the officers of the present provisional aring the portions of the constitution in- government of the State, from the highest to the

lowest, have generally exercised their influence and sary for an election to or the holding of ery used the emoluments of their offices in a manner and no office shall be created, the appointra: highly prejudicial to the claims of loyal citizens, and which shall be for a longer time than good batin. in opposition to the laws of Congress, looking to a After the adoption of this constitution, are speedy reconstruction, the only competent authority who shall fight a duel, or send or accept a che we recognize, and are now marshalling their forces to for that purpose, or be an aider or abettor in igati defeat any constitution, however faultless it may be, a duel, shall be deprived of holding any of: that this convention may frame as the fundamental honor or trust in this State, and shall be az law of the State: therefore, be it

punished as the law shall prescribe. Resolved, That we, the representatives of the loyal Sec. 39. No title of nobility or hereditarse people, having accepted in good faith the terms of- ment shall ever be granted in this State. Den fered by Congress for the restoration of the State to tion on account of race or color, in any case her proper relations in the Union, demand for our- ever, shall be prohibited, and all classes of clients selves and our constituents, under the law and the shall enjoy equally all common, public, lepi, constitution, present and prospective, every right political privileges. which these embittered and incorrigible enemies to the Government claim as exclusively their own. The House of Representatives is to be as

Resolved, That the continued efforts of the present posed of 124 members, apportioned among : disloyal officers of the provisional government of the counties according to population, who . State, to continue themselves in power as such, while looking to a speedy reinstatement to place in the hold office two years. There is to be es Federal positions so lately and contemptuously desert- Senator for each county elected for a terme ed by many of them, and their systematic efforts to four years. The regular State elections as escape the just penalties of violated faith, while their be held on the third Wednesday in October active hostility to the essential principles of republicanism remain, are substantial and positive proofs every second year, beginning with 1842. L. that the safety of the Government and the welfare the sessions of the General Assembly an : of the people demand their removal.

be held annually on the 4th Monday cd ) The following were referred to the Commit- vember. Ministers of the Gospel are el tee on Miscellaneous Provisions :

ineligible to seats in the Legislature. ) : Whereas, the prosperity of States, like that of All members of the Assembly, and all of:**

the office of Governor or Lieutenant-Goven? families, depends upon the harmony existing among its meinbers, and the precepts of truth and religion before entering upon their duties, and all er. teach us to do unto others as we would they should bers of the bar, before commencing the pas do unto us ; And whereas, our newly-enfranchised citizens have and subscribe the following oath:

tice of their profession, are required in the displayed their good sense and strong love of country, by a cordial and unassuming coöperation with

“I do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case the rest of their fellow-citizens, in promoting the true may be) that I am duly qualified accordin; interests of our beloved State and glorious Republic, the Constitution of the United States and be it Resolved, That this convention take such action as

this State, to exercise the duties of the or it may in its wisdom deem compatible with its powers,

to which I have been elected (or app irc. and conducive to the public weal, to expunge forever and that I will faithfully discharge, to the from the vocabulary, of South Carolina the epithets of my abilities, the duties thereof; and E

negro," " nigger," and "Yankee,” as used in an recognize the supremacy of the Constituza opprobrious sense. That the exigencies and im- and laws of the United States over the more proved civilization of the times demand that this convention, or the legislative body created by it, tution and laws of any State; and that I . enact such laws as will make it a penal offence to use support, protect, and defend the Constit the above epithets, in the manner described, against of the United States, and the constitatiu any American citizens of this state, and to punish South Carolina, as ratified by the people : the insult by fine or imprisonment.

So help me God." The first article of the constitution embraces The Governor and Lieutenant-Gorerne 49 only the Declaration of Rights, which consists to be chosen for a term of two years and of forty-one sections. Besides the provisions invested with the functions usual to otices ordinarily contained in documents of the kind, the same grade in other States. Amca? the following may bo selected as somewhat disqualifications for these positions, issé peculiar:

nial of the “existence of a Supreme Brits Section 2. Slavery shall never exist in this state; A Comptroller-General, Treasurer, and Series neither shali involuntary servitude, except as a pun: tary of State are to be chosen, to holi iš ishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been for a term of four years, duly convicted.

Seo. 5. This State shall ever remain a member The judicial power of the State is rested : of the American Union, and all attempts, from what- a Supreme Court; in two Circuit Conra ever source, or upon whatever pretext, to dissolve a Court of Common Pleas having ciril jer. the said Union shall be resisted with the whole diction, and a Court of General Sessions ** power of Sec. 12. No person shall be disqualified as a witz and justices of the peace. The Generis

criminal jurisdiction only; in Probate Cuza ness, or be prevented from acquiring, holding, and transmitting property, or be hindered in acquiring sembly may also establish sach municipals education, or be liable to any other punishment for other inferior courts as may be deemed Deert straints or disqualifications in regard to any personal rights than such as are laid upon others under like chief justice, and two associate jostices com circumstances.

by a joint vote of the General Assemblies Seo. 82. No property qualification shall be neces- term of six years. The Circuit Judgen

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