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the title of bishop; in the same manner as if an army should MAKE an emperor; or the deacons should choose from among themselves one whom they knew to be particularly active, and should call him ARCH-DEACON. For, excepting ordination, what is done by a bishop, which may not be done by a presbyter? Nor is it to be supposed, that the church should be one thing at Rome, and another in all the world besides. Both France and Britain, and Africa, and Persia, and the East, and India, and all the barbarous nations worship one Christ, observe one rule of truth. If you demand authority, the globe is greater than a city. Wherever a bishop shall be found, whether at Rome, or Eugubium, or Constantinople, or Rhegium, or Alexandria, or Tanis, he has the same pretensions, the same priesthood." 91

91 Sicut ergo Presbyteri sciunt, se ex Ecclesiae consuetudine ei, qui sibi praepositus fuerit, esse subiectos, ita Episcopi noverint, se magis consuetudine quam dispositionis Dominicae veritate Presbyteris esse maiores, et in commune debere Ecclesiam regere, imitantes Moysen, qui cum haberet in potestate solus praeesse populo Israel, septuaginta elegit, cum quibus populum iudicaret. Audio quendam in tantam erupisse vecordiam, ut Diaconos Presbyteris, id est Episcopis, anteferret. Nam cum Apostolus perspicue doceat, eosdem esse Presbyteros quos Episcopos, quid patitur mensarum et viduaram minister, ut supra eos se tumidus efferat, ad quorum preces Christi corpus sanguisque conficitur? Quaeris auctoritatem? Audi testimonium. Paulus et Timotheus, servi Iesu Christi, omnibus sanctis in Christo lesu, qui sunt Philippis, cum Episcopis et Diaconis. Vis et aliud exemplum? In Actibus Apostolorum ad unius Ecclesiae sacerdotes ita Paulus loquitur: Attendite vobis et cuncto gregi, in quo vos Spiritus Sanctus posuit Episcopos, ut regeretis Ecclesiam Domini, quam acquisivit sanguine suo. Ac ne quis contentiose in una Ecclesia plures Episcopos fuisse contendat, audi et aliud testimonium, in quo manifestissime comprobatur, eundem esse Episcopum atque Presbyterum. Propter hoc reliqui te in Creta, ut, quae deerant, corrigeres, et constitueteres Presbyteros per civitates, sicut et ego tibi mundavi. Si quis est sine crimine, unius uxoris vir, filios habens fideles, non in accusatione luxuriae, aut non subditos. Oportet enim Episcopum sine crimine esse, quasi Dei dispensatorem. Et ad Timotheum: Noli negligere gratiam, quae in te est, quae tibi data est prophetae, per impositionem manuum Presbyterii. Sed et Petrus in prima epistola: Presby

Here the presbyters themselves elect one of their number and make him a bishop, so that even the bishop is ordained by the presbyters, if indeed it can be called an ordination; if not, then he is only a presbyter still, having no better right to ordain than they themselves have. Such, Jerome assures, is the usage in every country. There was but one ordination for bishops and presbyters in his time, though bishops had now begun exclusively to administer it. But we have a stream of testimonies coming down to us from the time of the apostles, that it had been the custom of the church from the beginning, for bishops and presbyters to receive the same ordination. This is another consideration of much importance, to show that presbyters were entitled to ordain.. Having themselves received Episcopal ordination, they were duly qualified to administer the same.

But Jerome himself attributes to presbyters the original right of ordination. "Priests who baptize, and administer the eucharist, anoint with oil, impose hands, instruct catechumens, constitute Levites and others priests, have less reason to take offence at us, explaining these things, or at

teros, inquit, in vobis precor compresbyter et testis passionum Christi et futurae gloriae, quae revelanda est, particeps, regere grègem Christi, et inspicere non ex necessitate, sed voluntarie iuxta Deum. Quod quidem graece significantius dicitur nonолоuvτεs, id est superintendentes, unde et nomen Episcopi tractum est. Parva tibi videntur tantorum vivorum testimonia? Clangat tuba evangelica, filius tonitrui, quem Iesus amavit plurimum, qui de pectore salvatoris doctrinarum fluenta potavit : Presbyter Electae Dominae et filiis eius, quos ego diligo in veritate. Et in alia epistola: Presbyter Caio Carissimo, quem ego diligo in veritate. Quod autem postea unus electus est, qui ceteris praeponeretur, in schismatis remedium factum est, ne unusquisque ad se trahens Christi Ecclesiam rumperet. Nam Alexandriae a Marco Evangelista usque ad Heraclam et Dionysium Episcopos Presbyteri semper unum ex se electum in excelsiori gradu collocatum Episcopum nominabant, quomodo si exercitus Imperatorem faciat, aut Diaconi eligant de se quem industrium noverint et Archidiaconum vocent. Quid enim facit excepta ordinatione Episcopus, quod Presbyter non faciat ?—Ep. ad Evang., 101 alias 85, p. 802.

the prophets foretelling them, than to ask of the Lord forgiveness."

The relevancy of this passage depends upon the question who are the sacerdotes, priests of whom Jerome speaks. He is commenting upon Zephaniah 3: 3. Her princes within her, are roaring lions, by which he understands her priests, saying, "I am aware, that I shall offend many because I interpret these things as said of bishops and presbyters." 92 Then, after remarking, at length, upon this degenerate priesthood, he adds the sentence above. Jerome, therefore, ascribes to presbyters and bishops alike, the same right to constitute "Levites and others priests," applying the terms, not to the Jewish priesthood, but to the clergy of the Christian church in his day, and including both bishops and presbyters under the same category, as possessing equal rights to baptize, to ordain, and to administer the sacraments.

