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traversed this plain in a diagonal direc- | they were sold at enormous prices. Such tion, while in the neighbourhood of the was the sanctity of the Temple of Diana, city arose the hill of Prion, the marble that kings deposited here their wealth, quarries of which supplied the materials and rich men their treasures ; and the for the public buildings. Among the ladies of Ephesus contributed their many objects of interest within and jewellery to the adorning of the temple, around the city, the most renowned was and continually added pictures, statues, the temple of “Diana of the Ephesians," and decorations to the fabric. Such was which was accounted one of the seven the pride of the people in the edifice, that wonders of the world. Its foundations when Alexander of Macedon offered the were laid on immense substructures; it spoils of his eastern campaign if he was built of the purest marble from the might inscribe his name upon the buildneighbouring quarries ; its columns were ing, the overture was declined. We may of green jasper; its doors of cypress wood, add, that the inhabitants of the city, the parts that were roofed were of cedar, though originally principally Greek, ad the staircase was formed of the wood were half Oriental in their characteristics. of a single vine from the Isle of Cyprus.
"In the proud land of palaces wert thou It is said to have gleamed and glistened
Alone and watchless, as thine own fair queen like a meteor in the eyes of those who
Shines 'midst the gems of night's starapproached the city. It was erected on
crowned brow, an elevated platform of masonry, as Veiling their dim rays with superior sheen. cended by a flight of steps ; it was 425 Thy countless columns gleam'd in rich feet long, 220 broad, surrounded by 120 arraycolumns 60 feet high, each the gift of a
The gifts of monarchs, and the work of menking, 36 of which were elaborately en
Whose nobler names, when regal thrones riched with carving and colour, * and the
decay, area of the entire pile was almost twice
Shall boast the meed of Fame's recording that of St. Paul's. It must, however, be remembered that this building, and | On the arrival of the apostle in others of that time, were unlike our Ephesus, he had an interview with cermodern erections, since a large part of it tain disciples already there, and afterwas open to the sky, and consisted wards sought to benefit his brethren after mainly of colonnades, surrounding a cell the flesh. His success was varied and which contained the idol. This shrine partial, and he subsequently ended his was held in peculiar sacredness, though labours in the synagogue, withdrew his it contained- not the Diana of Greek converts, and preached in the schoolmythology, the “huntress, chaste and room of one Tyrannus, who probably fair”-but a shapeless, black, old wooden was a Jew, and a teacher of philosophy, block, holding a bar of metal in each rhetoric, or theology. Here he prosehand, clad in a dress covered with mystic cuted his ministry for two years among characters, but which was believed to Jews and Greeks; tidings of the man have " fallen down from Jupiter." This and his mission spread through the city, hideous block was, however, sumptu- / and his room was a place of resort, not ously robed. On her head was a crown, only to the inhabitants, but to the people and round her waist a girdle; and of the neighbouring country districts, both crown and girdle were engraved and even to strangers from a distance. with mystic letters, which were regarded So wide was the influence he thus exerwith superstitious awe. These “Ephe- cised, that it is declared that “all that sian letters” were transcribed on rolls of dwelt in Asia heard the word of the parchment, and used to be worn as Lord Jesus ;” and his accusers alleged, charms. Many large volumes also were that not alone at Ephesus, but almost published, describing these characters and throughout all Asia, this Paul hath perprofessing to explain their secrets, and suaded and turned away much people, Conybeare and Howson.
saying that they be no gods, which are
made with hands." And now the teach- , and addressed to them an inflammatory ings of the apostle, and the amazing harangue, in which he pointed out the results of his miraculous powers in the apostle as the man who had comprorestoration of a demoniac, inaugurated a mised their trade and their religion, by new era in his missionary enterprise. A both putting their craft in danger, and profound impression was produced. The impugning the authority of “the great sorcerers of the city, who were very goddess Diana,” whom “all Asia and numerous, were awed. Many of the the world worshippeth." The appeal, believers, who had not hitherto aban- | thus adroitly addressed at once to their doned their mystic arts, or parted with pockets and their piety, was successful ; their cabalistic books, produced them, one loud and angry response was heard and willingly and publicly consigned them on all sides : “Great is Diana of the to the flames; and it was estimated that Ephesians;" and the mob sallied forth the property thus sacrificed was worth | into the streets in search of Paul and his not less than £1,700, and probably much companions. They discovered two of more. “So mightily grew the word of them, and bore them in triumph to the God, and prevailed.”
