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though an economist is not necessarily a good With these objects in view, the syllabuses of the historian, no good general history can possibly be subjects which engage the attention of students in written without a knowledge of economics. Mr. training colleges-it is almost unnecessary to add Colby's address is “University Heights, N.Y.,"

University Heights, N.Y.," "for elementary school teachers,” since such inbut he can descend to school level without in- stitutions for secondary schoolmasters are almost convenience to himself and his readers: his facts unknown-have, in the hands of the recent Comare well chosen, admirably arranged, expressed in mittee, undergone a complete metamorphosis. simple and sensible language, and are above the The directions which are given respecting the usual standard of accuracy.

His book needs teaching of mathematics and science show clearly revision-all first editions do-and it would be how profoundly the missionary efforts of Professors vastly improved if it were equipped with the Armstrong and Perry have influenced the authoteaching apparatus usual in American manuals of rities. Now the future elementary schoolmaster history. In price, size, and general get-up, it is to be encouraged to familiarise himself with the invites comparison with the “European History" use of logarithms, the slide rule, with squared of Prof. G. B. Adams, of Yale. On the whole paper and the plotting of curves. Euclid is to be the bibliographical side-notes in the latter book-dethroned, and we

dethroned, and we are to have in his place a very ill balanced by Prof. Colby's sedimentary practical introduction to geometrical concepts by bibliography-incline us to give it precedence as a way of an experimental demonstration of the proteacher's book, while the greater fulness of Prof. perties of triangles, quadrilaterals, circles and other Colby would make it a more complete class-book. figures. Closely linked to a mathematical training Both are a great deal too casual in their terminology, on these rational lines there is to be careful and would expose their users to the danger of Mr. instruction in the “research" method of teaching Evans's recent strictures in these columns, and science. The laborious learning of scientific facts both need some slight adaptation for use in the by rote, which is worse than useless since it British Isles. But if we were looking out for a eclipses the true function of science in education, text-book of General History for class use, and is to be displaced by a practical introduction to were allowed to adopt more than one, Prof. the method of science, the plan of answering new Colby's would certainly be among the chosen. questions which present themselves by a carefully We should be grateful to Mr. Anderson for his planned experiment skilfully arranged with this suggestions and help in teaching, but we should object in view. hesitate to incur the responsibility of placing his But the influence of the scientific method is by book in the hands of boys and girls in their teens. no means confined to the instruction the scholastic And we cherish the belief that there are some tyro is to receive in mathematics and science. other American manuals of General History, not Modern languages are to be treated as living kept in stock over here, to which the American languages, and success will be gauged by the power Agency might well direct its attention.

the student develops of expressing himself in the foreign tongue, whether by writing or speaking. History is, in these specimen courses, something quite distinct from a mere chronicle of events and

their dates. Students are to study some of the COLLEGE COURSES FOR

great movements of mediæval and modern EuroELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS.1

pean history, to be taken on the widest lines, with

the object of making a framework of historical HE educational pessimist should study the ideas for later detailed study. So, too, in literature, Specimen Courses of Instruction for

the goal towards which the lecturers and tutors Training Colleges suggested by the Board are to strive is to stimulate interest and furnish a of Education,” recently published. The days of preparation for the appreciation and study of the old wooden curriculum which prescribed in literature,

literature,' the general idea throughout being to detail the subjects to be studied by students in all “direct and encourage the wider reading of English training colleges are numbered. The man of classics.” science is abroad. Instead of employing his time There are also alternative courses. For instance, in concocting weird “notes of lessons on subjects the course for an urban college for women differs of which he was more or less profoundly ignorant, from that considered suitable for a country college. the teacher in training to mould the minds of One, at least, of the suggestions we find in these our future workers is henceforth to be shown

specimen curricula is a little utopian. In one “(a) how to encourage thoughtfulness, originality, place it is stated, “the subjects studied should be inquisitiveness, and observation in children; chosen as far as possible with reference to what (6) how children may be induced to find things out are likely to be the student's special requirements;” for themselves, and so to help in the development and this in face of the fact that the student has, of their own character and education; (c) that by answering advertisements or by the recomlecturing is not teaching; and (d) that education mendation of the college authorities, to secure a means the training of the mind, not the storing of post where he can. A student may be able to tell the memory.”

