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In studying this chapter in the annals do their worst; the mob might fill the of the Christian church and the life of the theatre, and rend the air with their acapostle, we have illustrated before us the clamations
-"Great is Diana of the trials and the consolations of Christian Ephesians;" but beneath these storms service. The cross is the symbol of our of passion there were under-currents of faith, and the church must take up the spiritual life that had been deeply moved. cross if it would “ follow after.” It was Souls were brought out of that midnight so with the apostle. Sometimes he moral darkness into marvellous light; laboured with immediate success; some
Christian communities were formed; a times he encountered only callous in- Christian church was founded; Christian difference, or open hostility and con- friendships were cemented; and, on the tempt. He preached at Athens to the shore at Miletus, in the interview between philosophers of the world, but we do not the elders of the church and their spirifind that he there founded a church. He tual father, we contemplate one of the preached at Corinth, but had afterwards most affecting scenes ever witnessed in to rebuke the inconsistencies of some, and the annals of the world ;-an illustration the declensions of other of his converts. of that grateful love which inspires the He preached at Ephesus, but there he hearts of the converted to those who have encountered “the lying in wait of the been the means of their salvation. Thus Jews,” and “fought with beasts," either Paul won the triumphs of the cross, and human or wild. The eminent endow- he lived to see cities moved, continents ments of Paul, the zeal of the apostle, awakened, empires shaken, churches and the miraculous gifts with which he founded, and souls innumerable saved, had been entrusted, did not guarantee through his ministry. Verily, his work him immunity from trial. But in all was not in vain in the Lord. And he this he followed in the steps of his had other and higher consolations. The Master, who endured the contempt of love of Christ constrained and rewarded the Pharisee, the scepticism of the Sad him. He endured, as seeing Him who ducee, the scoff of the scribe, the quib- is invisible. For His sake he counted bles of the lawyer, the hostility of the it joy to suffer. For love of Him Paul Herodian, the ignorance of the mob, the rejoiced to make life itself a service and a subtlety of the priest, the betrayal of the sacrifice. He told the story of that love traitor, the condemnation of the Roman, with all the fervour of one who felt it and the desertion of faint-hearted friends. glowing in his own bosom; and when his And so, in every age, he who would do words faltered upon his lips with the the work of Christ must count the cost. burden of their own tenderness, the tear
But the apostle had also the encourage- would start down his cheek, and plead ments of Christian service. He had conso- with its yet more persuasive eloquence. lations, human and ne. Opposition And thus, " by the space of three years" might arise in many forms; heathendom, he “ ceased not to warn" these Ephesians trembling at her doom, might be lashed "night and day with tears.” into fury; the crafts of idolatry might
F. S. W.
Romanist Proselytism, Illustrated in the Letters of Fenelon.
FRANCIS DE SALIGNAC DE LA MOTTE that his natural talents and noble heart FÉNÉLON, a younger son of the Marquis were early improved by the practice of de Fénélon, was born August 6, 1651, self-denial and humility. In his quiet, at the castle Fénélon, in Perigord. He rural home, he was taught the ancient received a plain education, and was classics. Early destined for the church, trained to act conscientiously, and upon he was sent, in his twelfth year, to the principle. His parents were pious and neighbouring University of Cahors, where upright, and reared him accordingly, so he pursued his studies with great success.
