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“A GRAMMAR Of the German Language,” by A MODERN-LANGUAGE MASTER'S H. C. G. Brandt (Boston, Allyn & Bacon, about LIBRARY OF FRENCH AND GERMAN. 45. 6d.), and study along with it Heyse's“ Deutsche

Grammatik oder Lehrbuch der deutschen Sprache,” By OTTO SIEPMANN.

25th edition, by Dr. Otto Lyon (Leipzig, 1893, Head of the Modern-Language Department at Clifton College.

about 4s.), or “Handbuch der deutschen Sprache,'

von Karl F. Becker, IIth ed. (Prag, 1876, about German.

55.), which should be supplemented by a little Na previous article which appeared in this

work entitled “SATZBAU UND WORTFOLGE IN DER

DEUTSCHEN SPRACHE,” von Prof. Dr. Daniel the necessity that a young modern-language

SANDERS (Berlin, 1883, about 2s. 6d.). A more

scientific work on master who wishes to equip himself for his difficult

the same subject is “ Der task must, in the first place, try to acquire a good

deutsche Satzbau," dargestellt von
"

Hermann pronunciation. It is sometimes thought that it is

Wunderlich (Stuttgart, 1892, 252 pages), of which much easier for an Englishman to learn to pro

a very much enlarged second edition is appearing nounce German correctly than French; and, in

in two vols. ; vol. i., 9s. unbound. consequence, students and teachers do not take the

The most complete work on modern German same amount of trouble in trying to master the

grammar I know is the “ Neuhochdeutsche Gramsounds of German, and are satisfied with a lower

matik mit Berücksichtigung der historischen Entstandard of correctness. This is a grave mistake.

wickelung der deutschen Sprache," von Friedrich Even if it were true that German sounds come more

Blatz, 3rd edition (Karlsruhe, 1895, vol. i., naturally to the English organs of speech, there

856 pp., 1os. ; vol. ii., 1,314 pp., 155.). With can be no doubt that the difficulties of a really

these works, a taste for the historical treatment good German pronunciation are so great as to

of the German language is sure to develop, and make the study of phonetics indispensable. It is a

BeHaghel, Die DEUTSCHE SPRACHE (Leipzig, delusion and a snare to believe that a short stay in

1887, s.) may be recommended as a guide

Of this there exists Germany will be sufficient to set things right in

for beginners.

a good matters of pronunciation. My advice to young

English translation by Trechmann (London, Macmodern-language masters is to study carefully one

millan). of the books on general phonetics, and of French and German in particular, which I have mentioned

Wasserzieher's booklet “Aus dem Leben der deutschen in my last article, and add to this Vietor's excellent

Sprache" (Leipzig, 64 pp., stitched, for 4d.) is very small, but little treatise, entitled “German PRONUNCIATION,

the student who buys it certainly gets his money's worth. PRACTICE, AND THEORY," 2nd edition (Leipzig,

Before mentioning any of the larger historical works, I must 1899, 2s.), and Georg Hempl's “ German Ortho

not omit two books which are excellent food for those who like graphy and Phonology" (Strassburg, Trübner). to leave the beaten track and to think for themselves; they are After these, Bremer's “ Deutsche Phonetik Kern's “ Deutsche Satzlehre" (Berlin, 1888, 184 pp.) and Ries' (Leipzig, 1893, 55.) will be found interesting and “Was ist Syntax”? (Marburg, 1894, 163 pp.). A study of stimulating. It goes without saying that a few these cannot fail to arouse the teacher's argumentative faculties, hours' help from a native with a keen ear for and he will be quite prepared to enjoy some other books of sound differences and a good knowledge of a critical description written by men who are dissatisfied with phonetics will be found invaluable at the initial much that is used in present-day German, and aim at reform. stages; but it may be pointed out that a German Allerhand Sprachdummheiten-Kleine deutsche Grammatik with an untrained ear and no acquaintance of

des Zweifelhaften, des Falschen und Hässlichen-Ein Hilfsbuch phonetics will in all probability be found of little für alle, die sich öffentlich der deutschen Sprache bedienen" von use; in fact, it is not impossible that his observa

