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experience, and the passionate longing for freedom to work unhindered for God and mankind, drew them toward each other; and under the moulding influence of the Puritan ministry, which stands unrivalled in mental and spiritual power, they soon blended their fortunes, and harmonized in civil and ecclesiastical polity.

The church and schoolhouse, however humble, marked every clearing along the radiating lines of pioneering encroachment upon the boundless wilderness.

The growing insecurity and danger of the colonies from Indian conspiracies, and the jealousies of the French and Dutch, led them, in 1643, to make another stride in the unconscious progress toward a national independence.

In the Preamble to the Articles of Confederation, they state, with the sublime calmness of a high and inflexible purpose, the law of a Union never to be dissolved: "We all came into these parts of America with one and the same end and aim; viz., to advance the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to enjoy the liberties of the gospel in purity with peace." Then follows a summary of the causes which led to the "consociation," and the Twelve Articles that bound together "The United Colonies of New England," which was the "model and prototype of the NorthAmerican Confederacy of 1774."

Just twenty eventful years of varied discussion of rights and privileges brought an open conflict of the colonists with transAtlantic intolerance. The king appointed four commissioners to hear and determine "all complaints and appeals in all causes and matters," civil and military, in the colonies, who, accompanied by four hundred and fifty regular soldiers with their officers, sailed for New England. Boston sent an eloquent and earnest protest against their interference; and thwarted by the skilful and admirable management of her political leaders, whose plea first and last was the charter, the commissioners determined to test their authority against that of the colony. May 23, 1665, they ordered a merchant of Boston to appear the next day to answer to the charges of Thomas Deane and others. When the appointed hour on the 24th arrived, and the commissioners were prepared to proceed, a herald suddenly appeared, and with a trumpet-blast startled the royal representatives with the signal to listen to the governor's command, forbidding the people to aid or countenance them in their invasion of charter rights. The astonished commissioners, after a fruitless attempt

to revise the laws of the colony, and a further failure in their ef forts in New Hampshire, which was then under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, at length returned to England, to which the scene of negotiation was transferred. The machinations of the enemies of Massachusetts were eventually so far successful, that, in 1683-4, its charter was annulled. In May, 1686, his Majesty's commission of Gov. Dudley to be his royal vicegerent was "published by beat of drum, and sound of trumpet," and then transmitted to the several towns. Becoming unpopular, he was supplanted before the close of the year by Sir Edmond Andros, a "poor knight of Guernsey," who, flaunting the tinselled insignia of the office of Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief of all New England, and attended by British troops, landed at Boston. His tyrannical hand was soon laid upon taxation, legislation, the press, and even upon matrimonial relations. To encourage the Church of England, and break down that of the colony, Andros sent for the key of the South Church, a sanctuary which later became the very Temple of Liberty, echoing its purest eloquence, - that "prayers might be said there." This was soon after followed by a proposition to tax the people for the support of the Church of England. As these despotic acts were multiplied, the question was indignantly asked, "What people that had the spirits of Englishmen would endure this,-that when they had, at vast charges of their own, conquered a wilderness, and been in possession of their estates forty, nay, sixty years, that now a parcel of strangers, some of them indigent enough, must come and inherit all that the people now in New England, and their fathers before them, had labored for?"

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Increase Mather, the "great metropolitan clergyman of the country," who, Randolph said, was as "full of treason as an egg of meat," and the ministers of the colony generally, openly and boldly preached resistance to the oppression of their rulers. At this crisis, the Revolution of 1688 dethroned the Stuarts, and elevated to the throne the house of Hanover in the person of King William. This vindication of popular rights in the mother-country was almost simultaneous with the outbreak of exasperated feeling in the colony. April 18, 1689, at eight o'clock in the morning, Boston wore the aspect of unwonted agitation. It was reported that Andros would fire the town at one end, and Capt. George, of the English frigate "Rose," apply the torch at the other, and then both make good their escape. Soon the people were in arms, the very boys brandishing their clubs along the

streets. At mid-day, a declaration was read from the balcony of the court-house, closing as follows: "We commit our cause unto the blessing of Him who hears the cry of the oppressed, and advise all our neighbors, for whom we have thus ventured ourselves, to join with us in prayers, and all just action for the defence of the land." A shout from the multitude rent the air; colors floated on Beacon Hill, the signals of the opening strug gle; and, in obedience to the summons, the citizens and soldiery of the country came streaming into Boston. Before night, twenty military companies were formed in the streets.

The next day, April 19, 1689, across Charlestown and Chelsea Ferries poured another throng, headed by a Lynn schoolmaster. The surrender of the castle was demanded, and reluctantly made with a storm of curses: that of the frigate soon followed. The government of Andros was then overthrown, and a council of safety and peace was organized on its ruins. The royal governor was arrested, and, to secure him against violence, placed under guard.