At eighteen he finished his academic Such is the account given of the early course, and returned home. His uncle life of Fénélon.* His missionary labours Anthony, Marquis de Fénélon, an able as they are called-by which we are to statesman, invited him to Paris, where understand his endeavours to reclaim Prothe young Abbé, only nineteen years old, testants, and restore them to the Church preached several times with extraordinary of Rome-are treated as exceptional, and acceptance. His prudent uncle, per- as not partaking of the bigotry and inceiving the temptation to which the tolerance which are characteristic of youth was thus exposed, induced him Romanism. Some new light has been to enter St. Sulpice, a seminary for edu- thrown on this period of Fénélon's micating priests, where he earnestly and nistry, and we intend to give the result devoutly performed the duties assigned in a translation, somewhat abridged, of an him by the superior, the Abbé Trouson, interesting essay which has lately apfor five years. In his 24th year he was peared in L'Esperance, a valuable French consecrated priest. Thenceforth he la- periodical. boured with humble zeal in the parish of One particular trait of Fénélon's St. Sulpice. From this post, the Arch- character was his love of missionary acbishop of Paris called him to the office of tivity, which was developed at the early superior of the Nouvelles Catholiques, a | age of sixteen, while he was a pupil at society of young women of rank who the school of St. Sulpice in Paris. This devoted themselves to the instruction of community maintained some missionaries the daughters of Protestants in Roman in Upper Canada, on the island of MontCatholic doctrines. He was admirably réal; and it was to that spot that the adapted for this service, and made many thoughts of the young scholar were first proselytes. The results of his experi- turned, in the year 1667. So much did ence here he published in his treatise, this idea occupy his mind, that he spoke De l'Education des Filles, in which he ably seriously on the subject to his superiors, develops the principles, &c., of a Chris- and with their consent made a journey to tian education.
During this period, his uncle, the Bishop of Sarlat, expressly Fénélon sought to improve his scientific to ask for his approval of the project'; attainments by making Bossuet's ac- but the bishop would not hear of it, fear. quaintance. Though much younger ing the influence which the cold northern than Bossuet, they became warm friends. climate might have on the delicate health Fénélon's activity as superior attracted of his nephew. Fénélon returned to notice, his catechetical lectures were finish his studies, and then took orders. largely attended, and his eloquence filled He could not give up the idea of behis hearers with admiration. Louis coming a missionary, and turned his XIV. resolved to use his talents for the thoughts towards Greece and the Levant. accomplishment of his scheme of uniting His love for classic antiquity, added to France in one faith. He offered him the his religious zeal, produced in him a permission of converting the Reformed of fect enthusiasm. Poitou, with the aid of a military corps.
“The whole of Greece," he says, “ is Fénélon accepted the mission, but only open to me; the Sultan has withdrawn in On condition that he should go without fear; already the Peleponnesus breathes the soldiers ; he desired no other arms freely, and the Church of Corinth begins but the apostolic weapons, the sword of to flourish again ; and there the voice of the Spirit, and the power of grace. This the apostle shall make itself heard once point was yielded; Fénélon, with four more. I feel myself transported to those attendants, among whom was Fleury, beautiful places, and amongst those prewent to Poitou, laboured indefatigably, cious ruins, there to revive, amidst the though with mildness, and won the sin- most curious monuments, the very spirit cere respect of the Reformed, if he did of antiquity. I search for the Areopagus, not succeed in inducing many to renounce This outline is taken from Herzog's
Encyclopedia by Bomberger.
where Saint Paul announced the un- structed in the Romish religion, which known God to the sages of the world. the greater number of them embraced But the profane comes after the sacred, against their will. Bossuet, to whom and I do not disdain to descend to the the Abbé Fénélon was after some time Piræus where Socrates formed the plan introduced, and who appreciated his chaof his republic. I mount to the double racter and talents, proposed to the king summit of the Parnassus; I gather the to engage him in the missions amongst laurels of Delphos, and I taste the de- the newly converted. The king exlights of Tempé. When will the blood pressed a desire to see him; Fénélon told of the Turks be mingled with that of the him flatly that he would not associate himPersians on the plains of Marathon, that self with an armed force. The king doubtthe whole of Greece may be given up to less concluded from this that he had to do religion, philosophy, and the fine arts, with a young man of a fanciful disposiwho regard it as their country? I will tion, and bade him observe that he must not forget thee, O island ! consecrated take measures to preserve himself from by the visions of the beloved disciple. danger; the Protestants were ready to Oh, happy Patmos! I will go and kiss fall upon every priest who was sent the footsteps of the apostle on thy amongst them. The troops, in fact, were soil, and believe that I see the heavens still in the country which Fénélon was opened! There shall I feel myself seized about to visit. They were said to be newith indignation against the false pro- cessary to prevent the emigration of Pro· phet, who professed to declare the oracles testants, a measure which Fénélon was of Truth, and I will bless the All-power- far from opposing, as we shall presently ful who, far from destroying the Church see. It was in the month of November like Babylon, chains the lion, and renders or December of the year 1685,—some her victorious. I already see schism months after the revocation of the Edict abolished, the east and the west united, of Nantes,--that Fénélon entered upon and Asia, who is sighing to the banks of his new field of activity. the Euphrates, seeing the return of day As there was no distinction between after so long a night; the earth sanctified civil and religious society, Fénélon had by the steps of the Saviour, and watered one of the king's ministers as his superior. by His blood, delivered from those who He attended to his commands with perfect profane it, and re-clothed with a new submission, to him he addressed his reglory! Finally, the children of Abraham, ports, and proposed the measures to be scattered over the surface of the whole taken in the interest of the mission. This earth, and more numerous than the stars person was the Marquis of Seignelay, of the firmament, gathered together from Secretary of State, attached to the mithe four winds of heaven, shall come in nistry of the department of Poitou. He crowds, and recognise the Christ whom was, to all appearance, less violent than they have pierced, and show to the end many others, and willing to listen to of time a resurrection."