in what class of school he would prefer to teach

were all conditions equally attractive, but so long 1 "Specimen Courses of Instruction for Training Colleges suggested by the Board of Education.

as the best salaries are to be obtained under the


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large urban school-boards most teachers will prefer question a detail: as eitws ktúer (P. 31), which ought to teach in them, if they can manage it; in other surely to be hv tws ktún ; 068' áoKÓTOLS (p. 13) appears words, in face of the competitions of the market. to mean the opposite of what it is meant for ; place it is impossible to tell “what are likely to and there are other obscurities in the same be the student's special requirements."

piece. The only other Greek metre he atTo the educationist interested in the welfare of tempts is the anapæstic dimeter, which he is secondary education—and is there one who is apt to make monotonous (the piece on p. 59 not?—there is something saddening about the is four stanzas of four lines each), but his phrasing study of this official publication. How long must is happy enough. But the Greek prose is his we wait for well equipped colleges designed to train glory; and here it is hard to say whether secondary-school teachers for their life's work? the strong historical pieces after Thucydides, the

flowing oratory, or the bright dialogue is more to be praised. His instinct for Greek prose is unerring, his power equal to all difficulties; he

has a fine sense of proportion and rhythm, and the CAMBRIDGE CLASSICS.'

tact to seize on essentials and ignore accidents.

One of the most striking pieces is a short extract HILLETO is still a name to conjure with in

from Boling broke which is placed last of all. We

may extract one sentence: “Corruption serves to Classical Tripos without copying some of his

oil the wheels of government, and to render the versions into their notebooks. It has long been

administration more smooth and easy :” dwpodoxia felt that a collection of his work would be well

καθάπερ το έλαιον τους τροχοίς ούτω και αυτη συμφέρει την worth making, not only for the old pupils who still

πολιτεία ώστε ευτροχώτερον και λειότερον προϊέναι. Let him

who hesitates about buying read the dialogue on cherish his memory, but for all who are interested

p. 176 between Alciphon and Euphranor, and he in fine scholarship. This volume will bear out the

will hesitate no longer. high reputation which Shilleto enjoys, and will

We have nothing but praise for the late Mr. increase the regret of his admirers that he left so

Neil's edition of the “Knights of Aristophanes,"? little completed work behind him. At the same

although the editor's death prevented his putting time, his work had not the same value in all

the final touches to his work. Had he lived, he departments. In Latin verse he has nothing of Calverley's magic, his style is correct, but some

would certainly have enlarged the introduction,

which at present is little more than a sketch; and times prosy or

even unnatural. The hexameters have not the vigour and variety of Prof.

he might have added somewhat to the notes on Jebb's; the lyrics are somewhat disappoint

the latter part of the play. Yet even so this somewhat disappoint. stands alone amongst the editions of Aristophanes ing; the elegiacs lack brightness and point. Shilleto is at his best in a description like

for its combination of taste, learning and humour.

A German critic who has written on Aristophanes that from Scott on page 276; the plain style clearly catalogues the qualities which the editor suits bim. Of his Latin prose, the most satis

ought to have; and at the end of the list we read, factory pieces are terse and condensed, not

“ Fünftens : er muss Spass verstehen.” His comexactly Tacitean, yet reminding one

more of Tacitus than of Livy. The Latin prose, however,

patriots as a rule do not“ Spass verstehen,"

ingenious as they are in hunting out parallels; could be equalled by others, and there are who have done better. But Greek is his true province.

nor do they always understand Greek or the

Greek metres as they might. But every page of If Germans in Greek are sadly to seek, Shilleto was

this commentary shows that Mr. Neil, whilst not not. The iambic versions, despite some obvious

neglecting the mint and anise and cummin, had faults, are distinguished: if there are rather too

a critical and linguistic acumen which places him many resolved rhythms, if there is some obscurity,

in the front rank of scholars. His appendix on the there is often the happy phrase, and always the

uses of ye, which reduces that much-abused sense of what is possible and what is impossible. particle to rule and order, will be a revelaShilleto can be daring:

tion to many; but there are many short notes Great king, within this coffin I present

which bring out a new point in a conclusive Thy buried fear.

manner. He is unerring in his sense of the ώνας φέριστε, συντεθαμμέινον δέος

associations of words, so important and so often το σον στέγει τόδ' άγγος.