Dr. Gustav Wustmann (Leipzig, 1891, 320 pp., 2s.)—is a tions may prove positively misleading, for as a rule worthy lead off in this group of interesting publications. Erbe's the statements of such natives about their own pro

“Randbemerkungen” (Stuttgart, 1892, 50 pp., 6d.), Minor's nunciation and manner of producing speech

“ Allerhand Sprachgrobheiten " (iod.) and a host of other

“Streitschriften” followed in its train. Another book, sounds are most untrustworthy, and when they proceed to correct the pronunciation of a foreigner directly connected with the polemic raging round Wustmann's

Sprachleben und Sprachschäden," by Matthias, though not their criticism and advice are as a rule of a most

excellent little work, should be read by every teacher of deplorable kind. If a thoroughly competent

German, and in conjunction with it Lehmann's “Sprachliche native cannot be found, the student should try to

Sünden der Gegenwart” (Braunschweig, 1882, 175 PP., - obtain the help of an Englishman who knows

about 2s.), Heintze's “Gut Deutsch ” (Berlin, 1898, 200 pp., German and phonetics. Along with the study of

about 2s.), Brunner's “Schlecht Deutsch ” (Leipzig, 1895, phonetics and its practical application, which

199 pp., about 2s.), and Schroeder's “Vom papiernen Stil” may quite well be carried on in one's study, the

(Berlin, 1896, 102 pp., about 2s.). Sprachgebrauch und mastery of grammar and wide and deep reading

Sprachrichtigkeitvon Andresen (8th ed., Leipzig, 1899, are considerable aids for future proficiency as a

430 pp., 5s.) is a standard work which needs no teacher. Assuming that one of the ordinary school- mendation. A stimulating volume is Reichel's grammars, such as those by Eve, Aue, Meissner,

psychologische Studien.” Vier Abhandlungen über WortstelWeisse, Kuno Meyer or Whitney, is in the teacher's lung und Betonung des Deutschen in der Gegenwart, Sparsam. possession, he might with advantage take in hand keit, Begründung der Normalsprache (Halle, 1897, 337 pp.,

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about 4s.). And most excellent is Sütterlin's new work “ Die deutsches Lesebuch ” (Halle, 1881, 2nd. ed., 35. 6d.) are the deutsche Sprache der Gegenwart (1900).

most reliable works on the older dialects. There are some works on composition and style

Bachmann, Mittelhochdeutsches Lesebuch mit Grammatik of Modern German which are most suitable und Wörterbuch" (Zürich, 1892, about 5s.) is a suitable for teachers, of which I must mention a few:

book for teachers who have not sufficient time to study the “Der DEUTSCHE AUFSATZ," VON ERNST LAAS,

older portions of the German language and literature fully. 2nd ed. of Part I. (Berlin, 1877); 3rd ed. of Part

There are several other first-rate books which form good introII., by Imelmann (Berlin, 1894, price about nos.);

ductions ; such are Heiderich, “ Einführung in das Studium des “ Der deutsche Stil von R. F. Becker, neubear

Gotischen” (Is. 3d.), for beginners, 'then “Zupitza," “ Einfühbeiter," von Dr. Otto Lyon, 3rd ed. (Leizig, 1884,

rung in das Studium des Mittelhochdeutschen zum Selbstun. about 6s.); Sanders' “ Deutsches Stil Musterbuch

terricht für jeden Gebildeten," 5th ed., by Nobiling (Oppeln, (Berlin, _ 1886, about 5s.); “Die SPRICHWÖRT

about 35. 6d.), also Michels, “Mittelhochdeutsches Elemenlichen Redensarten VON BORCHARDT,” in gänz

tarbuch,” in “Sammlung von Elementarbüchern der altgerlicher Umarbeitung, herausgegeben von Gustav

manischen Dialekte Herausgeben von Dr. W. Streitberg” (Heid

elberg, 5s.). For the transition from Middle High German to Wustmann, 5th ed. (Leipzig, 1895, about 6s.); and “ Der Bilderschmuck der deutschen

Modern High German the following will be of good service:

Arndt, “Der Übergang vom Mittelhochdeutschen zum NeuhochSprache in tausenden volkstümlicher Redensar

deutschen der Breslauer Kanzlei ” (55.), Rückert, “Geschichte ten," nach Ursprung und Bedeutung erklärt

der neubochdeutschen Schristsprache,” 2 vols., 78, each, and von Dr. Hermann Schröder, 5th ed. (Weimar, von Bahder, “Grundlagen des neuhochdeutschen Lautsystems.” 1896, about 6s.). I would also advise every Teachers who have no wish to study the older dialects I would master or mistress of German to become a strongly urge to take up at least the following rod. editions member of “ Der Allgemeine Deutsche Sprach- of the Sammlung Göschen" :

:-“Gotische Sprachdenkmäler verein," which publishes a Zeitschrift, with valu- übersetzt und erläutert; Althochdeutsche Literatur mit Gram. able articles for teachers, and also “ Wissenschaft. matik, Übersetzung und Erläuterung”;-Hartmann von Aue, liche Beihefte," with excellent contributions by Wolfram von Eschenbach und Gotfried von Strassburg ;eminent authors.

Waltharilied Walther der Vogelweide, Minnesang With Unsere Muttersprache, ihr Werden und ihr und Spruchdichtung – Der Nibelunge Nột Kudrun und Wesen," von Prof. Dr. O. Weise (Leipzig, 2nd ed., 1896, Dietrichepen -and Sebastian Brant, Hans Sachs, Luther, 270 pages, about 3s. 6d.) we enter again upon the

Fischart. historical platform, which may induce teachers to Others may wish to go further afield to Paul's embark on the study of some of the greatest works,

deutsche Textbibliothek”: (1) “Die Gedichte Walthers von such as Von der Gabellentz' “ Die Sprachwissen

der Vogelweide,” hrg. von Paul, 1882, is. rod.

(2) “Gre. schaft” (14s.), Wundt's Völkerpsychologie,”

gorius von Hartmann" von Aue, hrg. von Paul, 1882, is. I. Sprache (145.) [which should be supplemented

(3) “Der arme Heinrich" von Hartmann, von Aue, von Paul, by Delbrück's "Grundfragen der Sprachfor-1882, 6d. (4) Heliand,” hrg. von Behaghel, 1882, 2s. 6d.

“" . schung" (1901, 4s.)], or at any rate, of Whitney's (5) “Kudrun," hrg. von B. Symons, 1883, 2s. 10d., and

“ “Life and Growth of Language" (6s.), and the

others, or to editions of the great masterpieces of the older interest taken in these philosophical works will

German literature. I would mention “ Wolfram von Eschen

bach, Fünfte Ausgabe," von Karl Lachmann, Berlin, 1891, most probably whet the appetite for a thorough study of historical grammar, for which

640 pp. ; Iwein, “ Eine Erzählung von Hartmann, von Aue, mit

Anmerkungen," von G. F. Benecke und K. Lachmann, zweite Cerf's “Short Historical Grammar of the German

Ausgabe (Berlin, 1843, 565 pp.); Der Nibelunge Nál, mit Language " (Williams & Norgate, 1894, Part I.,

den Abweichungen von der Nibelnnge Liet, den Lesarten Introduction and Phonology), and Prof. Joseph

sämtlicher Handschriften und einem Wörterbuch," herausgegeben Wright's “Gothic, OLD AND Middle High

von Karl Bartsch (I. teil text, Leipzig, 1870, 394 pp. ; II. teil, GERMAN Primers ” will be found excellent helps

Erste Hälfte, Lesarien, Leipzig, 1876, 292 pp. ; II. teil, and, at the same time, a good introduction to the

Zweite Hälfte Wörterbuch, Leipzig, 1880, 411 pp.); “Kudrun," study of the “ Deutsche Grammatik (Gotish, Alt-, herausgegeben und erklärt, von Ernst Martin (Halle, 1872, Mittel-, und Neuhochdeutsche"), von W. Wil- 336 pp.); “Walther von der Vogelweide, by Wilmanns (2nd. mann's Erste Abteilung-Lautlehre (Strasburg, ed., Halle, 1883) in Zacher's Germanistische Handbibliothek."