theatre. Paul himself, who, in their But the very success of Christianity frenzy, they seem to have been unable to aroused new forms of opposition. The find, hearing of the peril of his commonth of May had come, the period panions, and fearless for himself, wished especially set apart to the goddess of immediately to join them; but certain of the Ephesians, and at which the city the disciples interposed, and some of the was crowded with visitors. Imagine the Asiarchs, who seem to have been a kind scene thus presented ; hundreds of vessels of priestly magistracy, and are called in the harbour, gaily painted boats flito “ the chiefs of Asia," added their perting up and down the basin of Panor- suasions, and deterred him from the mus; innumerable pilgrims on the heights needless danger. of Prion ; pleasure-hunters in all direc Meanwhile a remarkable spectacle pretions; the theatre with its show; the sented itself in the theatre. The mob hippodrome with its horse-racing; the had swept onward in tumultuous conwrestling and beast fighting in the sta- / fusion to this enormous structure, and dium; men dressed in fancy costumes ; occupied the stone tiers that rose one mock gods and goddesses; Jupiters with above another, and were capable of seatglittering crowns, bolts of war, and ing 50,000 persons. The theatre was white sandals ; Apollo with his wreath excavated from the sloping side of Mount of laurels and white robes; and Mercury Prion, was faced with a portico, and, dressed as the swift-footed messenger of like all the ancient theatres, was unOlympus. * At this season the trades- covered. It was probably the design of men were wont to drive a brisk business the leaders of the mob that the pri. in portable images or shrines of the soners should be subjected to some irregoddess Diana ; and the purchasers from gular form of trial, and then punished, a distance were accustomed to carry perhaps slain; but the crowd was so these with them to their homes, and also rast, the cries were so various, and the on journeys and in processions. These ignorance so general, that nothing could trinkets were made of wood, or gold, or be done. “Some therefore cried one silver. But the manufacturers and sales- thing, and some another: for the asmen now found that the teachings of sembly was confused; and," the sacred Paul, and the “no small stir about that historian, with a graphic touch, quaintly way,” which had arisen in consequence, adds, “the more part knew not wherefore seriously interfered with the sale of their they were come together." manufactures. Accordingly, a master At length an attempt was made to manufacturer, named Demetrius, sum- | guide this confused assembly to the moned his workmen and other artisans, adoption of some intelligible course. * Domninus; Lewin.
This was made by the Jews, who seem
to have been afraid lest they should argument to the last, he bade them reshare the danger to which the Christians collect that they themselves, by their were exposed, and they put forward tumult and irregularity, had actually Alexander-possibly “the coppersmith" | broken the law, and might incur the - to make a defence to the multitude. severe displeasure and penalties of the If we are right in the supposition that Roman authorities. Having thus apthis was the man who was once a pealed to their judgment and their fears, troubler of the apostle, he was likely, he pronounced the technical words with is an artisan, to be acceptable to the which an assembly was dissolved, and eraftsmen of Ephesus. But no sooner the people quietly dispersed. did the mob discover that he was a Jew, The public ministry of the apostle in than they found at least one cry in which Ephesus had now drawn to a close. all could unite; and for two long hours Time rolled on: the work of God was the air was rent with their shout, “Great carried on among the people; a Christian is Diana of the Ephesians." At last, church was formed, and officers were aphowever, the strength or the breath of pointed, while Paul pursued his missionthe people began to fail, and the town- | ary labours in various lands. How great elerk seized the opportunity to interpose. the change that thus had been wrought. He was a magistrate of high authority, “Behold us at Ephesus in the year 65," and might be called the Recorder or says Monod. “Twenty years later, an Chancellor of Ephesus. “He had to event, both insignificant and mighty, do with state papers ; he was keeper takes place in this city. A Christian of the archives; he read what was of church has been born, separated from public moment before the senate and the bosom of paganism, like an isle in assembly; he was present when money midst of the sea.” At length tidings was deposited in the temple ; and when reached the elders of the church that the letters were sent to the people of Ephesus, | apostle had touched at the port of Miletus. they were officially addressed to him." and that he desired to see them. With The year in which he held office was gladdened hearts and eager steps they sometimes known by his name, his name responded. The interview was as instrucwas often engraven on the coins, and his tive as