neglected. Thus, to take a few examples out of But is not his daring justified ? He has covered a

many, he points out that kakodaluwe is playful,

poor devil” (7), suggests that évoû was a nursery very wide range of subjects in the selections, and

word (51), explains the artificial connotation of his power of expression is equal to them all. Yet he does not succeed in creating a distinct style, or

words in—evua, (278), distinguishes katà kūua, of gay

and confident speed, from wat oùpov of carelessness even in imitating the style of one of his models to a

(432). His philological knowledge is also wide nicety. The effect, however, is pleasing, and always

and sound, so that he can often correct a mistaken dignified. Now and then we feel inclined to

derivation and suggest a new one.

He is careful

I "Greek and Latin Composition." By Richard Shilleto, M.A. (Cam. bridge University Press.) 75. 6d. net.

1"The Knights of Aristophanes." Edited by R. A. Neil. (Cambridge University Press.)

IOS. net.



to draw attention to the niceties of rhythm, and in The new trio is not so essential as the old trio for another appendix discusses the effect of tragic school teachers, because they are more special

, rhythm in comedy. He gives further many ex- in their application; but one at least is a desirable cellent translations, and not a few apposite quota- possession for all those who recognise that history tions from English plays. Two points which he teaching based entirely on text-books and other touches on in several places are of more than secondary matter is bound to be unsatisfactory. usual importance: the question of the Old Attic We propose to describe the three, taking them in dialect and that of Old Attic religion. In study: the order of publication, in such a way that our ing this play from another point of view, we had readers may be able to make up their minds which noticed the peculiar place taken by Poseidon, as they will order first.

. the god of old-fashioned or humble folk; Mr. (1) Prof. Lee's volume is in many ways the Neil lays stress on this, pointing out that the oath most ambitious and the least satisfactory. It is by Poseidon is especially strong (338), and that he a handsome octavo volume, containing not only is the Tory god (144, 551) as opposed to the 235 extracts ranging from Herodotus to the Anglodemocratic Athena. He also feels a solemnity in Boer Convention of 1884, but also a classified the ending of TeTTiyopópas and such words (1331), bibliography of the sources which extends to 61

) and notes the “solecism” ei with the subjunctive pages and 239 entries. The bill of fare is ex(698). Both these subjects might have been well cellent, but the cooking, we regret to say, is treated at length in appendices; but Mr. Neil had abominable. This is a strong word to use, but probably not quite realised their meaning. Posei- it is justified by the facts. There is hardly a page don was the god of the old inhabitants of Attica, without a mistake of fact or misspelling; and and as such held ground with the great nobles and many of these cannot by any stretch of charity be with the country folk alike; and the “solecism," ascribed to the printers. «'Woolsey" for “ Wol- . together with other dialectic usages and forms sey," “ Invasion of Briton," “ Count [for Court] which are often set down to epic influence, were of the Great Mogul,” “ Inland” for “ Ireland "doubtless again the Old Attic dialect, which was such misprints are of common occurrence and are akin to Aeolic, the common source of Attic and often, unlike these, of a kind which might seriously epic. We see these preserved in tragedy and mislead the layman. Unfortunately, the mistakes common or rustic speech, just as thou survives in are most elusive and most dangerous in the biblioEnglish for solemn adjurations and on the lips of graphy, which is planned on a scale that would make the peasant. In a few points we must differ from Mr. itextremely useful for the elementary student of Eng. Neil. If what we have just suggested is true, his lish History if it were only trustworthy. There is no note on 698, which commends Cobet's “ correc- reason why a small bibliography should not be as tions" of " solecisms,” is wrong. We cannot agree sound in its way as the admirable work of Dr. with his explanation of Báre (1151); or of ei uh..ye Gross. As for the documents, they are a servicein line 185, where the retort seems to be, Oh, able but somewhat arbitrary collection, mainly yes, I'm a gentleman if I am not a low-born illustrating constitutional history; but they are churl.” On 1309 he appears to have missed a carelessly transcribed. Messrs. Bell would do point; Neopáron À Navowvos would suggest such phrases well, for their reputation's sake, to issue a full list

; η as 'Αχιλλεία Λυσικλέους έργον CIA ii. 793, 38. A few of errata as soon as possible, and to insist that the other additions might be suggested, but there book should be thoroughly revised. It would is hardly a line one would wish to be taken then become a valuable addition to our stock away.

of source-books.