“ 1893, 332 pages, about 6s.), Zweite Abteilung- Wilmanns has also published" Leben und Dichtungen Walther's," Wortbildung (Strassburg, 1896, 663 pages, about von der Vogelweide (Bonn, 1882). For the sixteenth and sevenros.), well as to Erdmann Mensing's teenth centuries I would recommend the “ Liederbuch aus dem Grundzüge der deutschen Syntax.”

sechzehnten Jahrhundert von Goedeke und Tittmann (2nd ed., The most excellent books on individual dialects for ad.

Leipzig, 1881, 400 pp., 35. 6d.), and the same authors' “ Deutsche

Dichter des sechzehuten und siebzehnten Jahrhunderts mit vanced students are found in Braune's “Sammlung kurzer Grammatiken Germanischer Dialekie” (Halle, Max Niemeyer).

Einleitung und Anmerkungen ” (each volume 3s. 6d.). Then Braune's Gotische Grammatik (Halle, 1882, 2 aufl., 129

for the eighteenth century Seuffert's excellent collection of

“ Deutsche Literaturdenkmale des 18 Jahrhunderts.” pp., about 3s. 6d.) might be preceded by Sheitberg's “Gotisches Elementarbuch (35. 60.), Braune's “ Althochdeutsche Gram

The editions of the great classical writers, matik” (Halle, 2nd. ed., 55. 60.), Paul's “ Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik ” (Halle, 1884, about 3s. 6d.). Braune's “ Althoch

Klopstock, Wieland, Lessing, Herder, Goethe,
Schiller, Grillparzer, Heine, are so numerous that

it is difficult to make a selection, and most teachers 1 The annual subscription is 5s. Intending members should write to the President of the London Branch, Professor Weiss, Royal Military Academy, will not be able to purchase and work through the Woolwich, or the Secretary, Dr. Hirsch, 102, Embletos Road, Lewisham, London, S.E.

complete works of even the greatest writers. How

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ever, they should use their influence that the best lin, Hertz, 1896), C. F. Meyer's “ Jürg Jenatsch editions of the most eminent representatives of (Leipzig, Haessel); Fontane, “Vor dem Sturm,” German literature are procured for their school Spielhagen's “Problematische Naturen,” Paul libraries, such as the scholarly works of Old and. Heyse's “Novellen,"Otto Ludwig's" Heiterethei,” Middle High German mentioned above, and then Storm's "Immensee," Rosegger's “Schriften some, at least, of the following : Luther's Des Waldschulmeisters,” Wildenbruch's “Neue Werke. “ Kritische Gesamtausgaube" (Wei- Novellen,” SudERMANN'S “Frau Sorge," HAUPTmar), Lessing's “ Sämtliche Schriften herausge. MANN's “ VERSUNKENE Glocke," Scheffel's geben von Karl Lachmann," 3rd edition, by Franz “Trompeter von Säkkingen,” Weber's “DreizehnMuncker (Stuttgart, since 1886); Herder's “Sämt- linden," Heine's “ Buch der Lieder,” Buchheim's liche Werke herausgegeben,

Bernhard Deutsche Lyrik” and Buchheim's “Balladen Suphan; “Goethe's Werke herausgegeben im und Romanzen” (Macmillan); and read a few Auftrage der Grossherzogin Sophie von Sachsen,” modern plays, such as Wildenbruch's “Harold" the so-called Weimar edition ; Schiller's “ Sämt. and “König Heinrich," SuderMANN'S “Johannes," liche Schriften herausgegeben von Karl Goedeke"; “Ehre” or “HEIMAT,” HAUPTMANN's “ Weber Heine's Werke Dr. E. Elster, ; Grill- or " Einsame Menschen.” These will give the parzer's Sämtliche Werke, 20 vols., herausgegeben reader an idea of the tendencies and struggles of und mit Einleitungen versehen von August Sauer. modern German literature. The latter edition forms part of the “Cottaʼsche BibliotHEK DER WeltliTERATUR,” in which Turning to the history of the German language and literature, most of the other classics have also appeared.