In 1692, King William erected a new government in the Pilgrim colonies, to be called the Province of Massachusetts Bay, and include Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Maine; inaugurating a new era in the history of New England, whose growth had been steady in numbers, wealth, and liberality of sentiment, along with a deepening love of freedom, and purpose of resistance to oppression.

And, in our estimate of the character of these colonists, the question is not, indeed, "What were the errors of the past? but What were its aims?" And while "industry, frugality, and exemplary integrity, were characteristics of the people," it was not possible" to stifle the conviction which had sprung up, that freedom was the inalienable right of man, not to be parted with on any account whatever.”

In regard to the participation of the Massachusetts Colony in American slavery, it is enough to say,


Slavery in general was so repugnant to the principles of the Puritans, it was viewed with abhorrence; and, fortunately for New England, it never reached the dignity of a fixed institution' to be cherished forever."

The unhappy witchcraft delusion, of which some have spoken contemptuously, and others with unsparing denunciation, was only the outbreak of an epidemic infatuation, which had long prevailed with more frightful results in Old England, and which

continued there long after the excitement and its tragedies had ceased in America.

Through all moral and political changes among the people in the province of Massachusetts Bay, their struggles against the arrogant claims of the mother-country gathered strength. The "irrepressible conflict" was eloquently set forth in the words of James Otis in the old town-house of Boston, February, 1761: “I am determined to my dying day to oppose, with all the powers and faculties God has given me, all such instruments of slavery on the one hand, and villany on the other, as this writ of assistance is. I argue in favor of British liberties, at a time when we hear the greatest monarch upon earth declaring from his throne that he glories in the name of Briton, and that the privileges of his people are dearer to him than the most valuable prerogatives of his crown. I oppose the kind of power, the exercise of which, in former periods of English history, cost one King of England his head, and another his throne. Let the consequences be what they will, I am determined to proceed, and to the call of my country am ready to sacrifice estate, ease, health, applause, and even life. The patriot and the hero will ever do thus; and, if brought to the trial, it will then be known how far I can reduce to practice principles which I know to be founded in truth."

John Adams declared that "American Independence was then and there born."

The first victim of the Revolutionary period was the lad Snider, twelve years of age, killed by a shot from the house of Richardson the "informer," fired into the indignant crowd the 22d of February, 1770. His funeral was attended by "all the friends of liberty;" five hundred children walking in procession in front of the bier.

The Boston Massacre followed on the 5th of March; and, of the three killed on the spot by British troops, Attucks the mulatto, and Caldwell the "stranger," were borne to their graves from Faneuil Hall.

The anniversary of the slaughter was observed with great solemnity upon its annual recurrence, fanning the rising flame of patriotism in the colonies.

In the Representatives' Chamber at Boston, Nov. 3, 1772, when the committee of correspondence was appointed, who subsequently, through Samuel Adams and Joseph Warren, sent forth a statement of rights, and their violations, and, from the pen of

Benjamin Church, a letter to the several towns of the province, the foundation was laid of the AMERICAN UNION.

The towns sent back in clear accents their readiness to stand by the committee and the proposed Union. As the uprising of the people increased in extent and ominous determination, "every eye was fixed upon Boston, once the seat of commerce and of plenty, and inhabited by an enterprising and hospitable people. The cause in which it suffered was regarded as the common cause of the country. A hostile fleet lay in its harbor; hostile troops paraded its streets; the tents of an army dotted its common; cannon were planted in commanding positions; its port was closed, its wharves were deserted, its commerce was paralyzed, its shops were shut, and many were reduced from affluence to poverty. Yet a resolute spirit inspired them still. The Sons of Liberty knew no despair; and the "Liberty Song," set to the tune of "Smile, Brittania," bade the citizens of the beleaguered town

"Be not dismayed:
Though tyrants now oppress,

Though fleets and troops invade,
You soon will have redress.

The resolution of the brave
Will injured Massachusetts save."

Such was the progress made at the close of 1772 by the founders of New England. They believed not in the despotic centralization of power, but in its consolidation. Freedom was not to them license to throw off wholesome restraints, but both civil and ecclesiastical tyranny, substituting in its place fixed, strong, and compact government, the foundation for ages of progress in every direction of human development, under the acknowledged and welcome sovereignty of God.

The cementing force in such representative authority was mutual confidence. And this very trust in each other sprang not alone from similarity of religious views and unselfish feeling, but from the conscious posssession of self-government,- that resolute self-control which fitted every man to be a ruler in society, because he held all selfish, volcanic passions subordinate to the general good.

Such intelligent estimate of human relations and duty led to another sublime peculiarity of character in their administration of power, the transfer of the sentiment we call loyalty, the mind's homage to divinely appointed authority, from personal

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