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First Year University Students-Tuesday afternoon.

Short Course Students-Tuesday morning -10 a.m.-1 p.m.

Of the four lessons taught by Short Course students on Thursday afternoons, three are taken from the model or criticism lessons of the previous Tuesday morning. In one lesson the student is left to his own initiative and invention.

Classes for the criticism lessons of Short Course students are supplied alternately by the Central schools; for University students of the first year by Kangaroo Point Boys', and for Senior University students by the Technical High School.

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• The regulations of 1915 recognised passes in Senior English as passes for similar subjects in Class II.

Teachers in State schools, sitting for the Class IL examination in needlework, have ordiLarly received four years' tuition and preparation in former grades. This course has to be covered by University students in two years.

Thirty-four former Short Course students have obtained 50 per cent. or over of aggregate marks in the examinations for admission as Teacher of the Third Class.

6. SELECTION OF STUDENTS. Since the standard for selection of teacher-scholars was raised in 1915, the quality of students taking the University course has been wholly satisfactory. It is unfortunate that of fifty-five trainees of this class, so small a proportion has been drawn from the rank of State school teacher, only nine having been obtained from this source. Every application from a matriculated State school teacher has been successful.

The College staff has no control over the selection of Short Course students. Those drawn from the unclassified teachers of small State

schools of late have been of doubtful promise, and compare badly with their untrained fellow students of the Small Schools examination. In selecting unclassified teachers for Short Course scholarships the requirements recommended are: youth, natural intelligence, and interest in teaching.

7. ASSISTANCE BY TEACHERS OF PRACTISING SCHOOLS. In all schools used as practising schools, the staffs have supplemented the training of students by many valuable means. Special lessons have been given by highly qualified members of the staff; every opportunity has been permitted for observation of methods and organization; and trainees are occasionally given short lectures on special points of organization peculiar to the school. Classes have been provided for students every Thursday afternoon, often at some strain on the school organization. The assistance given by the two Central schools, Kangaroo Point Boys', and the High School, in furnishing classes for model and criticism lessons, is vital to the welfare of the College.

8. FUTURE CLASSES.-The Department in 1915 asked that arrangements be made for the formation of a class of student drawn from the rank of teacher of the Third Class, to be prepared for the Class II. Examination, and trained in the art and principles of teaching. Arrangements were made, the staff allotted, and the courses and text-books selected; but by the end of the year staff's had been so depleted by the number enrolled in military forces that the plan had to be put aside for a season.

9. LIBRARY.-The nucleus of a library of reference books, useful for staff and students, has been formed. At present there are 839 books in the library, of which 186 are on loan from the Department, and 653 have been purchased or presented by publishers. Fifty-nine half-yearly volumes of "Nature" were presented to the library by Mr. Norman Bell. Sufficient shelving has been placed for their accommodation in the office, and Miss Leitch is acting librarian..

10. EQUIPMENT.-When certain authorised additions have been received, the College will be

suitably supplied with furniture and apparatus. For illustration of History, Geography, Physiography, and Nature Study lectures a lantern microscope is needed, and the purchase of a lantern by Bausch and Lomb, of American make, has been recommended. This instrument throws pictures of lantern and microscope slides, and of maps, plans, and diagrams from text-books.

11. STAFF. The staff consists of permanent and visiting lecturers. It is smaller than that of any other Australian Training College:

Principal-John Shirley, D.Sc.

Lecturers-Miss M. Brown, B.A., Mr. A. J.
Marsden, B.Sc., Miss H. F. L. Clemin-
son, M.Sc.

Visiting Lecturers-Music: Mr. G. Sampson,
F.R.C.O., Mr. Rohan. Needlework:
Miss C. England. Hygiene: Eleanor
Bourne, M.B., Ch.M.

JOHN SHIRLEY, D.Sc., Principal.

APPENDIX D.

REPORT OF ELEANOR E. BOURNE, M.B., CH.M., SYD., CHIEF MEDICAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.

Brisbane, March, 1916.

SIR, I have the honour to present the report on the work done by me during the year ending 31st December, 1915.

GENERAL.

The number of schools examined during the year 1915 was 101. These included schools in the neighbourhood of Pomona and Cooran, the schools in the country districts surrounding Gympie, and between Gympie and Maryborough, most of the schools on the Theebine-Nanango branch line, and the schools of Maryborough, with the exception of the Albert school. The Convent school at Maryborough was also examined. The number of children examined was 4.060-viz., 1,951 girls and 2,109 boys.

NOTICES TO PARENTS REGARDING REMEDIABLE

DEFECTS.

The object of medical inspection is to notify the parents of defects which can be remedied, and which if not remedied are likely to interfere with the mental progress and physical development of the children who suffer from them. This year 957 children were found to be suffering from remediable defects, and their parents were notified accordingly. Of these, 445 were girls and 512 were boys; that is, 22.8 per cent. of the total number of girls examined required either medical or dental attention, and similar attention. was necessary in the case of 24.4 per cent. of the boys examined.