I would call special attention to the Histoire de la langue They are very convenient editions for teachers, allemandepar Henri Lichtenberger (Paris, 1895, 478 pages), and can be bought separately, each volume

which is likely to suit many teachers who prefer to read a bound in cloth, for is. Or cheaper still are the

book written in French. Among histories of literature I have paper-cover editions of “ Reclam's UNIVERSAL

so many good works before me on my shelves that the embarras BIBLIOTHEK," which cost 3d. each. Along with

de richesse which has been troubling me all along is taking a any of these should be used Düntzer's “Erläute

very acute form, and I hope readers of this article will forgive

me if I call their attention to some works which they may rungen zu den deutschen Klassikern (Leipzig, about is. each). Students of German who find it

very likely not think of purchasing. Let me begin with a more convenient to use editions with English notes

book written in English, entitled Outlines of German

Literature," by Gostwyck and Harrison, of which, I think, a cannot do better than take up Breul's editions of

new revised edition by a competent German scholar will appear some of the German classics for the Pitt Press,

before very long (London, 1873, 1os.). Of Hermann Kluge's and Buchheim's editions for the Clarendon Press.

“Geschichte der deutschen National-Literatur" (Altenburg, I may also mention Rippmann's edition of Grill

22nd ed., 1891, about 2s. 6d.), there is, I believe, also an parzer's “Sappho," and Cotteril's edition of

English translation. Excellent little books are “Grundziige “ Iphigenie" in my own series; and there are

der deutschen Litteraturgeschichte " von Dr. Gotthold Klee many excellent edition's in Macmillan's German (Berlin, 3rd ed., 1898, about 3s.), and “ Grundige der deutschen Classics, edited by Fassnacht, among them Litteraturgeschichte von Dr. Gottlob Egelhaaf(Heilbronn, 6th Goethe's “ FAUST," Part I. Teachers who wish ed., 1888, about 2s. 6d.). Larger works and more suitable for to study this great work thoroughly should take serious students are :-Wilhelm Scherer's “Geschichte der sis edition by Colvin Thomas (Boston, Heath & Co.), deutschen Litteratur ” (Berlin, 8th ed., 125.), of which there which is most scholarly, and covers both the first exists an English translation by Mrs. Conybeare. Koberstein's and second part, as does Prof. Schröer's edition of “Grundrisz der Geschichte der deutschen Nationalliteratur," "Faust," Part I., 55.; Part II., 6s. 6d.

in 5 vols. (5th ed., 1892, by Karl Bartsch), is a most thorough

work. An edition with many facsimiles and illustrations is Some of the editions mentioned contain biographies of the König's “ Deutsche Litteraturgeschichte,” which costs about £1. Teal writers, but they are necessarily short and sketchy. Those A similar and in its text more scholarly work is the “Geschichte who wish to study the lives of the great German classics more der deutschen Litteratur von den ältesten Zeiten bis zur Gegen. Ceeply I would refer to Erich Schmidt's “Lessing, Geschichte wart " by Vogt and Koch (Leipzig, 1867, 16s.). A standard work eines Lebens und seiner Schristeu (Berlin, 1884, 2 vols.), for advanced students who wish to study the subject thoroughly Lielschowsky's “Goethe,” 2 vols., or Eugen Wolff's “Goethe's is Karl Goedeke's “Grundrisz zur Geschichte der deutschen isten und Werke," or R. M. Meyer's preisgekrönte Arbeit Dichiung” (2nd edition, after the death of the author continued "Goethe" (628 pages), also Düntzer's “Goethe's Leben,” 1os. by E. Goelze). All that a teacher may require by way of a shoald be mentioned, and perhaps Lewes' “ Life of Goethe.” history of the German literature of the older period is contained Among the biographies of Schiller, Minor's “Schiller, sein in Pauls Grundriss der Germanischen Philologie," of which Leben und seine Werke” (Berlin, Weidmann) takes the first a second edition is appearing, and without which no serious phace; Weltrich, Brahm and Düntzer have likewise furnished student of German can exist. For the eighteenth and nine. ral a le contributions.