(2) Miss Hill's volume, despite its rhetorical and meaningless title, is a sensible and meritorious

compilation. It contains about two dozen really THREE HISTORICAL SOURCE-BOOKS. “ leading documents” of English and American

history, including, for instance, King John's Magna HOUGH collections of extracts from his- Carta, Confirmatio Cartarum, the Commonwealth

torical sources for school use do not appear Constitutions and the American Declaration of In

to have had any conspicuous success in this dependence ; and each is illustrated by both concountry, they seem to be in sufficient demand in temporary comment and later criticisms. (Messrs. the States to call for a pretty constant supply. Longmans will send a full table of contents on

The three new source-books before us do for application.). The idea is decidedly good from a constitutional history what the earlier source- historical point of view; and the fact that its conbooks of Professors Colby, Hart, and Kendall do tents have been actually through the test of school for the political history of this country, and, like use (at the State Normal School, Lowell, Mass.) them, they are imported from beyond the Atlantic. should give pause to the scoffer who believes that

a sixpenny

" Curtis “will furnish all we need to 1 (1) " Leading Documents of English History together with Illustrative ask” in history. But the execution is not so good Material from Contemporary Writers and a Bibliography of the Sources." By G. C. Lee. xvii. +609 pp. . (Bell.) 78. 6d. net.

as the presence of Prof. Hart's name on the title(2) “ Liberty Documents with Contemporary Exposition and Critical page would lead us to expect. The editors, Comments drawn from various Writers." Selected and prepared by Mabel Hill, and edited with an Introduction by A. B. Hart. xxviii. + 458 pp.

although they must be acquainted with the windy (Longmans.) 7s. 6d. net. (3) Select Documents of English Constitutional History." Edited by

style of writing so wittily exposed in Seeley's 6. B. Adams and H. M. Stephens. xviii. +555 pp. (Macmillan.) 1os. net.

“ Political Science," never condescend to explain


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what they mean by “liberty"; they cite too many true of the lower parts of secondary schools. The student of minor authors for their “ critical comments"; and education should therefore give consideration to educational in some cases they seem to be very hard pressed work of all kinds, and judge their merits in the light of his own for "contemporary exposition "-.g., when they experience. use Burnet's remarks on the Abjuration Bill by way

The first selections are from the “ Revised Instructions appliof exposition to the Act of Settlement, 1701. Much cable to the Code of 1901.” It is there insisted upon that the of the comment, contemporary and later, needs a

nature and scope of the instruction which should be given in all deal of modification before it can be accepted, and

schools should have in view the co-ordination of the whole of

the school work. All the instructions have been drawn up 10 there is a danger lest it should be taken for gospel by the lay teacher. Miss Hill herself is not above

give more freedom of initiative to individual managers and suspicion in point of scholarship. “Witanagemot

teachers, and to secure a more complete adaptation of the in

struction to local requirements. (p. 423) may be a misprint, but the statement that * William III.'s only son " died in 1701 cannot be

An Annual Plan of Work. ascribed to the printer. In fact, the introductions to each chapter abound in statements which are At the beginning of each year there must be provided a plan not merely debatable, but demonstrably wrong.

of the work to be done in that year, which should set out, in The general design, the texts, and the short biblio

outline, schemes of work in the different subjects. But if it is graphy are all good; but the book as a whole is necessary in the interests of the scholars, the teacher is at liberty not quite worthy of its beautiful printer's and

to deviate from any scheme either in the way of omission or binder's work.

enlargement or curtailment of its various parts. There should (3) Messrs. Adams and Stephens have produced

also be provided note-books for containing brief summaries of a thoroughly sound and serviceable book, which has

the chief oral lessons, a record book in which the head teacher long been needed. It contains 276 documents

may make brief entries showing the quality of work done illustrating English constitutional' history from

throughout the school as tested by periodical examinations, and 1080 to 1885; these are well selected, carefully

progress or mark books as to the individual conduct, applica

tion, and advance of the scholars. All these documents are the printed, and provide, in a single handy volume, all that any but advanced students need have before

property of the managers, and in case of a change of teacher

should be left at the school. It may be useful that some short them. It is every way more suitable for upper

record of the conduct of each scholar should be sent to the forms of schools and for pass candidates at the

parents annually. But such records should not hamper a Universities and for general class teachers than teacher in varying the work of the school, nor be so detailed as the longer and more minute collections of docu

to demand an undue amount of clerical work. ments edited by Doctors Stubbs, Prothero, and Gardiner for the Oxford Press; and we hope that

