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CONTRIBUTORS.

Among the Contributors to this Volume of the " Annual Cyclopædia" are the following:

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ILLUSTRATIONS.

PORTRAITS ON STEEL.

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BENJAMIN HARRISON, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
MELVILLE W. FULLER, CHIEF-JUSTICE OF THE UNITED STATES
WILHELM II, EMPEROR OF GERMANY

ENGRAVER
Hall
Hollyer
Hall

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PORTRAITS IN THE TEXT.

DRAWN BY JACQUES REICH.

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Amos BRONSON AND Louisa M. ALCOTT 10, 12 | CLEMENCE SOPHIA LOZIER .
MATTHEW ARNOLD

41 LEVI PARSONS MORTON FRANÇOIS ACHILLE BAZAINE

80 RICHARD ANTHONY PROCTOR Roscoe CONKLING

237 EDWARD PAYSON ROE FELIX 0. C. DARLEY .

630 GEORGE ROUTLEDGE OLIVER DITSON

631 HENRY BERTON SANDS SYDNEY HOWARD GAY

635 JOHN SAVAGE ROBERT GILCHRIST

375 John M'ALLISTER SCHOFIELD QUINCY A. GILLMORE .

635 EPHRAIM GEORGE SQUIER. ASA GRAY

380 LORD STANLEY OF PRESTON SETH GREEN

404 DAVID HUNTER STROTHER . CAROLINE SCOTT HARRISON

408 John LESTER WALLACK ISAAC T. HECKER

638 JOHN WENTWORTH EDMOND LEBEUF

472 | AMOS HENRY WORTHEN

502 577 707 651 722 735 736 737 653 275 654 657 658 659

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COLORED PLATES

PAGE MAP OF DAKOTA TERRITORY

259 | MAP OF CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN AFRICA 123 MAP OF MONTANA TERRITORY 568 MOVING BRIGHTON-BEACH HOTEL

303 BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF NICARAGUA CANAL 614 MAP OF LABRADOR

465 MAP OF WASHINGTON TERRITORY 837 THE CITY OF ZANZIBAR

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THE

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA.

A ABSENTEE. This term, with its natural de- point of fact, Ireland is probably quite as well rivatives, absenteeism, absenteeship, etc., has be- off with a considerable fraction of her landed come somewhat conspicuous in contemporary gentry beyond the seas as she would be if they literature, and is generally regarded as of re- remained persistently at home. cent origin. But it has a very respectable an- In 1672 Sir William Petty estimated that one tiquity, dating back at least to 1537, when the fourth of the personal property in Ireland beso-called Absentee Parliament was held at longed to absentees, and Prior in his list pubDublin, Ireland (Act of Absentees 28 Henry lished in 1729 reckoned their income at £350,VIII, chapter 3). Of Henry VIII, Camden 000. In 1769 the estimated income of the absays (1605), that he “ enriched himselfe by the sentees was £581,700, and Swift in his time spoyles of Abbays . . . and absenties in Ire- declared that one tbird of the rental of Ireland land." Swift, in the “ Argument against Bish- was spent in England. Absenteeism, accordops" (1761), says, " The farmer would be ing to the best authorities, continued to inscrewed up to the utmost penny by the agents crease until the peace of 1816, when it began and stewards of absentees." In the present to diminish. Returns presented to Parliament century the term is used so commonly that in 1872 showed that 25.5 per cent. of Irish soil citations are unnecessary, and those that have was owned by absentee proprietors, and 26 per been given are quoted merely to show that the cent. by proprietors who, though resident in original meaning has survived the changes of Ireland, did not live upon their own premises. centuries. Absenteeism is not peculiar to Ire- Prior to these returns a large number of esland. History abounds with "absentee kings” tates had been impoverished by idle and exas well as landlords. “The Norwegians," says travagant squireens, and in 1848 and 1849 laws the historian Freeman, in his “Norman Con- were passed facilitating the sale of encumbered quest,” “preferred a foreign and absentee estates, which has continued up to the present king," and Wallace (“Rossia”) refers to the time, and has upon the whole reduced the * prevailing absenteeism among the landlords.” average of absenteeism by subdividing the large

In general the term carries with it an inti- estates and combining the sinall ones so that mation of reproach. Its simple meaning is the present tendency is toward properties of -one who habitually or systematically stays moderate size. away from home; the attainder of reproach is Many historians, however, hold that while derived from the assumption that any one who Ireland had her own Parliament the local noderives his income from investments on prop-bility and gentry lived largely on their estates erty in one country, and spends it in another, in summer but passed the winter in Dublin, necessarily impoverishes the land from which thus spending their incomes among their own bis income is derived. The case of Ireland is tenantry, or at least favoring the local circulathe most noteworthy of any for the considera- tion of ready money, With the union of Iretion of American readers, inasmuch as absen- land with Great Britain (1801) London naturally teeism is more general there than among any became the political metropolis common to both other English-speaking people, and to it has countries. Moreover, the agrarian disturbances been ascribed a great part of the ills to which rendered residences so uncomfortable and danthe Irish peasantry have fallen heir. In any gerous that a large number of landed proargument in favor of home residence, however, prietors removed their families to the Continent it is necessary to assume that the personal and rarely visited Ireland. presence, influence, and example of the land- The absentees have not lacked defenders, lords would be upon the whole beneficial. In who hold that absence has no injurious effect

VOL. XXVIII.-1 A

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