teenth centuries a few special works will be necessary. For

the eighteenth century Hermann Hettner's “Geschichte der If I am to give some guidance to the more recent

deutschen Litteratur im XVIIIten Jahrhundert ” (2 vols., works of German literature I cannot do better, I 4th edition, by Harnack) can be thoroughly recommended. think, than quote a few authors and works withoot wishing to say that there are not many others There is as yet no standard book dealing with equally good. Take Gustav Freytag's “AHNEN," the nineteenth century, but Rudolf von GottSCHEFFEL'S“ EKKEHARD” (Stuttgart, 1893), Gott- schall “ Die Deutsche Nationalliteratur des neun, IED KELLER'S “ Züricher NovelLEN (Ber. | zehnten Jahrhunderts "(6th ed., 4 vols, 1892), and

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a smaller work, “ Die deutsche Nationalliteratur nothing better than Mogk's “ Abriss” in Paul's von Goethe's Tode bis zur Gegenwart," by Adolf “Grundriss,” but I must mention two little bookStern (3rd ed., 1894), also the same author's lets of the Sammlung Göschen for small purses, “Studien zur Litteratur der Gegenwart” (Dresden, KAUFFMANN, “ Deutsche MYTHOLOGIE" (2nd ed.,

( 1895, 449 pp.), and “ Zur Literatur der Gegen- 1od.), and GÜNTHER, “DEUTSCHE KULTURGEwart Bilder und Studien " (Leipzig, 1880); further, SCHICHTE" (10d.). “ DIE DEUTSCHE DICHTUNG DER GEGENWART, DIE There is superfluity in excellent German dicALTEN UND DIE JUNGEN,” von ADOLF BARTELS tionaries. To begin with small ones, Whitney's (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1899, about 3s. 6d.), and “ Das “ GERMAN AND English DictioNARY” (Macmillan, DEUTSCHE DRAMA IN DEN LITTERARISCHEN BEWE- about 5s.) may be recommended, though it is not GUNGEN DER GEGENWART," von B. LITZMANN (4th sufficient for an advanced student of German. ed., Leipzig, 1897, about 4s.), are works which FLÜGEL-SCHMIDT-TANGER is a most excellent work, ought to be studied. In conjunction with this and cheap at about 14s. for two vols. Of the I should like to call attention to Gustav Freytag's larger works the new edition of GRIEB's Dic: “ TECHNIK DES DRAMAS" (8th ed., Leipzig, 1898, TIONARY," BY SCHRÖER, 26s., and the large Flügel 5s.), and Spielhagen’s “ Beiträge zur Theorie und at 36s., and Muret-Sanders,

Muret-Sanders, “Encyclopedic Technik des Romans" (Leipzig, 1883).

Dictionary," complete, about £4-there is a As a primer for the study of German prosody small and cheap edition of this at about 16s., I may mention the “LEHRBUCH DER POETIK FÜR in one volume, which is very good. It is not a HÖHERE SCHULEN," von SCHUSTER (3rd ed., Halle, mere extract of the larger work, but largely an 1890, about 2s.), and for those who wish to pursue original compilation by B. Klatt and H. Bauthis subject Minor's “ Neuhochdeutsche Metrik” mann, carefully done and thoroughly reliable, (490 pp., ios.) will supply all they may require. most suitable for upper forms and teachers. F. Kaufmann's “ Deutsche Metrik nach ihrer Among the “Wörterbücher" written in German, geschichtlichen Entwickelung" (Marburg, 1897, PAUL'S "Deutsches WÖRTERBUCH” (576 pp., 3s. 6d.) is good, and Sievers' "Altgermanische about 8s.), M. Heyne's “ Deutsches Wörterbuch, Metrik” (53.) is the standard work for the older in 3 vols (about 30s.), and Kluge's “ ETYMOLOperiods.