The Objects and Scope of Instruction. conservatism and vested interests will not long delay its formal adoption by those who are responsible

The object of the course of instruction is to convey informafor pass-degree syllabuses in History. But - for

tion to the minds of children, and still more to stimulate them here also there's a “but”—the book is prepos

to acquire knowledge for themselves. To this end all lessons terously dear at ios. net ; and there should be an

should be directed, and not merely the "object" lessons which index, if not an introduction and a bibliography.

are sometimes supposed to be the only effective method of It should be added that each of these books con

attaining it.

Hitherto the course of instruction to be followed in all schools tains a first-rate table of contents, and that in each book the documents which were originally Latin

has been prescribed in minute detail, and practically little or French are here translated. The first two

variety, even of method, was attempted by any teacher. In future,

teachers must consider for themselves what shall be the scope of books also contain fair indexes, and all are well

their instruction and what are the best methods to pursue. printed and strongly bound.

They may, if they choose, deviate little from the routine which has become a second nature, or they may introduce innovations both numerous and various. But whether they adopt either of

these extreme courses or a judicious modification of both of DEPARTMENTAL ADVICE TO them, they must remember that the responsibility is theirs. TEACHERS.

The Inspector will judge the success of the instruction by

noticing the conduct of the children during their ordinary THE Board of Education has published recently a number of lessons, whether the attention is keen or languid, whether the reports and suggestions as to methods of teaching which ought not children are careful and industrious or idle or slovenly. He to be overlooked, for these publications contain some useful hints may put a few simple questions on the subject of the lesson and and opinions which, if teachers could be persuaded to assimilate also on other parts of the school work. The exercise books, them, would have considerable influence on the work of instruc- the records of previous examinations, and the papers worked by tion. To make this easily possible we have selected a few pas- the children and revised by the teacher, will afford further sages referring to subjects of wide educational interest, and they material for forming an opinion. The Inspector may also give are here reprinted. It is often stated that nothing which is said valuable help to the teacher in this way; for frequently small of teaching in public elementary schools can be of assistance to errors of various kinds strike a fresh observer though they escape those whose work lies in the secondary school, but we do not the notice of the teacher, the keenness of whose apprehension agree with this view. Young children, whatever the social may be somewhat blunted by familiarity. status of their parents, always set about the business of learning The intelligence of the instruction depends on the method, in much the same way. What His Majesty's Inspectors find and as methods aim at a certain end, the entire removal of the true of the elementary school represents approximately what is official examination which was once a determining factor in the



scheme of instruction will induce teachers to consider whether there are many conclusions as to the proper methods of teaching some change of method should be introduced. First, the chil- a variety of school subjects, arrived at by the inspectors after dren may be taught less and learn more, i.e., the teacher should examining the work of a large number of schools. Reporting endeavour to make the children observe and inser for them. on the instruction in the north-central division of England, Mr. selves, and should be less anxious to convey to their minds J. G. Fitzmaurice puts on record what Mr. Joad, the Inspector ready-made information. Progress may be slow, but it will be of Wolverhampton, says about the teaching of composition : real and permanent, and the children will know how to gain Composition is probably the most difficult of all the subjects information for themselves. Next, their memories should not taught in an elementary school. The youthful age of the be burdened excessively. Children learn by rote with great children, the poverty of their vocabulary and their ideas, their ease and imitate readily ; the teacher, whilst making good use small literary experience, and, above all, the fact that they hear of this faculty, should endeavour to train the children not to so little correct English spoken at home, will always be obstacles commit words and phrases to memory without thinking of the in the way of good results in this subject. Moreover, the rules meaning of what they repeat: he should train them not to learn for writing good composition, other than those which relate to mere strings of isolated facts but to notice the connection of one the syntax of the individual sentence, are necessarily somewhat fact with another.

vague, whilst rules for teaching others to write it appear to be

almost non-existent. Discipline and Organisation.