That the right of ordination belonged to presbyters, is evident, from the authority of Eutychius, of Alexandria, which, also illustrates still farther the usage of this church, and confirms the testimony of Jerome. The citation with the translation is from Goode. This author with reference to Eutychius says, "His words are these; after mentioning that Mark the Evangelist went and preached at Alexandria, and appointed Hananias the first patriarch there, he adds, 'Moreover he appointed twelve presbyters with Hananias, who were to remain with the Patriarch, so that, when the Patriarchate was vacant, they might elect one of the twelve presbyters, upon whose head the other eleven might place their hands and bless him [or, invoke a bless

92 Scio offensurum me esse plurimos quod super episcopis et presbyteris hæc interpreter.... Sarcerdotes qui dant baptismum et ad eucharistiane Domini uniprecantur adventum, faciunt oleum chrismatis, manus imponunt, catechumenos erudiunt, Levitas et alios constituunt sacerdotes, non tam indignentur nobis hæc exponentibus et prophetis vaticinantibus, quam Dominum deprecentur.-Tom. 3, pp. 1672, 1673.

ing upon him], and create him Patriarch, and then choose some excellent man and appoint him presbyter with themselves in the place of him who was thus made Patriarch, that thus there might always be twelve. Nor did this custom respecting the presbyters, namely, that they should create their Patriarchs from the twelve presbyters, cease at Alexandria until the times of Alexander, Patriarch of Alexandria, who was of the number of the 318 [bishops at Nice.] But he forbade the presbyters to create the Patriarch for the future, and decreed that when the Patriarch was dead, the bishops should meet together and ordain the Patriarch. Moreover he decreed that on a vacancy of the Patriarchate they should elect, either from any part of the country, or from those twelve presbyters, or others, as circumstances might prescribe, some excellent man and create him Patriarch. And thus that ancient custom by which the Patriarch used to be created by the presbyters disappeared, and in its place succeeded the ordinance for the creation of the Patriarch by the bishops. 93

93 The following is Selden's translation of the passage from the Arabic : -"Constituit item Marcus Evangelista duodecim Presbyteros cum Hanania, qui nempe manerent cum Patriarcha, adeo ut cum vacaret Patriarchatus, eligerent unum e duodecim Presbyteris cujus capiti reliqui undecim manus imponerent eumque benedicerent et Patriarcham eum crearent, et dein virum aliquem insignem eligerent eumque Presbyterum secum constituerent loco ejus qui sic factus est Patriarcha, ut ita semper extarent duodecim. Neque desiit Alexandriæ institutum hoc de Presbyteris, ut scilicet Patriarchas crearent ex Presbyteris duodecim, usque ad tempora Alexandri Patriarchæ Alexandrini qui fuit ex numero illo cccxviii. Is autem vetuit ne deinceps Patriarcham Presbyteri crearent. Et decrevit ut mortuo Patriarcha convenirent Episcopi qui Patriarcham ordinarent. Decrevit item ut, vacante Patriarchatu, eligerent sive ex quacunque regione, sive ex duodecim illis Presbyteris, sive aliis, ut res ferebat, virum aliquem eximium, eumque Patriarcham crearent. Atque ita evanuit institutum illud antiquius, quo creari solitus a Presbyteris Patriarcha, et successit in locum ejus decretum de Patriarcha ab Episcopis creando.”— Eutych. Patr. Alex. Ecclesiæ suæ orig. Ed. J. Selden. London, 1642. 4to. pp. 29-31.

"I have given this passage in full, because it has been sometimes replied that it referred only to the election of the Patriarch, and that we must suppose that he was afterwards consecrated to his office by bishops. But it is evident to any one who takes the whole passage together, that such an explanation is altogether inadmissible; and moreover, the very same word (which, following Selden, we have translated created) is used with respect to the act of the presbyters, as is afterwards used with respect to the act of the bishops in the appointment.

"I am quite aware that very considerable learning has been employed in the attempt to explain away this passage, and the reader who wishes to see how a plain statement may thus be darkened, may refer to the works mentioned below."94

Gieseler pertinently remarks, in regard to it, that “it is at least certain that the part which is contradictory to the usage of later times has not been interpolated; and so far it has an historical value." 95

The validity of presbyterian ordination, and the right of presbyters to ordain, was never called in question, according to Planck, until the bishops began, about the middle of the third century, to assert the doctrine of the apostolical succession. "With the name it seemed desirable also to inherit the authority of the apostles. For this purpose they availed themselves of the right of ordination. The right of ordination of course devolved exclusively upon the bishops as alone competent rightly to administer it. As they had been duly constituted the successors of the apostles, so also had they alone the right to communicate the same in part or fully, by the imposition of hands.

94 See Abr. Echell. Eutychius Vindicatus, Morinus De Ordinat., Renaudot. Hist. Patriarch Alex.

95 Cited in our Christian Antiquities, p. 103. In addition to the authors mentioned above, by Goode, are Le Quien and Petavius. Comp. also, Neander, Allgem. Gesch., 1, pp. 325, 326, 2d edit., Note. J. F. Rehkopf, Vitae Patriarcharum Alexandr. fasc., I and II.

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