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PREFACE.

THE Franklin Written Arithmetic contains a full course of arithmetical instruction and drill for pupils in the common schools. The definitions and principles are thoroughly illustrated and explained, so that the learner may work intelligently; while the range of applications is broad and varied enough to afford him good preparation for ordinary business affairs.

Topics of a merely theoretical interest, antiquated or curious matter, and puzzling problems are omitted altogether ; while parts of the subject not very necessary to the greater number of pupils are given in the Appendix, to which references are made in the body of the book.

To avoid a multiplicity of rules, decimals and integers have been treated together whenever that could easily be done. For the same purpose, the various problems in Percentage have all been referred to a few fundamental principles, stated and illustrated at the outset.

The Metric System has been treated in a way to indicate the most practical course to pursue in teaching it.

The topics that follow Simple Interest in this book, as in most arithmetics, can wisely be deferred till the last years of the common-school

course.

In the arrangement of work it will be noticed that Oral Exercises precede Examples for the Slate. For convenience in the class-room, the latter are numbered consecutively through the whole section, with the exception of four pages of typical examples (pages 17, 25, 35, and 48), which are lettered. The Oral Examples are designated by letters. All answers to Examples for the Slate, except those to Illustrative and Typical Examples, are omitted from the body of the book. Miscellaneous Examples are given in great number and variety, and each section is supplemented by a set of questions for review.

A special feature of the book is the Drill Exercises. in general character these are like those previously published by Walton and Cogswell in their Book of Problems; and they have been introduced in this book by consent of Mr. Cogswell. They give a large number of miscellaneous examples, with answers, on all the topics treated in the Arithmetic ; and the teacher will be spared the trouble of selecting from other books examples for class drill. The fact that these exercises have been extensively imitated in books published of late shows the high estimation in which they are held by teachers and authors.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

84

PAGE

PAGE

READING AND WRITING NUMBERS 1 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES ... 136

ADDITION..

12 COMPOUND NUMBERS

146

SUBTRACTION

20 Reduction....

147

MÚLTIPLICATION.

28

Fundamental Operations..... 152

DIVISION

158

38

Longitude and Time

Mensuration of Surfaces and

UNITED STATES MONEY.

64 Solids ......

160

Addition, Subtraction, Multi-

METRIC SYSTEM

172

plication, and Division 65

Coins and Paper Currency... 67 PERCENTAGE

185

Accounts and Bills .....

68 Profit and Loss.

192

Commission ....

194

FACTORS

75

Stocks, Dividends, and Brok-

Symbols of Operation.. 79

erage

197

Cancellation.

80

Insurance

199

Greatest Common Factor...... 82 Taxes

201

Customs or Duties

204

MULTIPLES.

209

Least Common Multiple

Simple Interest..

85

Accurate Interest.

215

COMMON FRACTIONS

88

Partial Payments

216

Reduction..

90

Problems in Interest

220

Addition

94

Present Worth and Discount 224

Subtraction

97

Bank Discount

226

Multiplication

99

Commercial Discount

230

Division.

105 Compound Interest

231

To find the Whole when a

Average of Payments. 234

Part is given ....

111

Average of Accounts

238

To find what Fraction one

Exchange..

241

Number is of another. .. 113

Bonds...

245

Aliquot Parts

114

RATIO AND PROPORTION..... 254

263

DECIMAL FRACTIONS

Partnership

124

Reading and Writing 8, 124, 300 POWERS AND ROOTS

265

Reduction

125

Square Root

Addition.

.15, 17, 19 Cube Root

272

Subtraction..

24, 25, 27

Multiplication......34, 35, 36, 130

MENSURATION

277

Division ... 43, 44, 45, 48, 49, 132 APPENDIX

299
DRILL EXERCISES..

.57, 59, 63, 73, 123, 135, 171, 253
GENERAL REVIEWS...

..50, 117, 165, 205, 247, 293

QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW ..11, 56, 73, 115, 135, 168, 250, 264, 294

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES... 27, 37, 52, 74, 118, 119, 166, 206, 229, 248,

295, 315

267

ARITHMETIC.

SEOTION I.

READING AND WRITING NUMBERS

ARTICLE 1. A collection of single things or ones is a number. By common usage one is also called a number.

2. A knowledge of numbers is Arithmetic.

3. Some numbers have simple names. two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten ; also a hundred, a thousand, a million, etc. All other numbers have compound names. (See Appendix, p. 299.)

These are one,

Exercises. 1. Name the numbers in regular order, or count, from one to fifty; from fifty to one.

2. Count to a hundred by twos; by fives; by tens. Count from a hundred downward by twos; by fives; by tens.

3. Name the number that is made up of two tens and five ones ;

of one ten and seven ones; of one ten and a one; of one ten and two ones; of six tens and six; of eight tens and five; of nine tens; of nine tens and nine; of ten tens.

4. Name the number that is made up of one hundred, one ten, and a one; of two hundreds, seven tens, and three ones; of six hundreds and three tens; of five hundreds and four ones; of four hundreds, three tens, and three ones; of nine hundreds, nine tens, and nine ones.

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