It is by no means necessarily the case that commonplace

subjects such as, “How I spent my last half-holiday,” or The most effective agent for maintaining good discipline is “Describe the policeman's life,” or “ The town you live in,” the teacher's own example. Children readily recognise that are the best for this purpose. They are wanting in interest for their teachers are anxious to help them, patient, but yet deter. the children, and are often very hard to write about well. mined to be obeyed. They notice also such details in their Subjects upon which the teacher can give the children interestconduct as punctuality, order, neatness, gentle speech, and imi- ing information, and can arrange that information under suittate what they see and hear. They observe little desects of able heads, will give better results both from the point of view conduct more keenly still, and with disastrous effect. It is on of good composition, and also as enlarging the general informathis account, therefore, that great stress is laid on matters that tion and intelligence of the children. In the case of letter appear to be unimportant. The punctual, methodical per- writing, the subject should be personal, and not academic or formance of all the duties of the day, however trifling they may scientific in character. Circumstances should be imagined and seem, is the result of good habits on the part of the teacher and statements made about them such as would be likely to call for the foundation of good habits in the scholars. If discipline were the writing of a letter. It is manifestly absurd to write a letter perfectly efficient, punishment would be unknown, for the result beginning, “Dear mother, iron is a mineral and is dug out of of efficient discipline is to engender the good habits which the earth,” and ending, “ Saucepans and pckers are made of render punishment unnecessary. Order, diligence and obedi- iron. I remain your affectionate son, &c." Yet the children ence, which are only maintained by frequent punishment or the are not infrequently required to do this, to teach them the dread of it, do not constitute good discipline. Indeed, the in- "letter form,” as it is said. The compositions, as finally prefliction of punishment is, to some extent, a confession of defeat sented, should neither be a mere list of haphazard, unconnected by the authority that inflicts it ; for the object of discipline is to jottings, nor, though the ideas are the same, should they be prevent the commission of faults. No punishment which excites expressed verbatim alike by every child. Both of these faulis the emotion of terror in a child should ever be employed. In are common : the one shows too little teaching, and the other an infants' school no punishment should be permitted which too much, leaving the children little scope for practising the causes bodily pain. In schools for older children, corporal pun. formation of their own sentences. ishment should be discouraged as an ordinary expedient in boys' schools, and altogether in girls' schools. The punishment

Elementary Subjects. register, which is required in all schools, may serve some good purpose if it induces teachers to reflect occasionally on their methods, and to consider whether these really tend to the

A number of hints on the teaching of elementary subjects formation of the habit of good conduct.

included in Mr. W. E. Currey's report for the eastern division The organisation of a school is good if the scholars are pro

of England, which were supplied to him by Mr. Wix, one of perly distributed, and if the teachers are qualified to under

the inspectors in his district, are worth reprinting :take the special work prescribed for them in the scheme of

In reading, is simultaneous work judiciously and sparingly instruction. In large schools the organisation is generally

used with a due appreciation of its disadvantages and dangers ? effective. In these the whole of the instruction in each class is

Is sufficient time given to this most important of all subjects, generally assigned to one teacher, but some variation in this

so that after the initial difficulties have been overcome the practice may be suggested. Teachers are not interested in all

children may go on to acquire habitual ease in reading, and so subjects alike, and therefore the work of the school may be

find out that what they at first thought an irksome task is the distributed among the staff so as to assign the instruction in

most delightful of all recreations ? certain subjects to those teachers who have special knowledge

Are children encouraged first to phrase naturally and sponof them. Subjects like mathematics (including arithmetic), the

taneously, in accordance with their notions of the meaning? science of common things, literature, cannot be taught effec

Is “pattern” reading used only when necessary, and is the tively by teachers who have merely a superficial knowledge of

passage patterned by the teacher gradually increased in length them.

according to the age of the scholars? Is explanation confined

to detached scraps of knowledge and isolated “meanings,” or The Teaching of Composition.

is it first directed to the whole meaning of the passage, so as to

make children see that they can really learn something from We have also before us a number of general reports by His reading, and so give them a love for it? Is a child told a diffMajesty's Chief Inspectors for different districts of England. In cult word at once, or encouraged and trained to face a difficulty addition to detailed information as to educational progress in for himself? If "silent” reading is used, is the teacher careful the parts of the country with which the reports are concerned to question on it and ascertain its result?


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