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THE

AMERICAN

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA

AND

REGISTER OF IMPORTANT EVENTS

OF THE YEAR

186 8.

EMBRACING POLITICAL, CIVIL, MILITARY, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS; PUBLIC DOCUMENTS; BIOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, COMMERCE, FINANCE, LITERATURE,

SCIENCE, AGRICULTURE, AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRY.

VOLUME VIII.

NEW YORK:
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,
90, 92 AND 94 GRAND STREET.

1869.

L'DA! OF THE
LELAND STANUD JA UNIVERSITY.

AES A72 1868 3

a.39116

ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1869, by

D. APPLETON & CO.,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the

Southern District of New York.

MAR 9 1900

PREFACE.

This volume of the Annual CYCLOPÆDIA, for the year 1868, presents the complete restoration, as members of the Union, of all the Southern States except three, and the final disappearance of all difficulties between the citizens of those States and the Federal Government. The execution of the reconstruction acts of Congress was commenced near the close of the previous year, elections were held and delegates chosen to conventions in the several States; these conventions assembled; constitutions were drafted, discussed, amended and submitted to the people, and adopted. New and important principles, working a radical change in the society of the Southern States, were thus declared and enforced. The military rulers, quietly surrendering their authority to the civil officers, withdrew, and the several States thus reorganized again appeared by their representatives in the chambers of Congress and took an active part in its proceedings. In these pages will be found the details of all the steps taken to reach this end, such as the registration acts, and the qualifications required of voters in order to make the discrimination demanded by Congress; the orders of the military commanders, the proceedings of the conventions, the features of the new constitutions, and their adoption; the reorganization of the State governments; the removal of incumbents, and the inauguration of new executive officers; the assembling of the Legislatures; the coöperation of the colored men in all these proceedings; the strifes of factions, and the gradual restoration of order, with the final and complete amnesty proclaimed by the President.

The details of the internal affairs of the United States comprise the revenue and expenditure of the Government, the change in the nature and extent of its public debt, the fluctuations of its currency, and the receipts from its system of taxation, with its operation upon the industrial interests and prosperity of the people; the extent of the banking system ; the fruits of agriculture and the activity of commerce; the proceedings in the Southern States to complete the reorganization of their social affairs ; the various political conventions of the year, both national and State; the results of the elections; the acts of State Legislatures; the rapid improvement of educational and charitable institutions under the care of the State governments; the debts and resources of the several States, and all those facts which show their surprising development.

In Europe and Asia movements commenced to throw off the burden of some of the old governments and secure a greater degree of freedom to the people. On the former continent these movements were comparatively peaceful, while on the latter they were attended with violent and bloody disturbances. The details of these events, together with the peaceful progress of affairs in other countries of the world, as well as the extent and influence of the public press in many parts of Europe, are fully narrated.

The progress of mechanical industry among civilized nations, especially as shown by such stupendous public works as the Suez Canal, the Pacific Railroad, the Mont Cenis and Hoosac Tunnels, and the sewage embankment of the Thames, is illustrated and fully shown.

Not less interest than usual has existed in the diplomatic relations of the Federal Government with foreign nations, especially in the negotiations relative to the Alabama claims, the purchase of territory from Russia and other countries, and the difficulties with Paraguay.

The developments in the various branches of Astronomical, Chemical, and other sciences, with the new applications to useful purposes, are extensively described.

The alarming and destructive earthquakes which have terrified the inhabitants of several countries are fully noticed, as also the scourge among the cattle of this country, and the measures taken to combat it.

Geographical discoveries have continued in all quarters of the globe, and the discoveries made have been fully related.

The record of Literature is as extensive as usual, and the titles of all the more important works have been arranged under the various classes to which they belong.

The interesting history of the religious denominations of the country, with an account of their conventions, branches, membership, views on social affairs, and the progress of their opinions, is presented from official sources.

A brief tribute has been given to the memory of deceased persons of note in every department of society.

All important documents, messages, orders, treaties, and letters from official persons, have been inserted entire.

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