it was affecting. It reveals to us presence was familiar to the populace. new depths of love in the apostle's It is obvious that no one was so well nature; it teaches us the manner and qualified as the town-clerk to deal with the motives of his life; it tells us of his an Ephesian mob, and he discharged his temptations, his tenderness, and his difficult duty with singular adroitness tears; it shows us the sympathies of the and success. Having secured silence, he man, the trials and triumphs of the suggested that there was no need for any minister, the seraphic gifts and graces solicitude on the part of his audience, that of the apostle. It informs us of much it was even undignified that any anxiety that he had done at Ephesus, the devoshould be betrayed, since the honour of tion which then inspired him, the daunttheir goddess, and the devotion of the lessness with which he dared, to us, a people to the “image which fell down momentous and alarming future. “ And from Jupiter," was unquestionable, and now,” he says, “behold, I go bound in not to be imperilled by a few insignificant the spirit unto Jerusalem, not knowing strangers. He reminded them further, the things that shall befall me there : that Paul and his companions had not save that the Holy Ghost witnesseth in been guilty of actually profaning the every city, saying that bonds and afflictemple, or aspersing the goddess herself; tions abide me. But none of these that if they had violated the law, they things move me, neither count I my life might at once be arraigned, for the dear unto myself, so that I might finish assizes were at that time being held; or, my course with joy, and the ministry, again, they might appeal to the Roman which I have received of the Lord Jesus, proconsul. But, reserving his strongest to testify the gospel of the grace of God."
In studying this chapter in the annals do their worst; the mob might fill the of the Christian church and the life of the theatre, and rend the air with their acapostle, we have illustrated before us the | clamations -“Great is Diana of the trials and the consolations of Christian Ephesians;" but beneath these storms service. The cross is the symbol of our of passion there were under-currents of faith, and the church must take up the spiritual life that had been deeply moved. cross if it would " follow after.” It was Souls were brought out of that midnight so with the apostle. Sometimes he moral darkness into marvellous light; laboured with immediate success; some Christian communities were formed ; a times he encountered only callous in- Christian church was founded; Christian difference, or open hostility and con- friendships were cemented; and, on the tempt. He preached at Athens to the shore at Miletus, in the interview between philosophers of the world, but we do not the elders of the church and their spirifind that he there founded a church. He tual father, we contemplate one of the preached at Corinth, but had afterwards most affecting scenes ever witnessed in to rebuke the inconsistencies of some, and the annals of the world ;-an illustration the declensions of other of his converts. of that grateful love which inspires the He preached at Ephesus, but there he hearts of the converted to those who have · encountered “the lying in wait of the been the means of their salvation. Thus
Jews,” and “fought with beasts," either Paul won the triumphs of the cross, and human or wild. The eminent endow- he lived to see cities moved, continents ments of Paul, the zeal of the apostle, awakened, empires shaken, churches and the miraculous gifts with which he founded, and souls innumerable saved, had been entrusted, did not guarantee through his ministry. Verily, his work him immunity from trial. But in all was not in vain in the Lord. And he this he followed in the steps of his had other and higher consolations. The Master, who endured the contempt of love of Christ constrained and rewarded the Pharisee, the scepticism of the Sad. him. He endured, as seeing Him who ducee, the scoff of the scribe, the quib- is invisible. For His sake he counted bles of the lawyer, the hostility of the it joy to suffer. For love of Him Paul Herodian, the ignorance of the mob, the rejoiced to make life itself a service and a subtlety of the priest, the betrayal of the sacrifice. He told the story of that love traitor, the condemnation of the Roman, with all the fervour of one who felt it and the desertion of faint-hearted friends. glowing in his own bosom; and when his And so, in every age, he who would do words faltered upon his lips with the the work of Christ must count the cost. burden of their own tenderness, the tear
But the apostle had also the encourage- would start down his cheek, and plead ments of Christian service. He had conso- | with its yet more persuasive eloquence. lations, human and Divine. Opposition And thus, “by the space of three years' might arise in many forms ; heathendom, he “ceased not to warn" these Ephesians trembling at her doom, might be lashed "night and day with tears." into fury; the crafts of idolatry might
F. S. W.
Romanist Proselytism, Illustrated in the Letters of Fenelon.