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The number of children notified as requiring attention for their teeth was 252 girls, or 12.9 per cent. of the number examined, and 243 boys, or 11.5 per cent. of the number examined. As the examination is simply by inspection and not by the dental probe, naturally only major defects can be notified, and as these children comprise only those who have neglected to follow the advice of the school dentist as to obtaining treatment, or whose dental decay has developel since the visit of the dentist, it is clear that this percentage represents only a very small proportion (about one-eighth) of the dental defects actually present in the schools. An accurate idea of the complete extent of this trouble can only be gathered by referring to the reports of the Dental Inspectors.

ADENOIDS AND ENLARGED TONSILS.

One hundred and thirty-four girls, or 6.9 per cent., and 197 boys, or 9-3 per cent., were notified as suffering from adenoids; while 99 girls, or 5.1 per cent., and 135 boys, or 6-4 per cent., were notified as having enlarged tonsils.

Sir George Newman, the Chief Medical Officer of the Board of Education, England, says in his last report-"Of all the remediable defects of school life, enlarged tonsils and adenoids are the most neglected, and show the lowest proportion to have received adequate treatment, in spite of their prevalence and their marked disabling effect on the health."

It is not the dangerous nature of these affections that make them so important, though their sequelæ may at times cause dangerous symptoms and even loss of life; but when parents are urged to have their children's adenoids and tonsils attended to, it is because of their tendency to keep the child, who is unfortunate enough to suffer in this way, always a little below par, a little deaf, a little slow, stupid and inert, and irregular in attendance owing to the "coldcatching habit." And when we consider that these conditions apply to a large proportion of

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Of 1,951 girls, 49, or 2-5 per cent., were found to be suffering from defective vision. Notifications were only sent to the parents when the defect was as high as 6/12 of normal vision. The number of cases found among the girls which were notified was 25, or 1.3 per cent. When the visual acmity was higher than 6/12, notifications were only sent to the parents when other conditions, such as squint, blepharitis, headache, &c., were present. Otherwise instructions were left with the teacher to avoid eye strain, and to place the child in a good position and light. Among the boys 43, or 2 per cent., had visual defects, of whom in 28 cases, or 1.3 per cent., the defect was serious enough to notify the parent. Among the girls in three cases the visual defect was fully corrected by the spectacles which were worn; in four cases the defect was partly corrected by spectacles; and in four cases the spectacles which were worn did not improve the visual defect. On the other hand, in eight cases among the girls, spectacles were worn when the children could see perfectly well without them, this fact pointing to a certain degree of unscrupulousness among the vendors of these articles. Similarly among the boys, in three cases the spectacles worn actually increased the visual defect.

The following table gives an analysis of the visual defects found among the children:

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The percentage of cases of defective vision was higher than that found during the year 1914. In 1914 my examination was confined entirely to country schools, while during 1915 several large town schools were examined. The percentage of cases of defective vision in the town schools-among the girls, at any rate-is higher than the percentage on the total figures; in fact, defective vision is found about twice as often among the town girls as among the country girls. Perhaps the greater facility for attending picture shows, afforded by town life, may partly account for the difference. But there is no doubt that the eye, with the other organs, benefits greatly from the tonic effect of an outdoor life; and the eye, of children especially, welcomes the relief afforded by the contemplation of distant objects, rather than of those near at hand. It must also not be forgotten that upon school girls lately, and more often in large schools, has been imposed the task of acquiring a new form of hand-work-viz., knitting. I think that any temporary eyestrain which may be due to this last factor, however, will disappear when practice makes the use of the eyes almost unnecessary in performing this accomplishment; this stage of proficiency is soon reached by children.

cent.

Variations in the incidence of eye defects in town and country children are also noted by other observers. The Chief Medical Officer of the Board of Education, England, notes 19.2 per with defective vision among children leaving school in industrial towns. The report of the Medical Officer of the Department of Public Instruction in Victoria gives 5.9 per cent. of defective vision among country boys, and 12 per cent. among town boys; while 8.2 per cent. is noted among country girls, and 10-3 per cent. among town girls.

The very small proportion of cases of defective vision in Queensland, compared with Victoria and England, may also be noted. We may attribute this, I think, to the open-air life led by most of our children, to which the warm climate naturally inclines them, and perhaps partly to the stronger illumination in the schools due to our bright, clear sunlight. In point of fact, apart from the injuries caused to the eyes of the children of West Queensland by the ravages of acute blight, and more especially of trachoma (both of which can be prevented by strict attention to avoidance of infection, and to simple methods of cleansing the eye), defective vision in Queensland is rare.

PHYSICAL DEFECTS.