reasonable proposals, but his character What a contrast between this mis- was rather debauched; for which he sion, which excited so highly his brilliant afterwards felt remorse, and Fénélon then imagination, and that with which Fénélon became his spiritual adviser, as is proved was afterwards charged! Louis XIV. by the letters which he afterwards wrote had just revoked the Edict of Nantes (in to him. But we are here most interested October, 1685). Fénélon aided in the in the letters which he addressed to him, instruction of the newly converted, as while he was a missionary, for they are they were called; that is to say, our the principal source from which we have brothers in the faith, made Catholics by drawn this narration of facts. The oriprofession through fear of the dragoons. ginal letters were found in the possession He was director of the house of the New of the Count of Séze, a peer of France, Catholics--young Protestant ladies, who when Cardinal Bausset wrote the biowere torn from their parents, and in- graphy of Fénélon. The Count permitted the Cardinal to make use of them for the forming in haste a superficial work which new edition of this work, which appeared may appear dazzling from a distance. in 1809. Since then, the letters have We can only redouble our instructions, been inserted in the new edition of the invite the people to come and seek the works of the Archbishop of Cambray, sacraments in a catholic spirit, and give published i1 Paris by Le Fèvre, in three them to those who approach of their own volumes, in 1835. They are found in the accord, after having submitted themthird volume, p. 462, et seq. There are selves without reserve.' (26th Feb.) three letters dated from the Tremblade, In his letter to Bossuet, Fénélon of the 7th and 26th of February, and the speaks of the people's obstinacy, which Sth of March, 1686; also a letter to Bos- he considers all the greater because, as suet, dated the 8th of March, from the he says, " the authority even of the king Tremblade.
stirs all our feelings, and makes persuaThe first thing which strikes you on sion more easy.” He continues thus : reading these letters is, that Fénélon "The Huguenots who are not rightly makes no allusion to the aversion of the converted are attached to their religion newly converted to the religion which with a horrible amount of obstinacy; but had been imposed upon them by force. when great trials come, their strength His letters are filled with complaints of abandons them. Instead of their martyrs the obstinacy with which they are attached being humble, docile, fearless, and into their ancient faith. Many of the quo- capable of deceit, they are cowardly tations from Fénélon show us that the against force, obstinate against truth, infamous methods of conversion adopted and ready for all kinds of hypocrisy. had perverted the moral and religious The rest of this sect are falling little by sense of these people to such an extent, little into an indifference to all the outthat the missionary himself became ward exercises of religion, which should frightened. Let him speak for himself :- make them tremble. If it were wished
** In the state in which they are, it to make them abjure Christianity and Fould be easy for us to make them all follow the Alcoran, it would only be confess and commune, if we desired to necessary to show them the dragoons. press them, in order to do honour to our Because they assemble together at night, mission. But what avails it to make and resist all instruction, they consider those confess who do not yet acknow- they have done all. It is an awful kind ledge the true Church, nor its power to of leaven in a nation. They have so forgive sins? How can we give Jesus violated the holiest things by their perChrist to those who do not believe in juries, that there are scarcely any marks receiving Him? However, I know that left by which you can recognise those in the places where the missionaries and who are sincere in their conversion." the troops are together, the newly con- It is not to be wondered at that a verted go in crowds to the communion. | Catholic priest should depict heretics These spirits, hard, stubborn, and bitter, under the darkest colours; that he should are at the same time cowardly and selfish. see in their attachment to the Gospel Without much pressing, they can be only a culpable obstinacy; and that he made to commit innumerable profana- should accuse of cowardice those who tions; seeing them commune, they be- often did not abjure till they had sublieve the work is finished; but they are mitted to the most cruel treatment. Yet only pushed to despair by the reproaches who will not perceive that Fénélon was of their conscience, or else they become before all others in the severity of his indifferent to religion, which is the height criticism upon the method of conversion of impiety, and the cause of much of the which had produced such results ? It wickedness which is increasing in the must be owned that these abominations whole kingdom. For ourselves, sir, we have never been described by any one in believe that we shall draw down upon us a a more striking manner ; but it is most fearful curse, if we are content with per- astonishing that he did not see how such TOL. ILI.