Gisches WORTERBUCH” (about ros.) are eminently No teacher of Modern Languages can perform suitable works. The new edition of the large his duties efficiently unless he has made himself Grimm which is in process of publication, as well acquainted with the character, the customs, the as Grimm's “ Deutsche Grammatik” in its new institutions and the history of the country the form, should be procured for the school library. language of which he proposes to teach. It is, Good supplements to any dictionary are EBERtherefore, necessary for every teacher of German

HARD'S “SYNONYMISCHES WÖRTERBUCH (15th to spend at least some time abroad and to study ed., Leipzig, 1896, 12s.), “WÖRTERBUCH DER carefully works like Francke's “ Social Forces in HAUPTSCHWIERIGKEITEN

DEUTSCHEN German Literature” (New York, 577 pp.) (a new SPRACHE," von SANDERS (19th ed., Berlin, 1889, edition of this work has been published by George about 3s.), and Duden's “ ORTHOGRAPHISCHES Bell & Sons in London under the title of “A WÖRTERBUCH ” (is. 6d.). History of German Literature as determined by Social Forces ’), Freytag's “Bilder AUS

In conclusion, I should like to recommend to all students of DEUTSCHEN VERGANGENHEIT" (24th ed., Leipzig, German philology the Jahresbericht über die Erscheinungen 5 vols., about 6s. each), Heinrich von Sybel's auf dem Gebiete der Germanischen Philologie" (about gs.), great work “ Die Begründung des deutschen

and let teachers of German subscribe to one or two of the many Reiches durch Wilhelm I.” (7 vols., 66s., Leipzig,

German periodicals which deal with pedagogical as well as 1889-1894), then “von Treitschke's Historische

philological and literary questions. Die neueren Sprachen und politische Aufsätze ” _(3 vols., 8s. each),

(about ios. p.a.) and the Literaturblatt für germanische und Bismarck's "Leben und Erinnerungen” (215.),

romanische Philologie (about ios., p.a.) would be sufficient for of which there is an English translation. To

ordinary purposes; those who make a special study of German those who cannot study these great works, I

will find the “ Zeitscrift für den deutschen Unterricht," edited by Lyon, the Deutsche Literaturzeitung,

das Archiv für would strongly recommend the following which

das contain a minimum of the knowledge absolutely

Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen,"

Paul and Braune's “ Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen necessary to any teacher :-Sydney Whitman, "IMPERIAL GERMANY" (London, 1891, about

Sprache und Litteratur," and Kluge's “ Zeitschrift für Deutsche

Wortforschung” (about 4 numbers per annum for ios.), very 2s. 6d.; “German Life in Town and Country,” by

useful. W H. Dawson (London, Newnes, 1901); Sime's “History OF GERMANY” (London, 1898, about Anyone wishing to obtain further bibliographical 25. 6d.), Jentsch, “Grundbegriffe und Grundsätz )

information on this laige subject should refer to der Volkswirtschaft” (Leipzig, 1895, about 35.),

Breul's " Handy Bibliographical Guide" (London, Fünfzehn deutsche Volksbücher wiedererzählt, 1895), to Prof. Rippmann's excellent lists in the von Gustav Schwab (15th ed., by G. Klee, Leip- Modern Language Quarterly, and with regard to zig, 1893, about 3s.), “ Die Deutschen Helden- French, to Braunholtz's “ Books of Reference SAGEN," von GOTTHOLD KLEE (3rd ed., Gütersloh, for Students and Teachers of French,” and to 1889, about 3s. 6d.).

Koschwitz - Jeffrey's “Guide to the Study of For German mythology there is, I think,

French " (London).

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EXPERIMENTS.—(1) Grow a plant in the dark ; PRACTICAL BOTANY FOR CHILDREN.

its leaves are thin, yellow, or white, and it is sickly; By Elizabeth HEALEY, A.R.C.Sc.(Lond.)

on exposing it to sunshine the leaves turn green

and grow, while the plant becomes sturdy and L'niversity College of South Wales and Monmouthshire, Cardiff.

healthy. II.