Of the physical defects found, the most numerous were those of malformed palates in 29 girls and 39 boys, and of malformed chests in 9 girls and 20 boys. Deformities existing from birth were found in 8 girls and 11 boys.

In the following cases the attention of the teachers was drawn to the child's physical condition, and directions given for watching the child or for modifying the school work or environment.

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Spinal curvature Epilepsy Hyperthyroidism

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Muscular wasting, generally the effect of infantile paralysis, was seen in 8 girls and 9 boys. Deformities due to accidents were seen in 1 girl and 3 boys. Deformities due to flabby and ill-developed muscles were seen in 7 girls and 2 boys. A few physical defects were due to constitutional diseases. Hernia was seen in 6 boys. MENTAL DEFICIENCY.

Mental deficiency was found in 6 girls and 1 boy, that is in 15 per cent. of the children examined, the same percentage as was found last year. Even if this figure were taken for an average of the State, we should have 180 mentally defective children, who cannot benefit by ordinary school training, and who will become a trouble to their guardians, to themselves, and a constant expense and a menace to the community. The number of such children in the State, however, is probably nearer 500 than 180, quite large enough to make it reasonable to consider the establishment of two residential colonies, male and female, with attached schools, where special training could be given, which would enable the colonies to be pretty well, if not wholly, self-supporting.

MEDICAL TREATMENT.

It is found that, of their own accord, about 30 per cent. of the parents have their children attended to after the notifications have been sent. This is, of course, anything but an ideal state of affairs, and means that over two-thirds of the energy spent in medical inspection is wasted. It is sometimes assumed that the establishment of school clinics would remedy matters, and would at once transform the 30 per cent. into 100 per cent. This assumption certainly needs some modification. England is a thickly populated country, where it is easy for children to get to a centre for treatment, and England appears to be fairly riddled with follow-up schemes, care committees, and school clinics. There are 350 school clinics in operation. Yet even with all these advantages the last report of the Board of Education shows that only 56.5 per cent. of the children notified have been treated. Neither do school clinics treat all the cases which are notified. Cases requiring ward treatment, or long courses of regulated treatment, such as sanatorium treatment, are not suitable for school clinics. A survey of school clinics as worked in England shows that they cater for the following cases-Defective teeth, adenoids and enlarged tonsils, defective vision-i.e., the testing for and

prescribing and fitting of spectacles-external eye disease, skin disease, and pediculosis. Examining these classes of defect, we find that in Queensland we have already three whole-time Dental Inspectors, each of whom constitutes a travelling clinic, and treats all the necessitous cases which are discovered on inspection. To these are to be added three more Dental Inspectors, and it is expected that this will enable the whole State to be covered. In addition, a wellequipped stationary clinic is constantly at work in Brisbane, attending to the teeth of necessitous children in the metropolis.

From the various reports it is seen that defective vision is rare except in West Queensland. Here also external eye diseases, such as acute blight or trachoma, are prevalent. In this district a specially qualified Ophthalmic Inspector is responsible for all the eye work of the schools, tests refractive errors, and institutes and supervises the treatment of external eye diseases. These latter, needing constant treatment, are further relegated to the care of the local doctors, when there are such, with whom special arrangements have been made by the Department of Public Instruction.

As regards adenoids and enlarged tonsils, except in Brisbane, when the rush of these cases, in the early days of medical inspection, was very great, no hospital has made any fuss about treating such necessitous cases as were notified by the Medical Inspectors. And as subsidised hospitals exist in almost every country town, it seems that it would be a waste of money to duplicate by a clinic the machinery for dealing with cases which the hospitals are quite capable of dealing with. In outlying places it seems to me that it would be cheaper to pay the travelling expenses to a hospital of the few cases found, rather than cater for them by a clinic, which would have to include a surgeon, an anaesthetist, and a nurse, with salaries and travelling expenses.

There remain, then, only skin diseases, which are rather rare in Queensland, owing to sun and baths, and which can be coped with at the hospitals; and pediculosis, or head uncleanliness, which can be dealt with by any intelligent parent, especially as the Department issues a slip giving full instructions for its treatment.

The additional school nurses who are to be appointed, and the "follow-up work" which will follow as a matter of course, should increase the percentage of children who are treated after notification, by explaining to inert parents the benefits which will follow treatment, and the means by which they can obtain it.

PHYSICAL TRAINING.

Female candidates for a course in physical training were examined at Peel Street Drill Shed in connection with the short courses for students at the Training College, and also at vacation courses at Cleveland and Pialba. The students presenting themselves were young girls of a healthy type, the rejections for physical defects being negligible. The good effects of the new syllabus of physical training are, I think, already beginning to show themselves, in reducing the frequency of such defects as ill-formed chests, spinal curvature, and flat-foot.

During the year the second batch of long course students at the Training College received a course of lectures in physiology, and at the end

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