FRANCIS DE SALIGNAC DE LA MOTTE that his natural talents and noble heart FÉNÉLON, a younger son of the Marquis were early improved by the practice of de Fénélon, was born August 6, 1651, self-denial and humility. In his quiet, at the castle Fénélon, in Perigord. He rural home, he was taught the ancient received a plain education, and was classics. Early destined for the church, trained to act conscientiously, and upon he was sent, in his twelfth year, to the principle. His parents were pious and neighbouring University of Cahors, where upright, and reared him accordingly, so he pursued his studies with great success.
At eighteen he finished his academic | Such is the account given of the early bourse, and returned home. His uncle life of Fénélon. His missionary labours Anthony, Marquis de Fénélon, an able as they are called-by which we are to statesman, invited him to Paris, where understand his endeavours to reclaim Prothe young Abbé, only nineteen years old, testants, and restore them to the Church preached several times with extraordinary of Rome--are treated as exceptional, and acceptance. His prudent uncle, per as not partaking of the bigotry and inceiving the temptation to which the tolerance which are characteristic of youth was thus exposed, induced him Romanism. Some new light has been to enter St. Sulpice, a seminary for edu- thrown on this period of Fénélon's micating priests, where he earnestly and nistry, and we intend to give the result devoutly performed the duties assigned in a translation, somewhat abridged, of an him by the superior, the Abbé Trouson, interesting essay which has lately apfor five years. In his 24th year he was peared in L'Esperance, a valuable French consecrated priest. Thenceforth he la- periodical. boured with humble zeal in the parish of One particular trait of Fénélon's St. Sulpice. From this post, the Arch- character was his love of missionary acbishop of Paris called him to the office of tivity, which was developed at the early superior of the Nouvelles Catholiques, a age of sixteen, while he was a pupil at society of young women of rank who the school of St. Sulpice in Paris. This devoted themselves to the instruction of community maintained some missionaries the daughters of Protestants in Roman in Upper Canada, on the island of MontCatholic doctrines. He was admirably réal; and it was to that spot that the adapted for this service, and made many thoughts of the young scholar were first proselytes. The results of his experi- turned, in the year 1667. So much did tzre here he published in his treatise, | this idea occupy his mind, that he spoke Der Education des Filles, in which he ably seriously on the subject to his superiors, develops the principles, &c., of a Chris- and with their consent made a journey to tian education. During this period, his uncle, the Bishop of Sarlat, expressly Pénélon sought to improve his scientific | to ask for his approval of the project; attainments by making Bossuet's ac- but the bishop would not hear of it, fear. quaintance. Though much younger ing the influence which the cold northern than Bossuet, they became warm friends. climate might have on the delicate health Pénélon's activity as superior attracted of his nephew. Fenelon returned to Estice, his catechetical lectures were finish his studies, and then took orders. largely attended, and his eloquence filled | He could not give up the idea of behis hearers with admiration. Louis coming a missionary, and turned his XIV. resolved to use his talents for the thoughts towards Greece and the Levant. kcomplishment of his scheme of uniting His love for classic antiquity, added to France in one faith. He offered him the his religious zeal, produced in him a permission of converting the Reformed offect enthusiasm. Poitou, with the aid of a military corps. “The whole of Greece,” he says, “is Fénélon accepted the mission, but only open to me; the Sultan has withdrawn in a condition that he should go without fear; already the Peleponnesus breathes the soldiers ; he desired no other arms freely, and the Church of Corinth begins but the apostolic weapons, the sword of to flourish again; and there the voice of the Spirit, and the power of grace. This the apostle shall make itself heard once point was yielded ; Fénélon, with four | more. I feel myself transported to those attendants, among whom was Fleury, beautiful places, and amongst those present to Poitou, laboured indefatigably, cious ruins, there to revive, amidst the though with mildness, and won the sin most curious monuments, the very spirit bere respect of the Reformed, if he did of antiquity. I search for the Areopagus, not succeed in inducing many to renounce This outline is taken from Herzog's
Encyclopedia by Bomberger.