profanations were likely to alienate the curé who can explain the Gospel affecCatholics themselves from their own tionately, and enter into the confidence religion, and from religion altogether, of the people, may always do what he and to form a race of men such as were desires. seen at work in the orgies of the French Fénélon adopted other revolution.
Knowing the great attachment of the All that Fénélon said was to justify Reformers to the Bible, and also their his conduct and that of his colleagues ; great objection to the Latin tongue used and therefore he stated that they had in the Catholic worship, he wrote to the succeeded in gaining 'the confidence of marquis, finishing his letter the 26th of the population by means of gentle treat- February: “I forgot to tell you, sir, ment. He repeats several times that the that we shall need a great number of people saw him depart with 'regret; for books, above all of New Testaments and in each locality they feared that the translations of the Mass, with explanamissionaries, accompanied by troops, tions; for one can do nothing until we would come to replace Fénélon and his take away their books from the hereties, colleagues. He boasts also of the good and they would be in despair at having effects of his preaching, which is strangely their books taken from them, if they did contrasted with what he had said of the not receive as many as they lose.” This obstinacy of the newly converted. But he had so much at heart, that he returns Fénélon himself explains the circum- to the subject in the following letter: stances in the words immediately pre “It is necessary to spread the New Testaceding: "I believe that M. the Inten- ments profusely; but large type is necesdant will be here in a few days, 'which sary—the people cannot read small print. will be very useful, as he knows how to It is no use hoping that they will buy make himself both feared and loved. A Catholic books ; it is a great thing if short visit which he has just made to us they read those which cost them nothing. at Marennes has worked wonders; he If their books are taken from them, and succeeded in subduing even the most none given in return, they will say that adverse spirits. Since then we have the ministers have said truly that we found them most docile and submissive." will not let them read the Bible, for fear On the 8th of March he writes, " If they they should see there the condemnation are not fully converted, they are at least of our superstitions." subdued, and set against their ancient Fénélon in other ways avoided giving opinions." He adds: “ Time and confi- too great a shock to the newly converted. dence in those who instruct them does Not to frighten them, he abstained from the rest.” He recommended the Jesuits, the “ Ave Maria" at the end of his serlong since renowned for their cleverness mons, and also omitted the Litanies of the in the instruction of heretics; but, he saints. His caution was talked of in observes, the greatest want is to have Paris, and excited there great suspicion. curés who are fitted to instruct them. Abore all, his demands for the New TesPeople nourished in heresy can only be tament and the translations of the Liturgy gained over with persuasive words. A and the Mass.
Suggestions for the Consideration of Congregationalists.
A VERY obvious evil amongst us is the moderately-sized chapel. Some split existence of two or three distinct churches occurred in former years. For a reason in some small town, where, if all the now almost forgotten, a party left the Congregationalists were united toge- original community, and formed a new ther, they would not more than fill a one. Perhaps, from mysterious circum