(2) Weigh a plant at the beginning and end of TEM AND LEAVES.—There are two ways the day for two days or more, letting it stand in

sunshine ; note changes and explain their cause. according to their structure or according to (3) Keep a plant under a bell jar, cover the the way in which they grow. The differences surface of the earth in the pot with tinfoil to prebetween soft and short-lived stems and woody

vent evaporation from it, and notice how the inside stems, belonging to plants which live many years, of the glass becomes covered with little drops of are quickly noted by children. The division into water. erect and climbing stems gives some useful practice (4) Put the stalk of a primrose leaf into the mouth in observation of the ways in which plants climb and the blade into water. Blow through the cut and in reasoning as to why it is advantageous to end of the stalk; air passes out from the surface be a climber.

of the leaf into the water, showing there are little WAYS IN Which Weak Stems CLIMB.—(1) By openings by which air or water vapour can pass scrambling over their surroundings; examples, out of the plant. ground ivy, brambles, strawberry.

(5) If the children have some knowledge of (2) By hooks, which are often parts of leaves general elementary science, they may be allowed (clematis, nasturtium), or by roots (ivy).

to collect the gas' given off by water plants and test (3) By twining. The same kind of plant almost

it for oxygen; and that given off by seedlings in a always twines in the same direction (exception, corked bottle for carbonic-acid gas. bittersweet), and most plants twine to the left, i.e.,

MOVEMENTS or Leaves. The stem and leaves the opposite direction to the hands of a watch. grow towards the light. This is easily seen in Note examples of each: hop and honeysuckle to plants grown near a window; they bend towards the right; bean and convolvulus to the left.

the direction of the light. (4) By tendrils or other sensitive organs. Ex- The leaflets of clover and wood-sorrel show by amples : passion flower, sweet pea, vine, virginia their change of position at night the “sleep” of creeper. The tendrils are very sensitive, and if plants. They fold downwards after sunset. Other stroked delicately bend slowly towards the side plants in which this can be seen are mimosa, touched.

lupins and beans. If the plants are not exposed The use of climbing is that the plants may reach to bright sunshine during the day they do not sleep the light and free air as easily as possible.

at night. The closing of flowers at night is also The surface and shape of different stems should called sleep, but it is probably due to a difference be noted, whether smooth, hairy or prickly ; of temperature, not of illumination, and protects the cylindrical (grasses, trees), square (dead nettle), inner parts of the flower from cold and wet. In three sided (sedge), ribbed (hemlock), flattened very cold weather the leaves of laurels and other (sweet pea). Smooth stems usually have a tough evergreens will be noticed to turn downwards close skin which protects them against insects, a purpose to the main stem, which protects them from the served in other cases by hairs (poppy), prickles chill of excessive radiation which would take place and thorns, which also afford some protection if they were in a horizontal position in frosty against grazing animals.

weather. This is probably the advantage which LEAVES.-The children should be encouraged to all plants derive from their sleeping position," the make collections of fresh and skeleton leaves; the protection of their upper surfaces from radiation latter can be found abundantly in woods in late into the open sky.Leaves are protected against autumn, winter, and till early spring buried under

general cold and wet sometimes by coatings of fallen leaves. The descriptions at this stage need woolly hairs (edelweiss, cudweed), against animals not be elaborate. The division of the leaf into by prickles (holly, rose) ; in very dry places the leaf-stalk and blade is an easy one; the edges are leaves have thick skins often covered with wax seen to vary in different kinds of plants, and the (which also forms the "bloom” on fruit) to prevent names of the most common leaf-forms are soon much loss of water from the surface. The effect learnt by reference to many specimens.

of a similar covering in keeping the leaf fresh can The great facts in connection with leaves are be shown by covering a large leaf with vaseline their work of feeding the plant, of getting rid of and comparing in a few hours with one not so superfluous water, and of respiration. These can covered. Trees and shrubs prepare for the winter be made clear and interesting by experiments. by cutting off the leaf stalks from the branches by The leaf is the most important part of the plant, a cushion of cork; thus the scar of the leaf is and is always present except in the very rare cases prepared before it falls off and the supply of water when the stem is modified to do its work. The stopped at the same time. The prepared leaf-scars plant grows only while it has its leaves. If they

are very clearly seen in the horse-chestnut, in which are stripped off while green and vigorous it often

they are horse-shoe shaped. Next year's leaves dies although stem and root are left.

are prepared in the form of buds, which should be I Concluded from November, 1901.

collected and examined carefully by the class at

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