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"The State has recognised an increasing responsibility to every boy, increasing both as regards years and as regards the provision of opportunities. The age up to which the State has regarded it as its duty to compel preparation for citizenship has increased to fourteen years. The extent to which the State has seen it to be its duty to provide means of training has increased until it includes the Kindergarten, the Primary school, the Secondary school, and the University. To those who show themselves qualified to benefit by training, it offers education-Secondary and University-that prepares for positions in the Public Service and in the professions generally.

"We are of opinion that the State should assume responsibility for the preparation for trades.

"To realise this we are of opinion

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1. That day schools for the giving of scientifically organised instruction in trades
should be established;

2. That entrance to them should be by qualifying examination and subsequent
selection;

3. That the numbers to be admitted into each trade school should be on the
recommendation of the advisory committee for each trade. (Note.-Some
of the committees are already established in connection with trade work);
4. That to recoup parents for loss of family earnings during the period of attend-
ance at a trade school, a scholarship allowance of £12 per annum should be
made in each case.

Simultaneously with the operation of the full-time day trade schools, boys will,
of course, continue to proceed to tradesmanship by the ordinary route of apprenticeship,
and employers should be urged to allow time off for part-time training in trade schools.

"The establishment of day trade training schools we regard as imperative. There he will learn his trade, and there, too, by the continuation of the boy under school conditions, advantages other than the training in a craft will accrue he remains under discipline at a most important period in his career; his general education can be continued in certain special directions, and a training in citizenship is possible.

"Recommendations.-We recommend

1. That the project of day trade schools be placed immediately on an efficient
basis, and that a pronouncement as to their early establishment be made
officially;

2. That a day trade school be established in Brisbane, where the organisation
for such a school is in a forward state; that simultaneously a day trade
school be established at Ipswich, where the demand for trained operatives
for the Government railway workshops is sufficient to ensure absorption
of the trained product; and that day trade schools be established in other
places when the circumstances are favourable;

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3. That arrangements be made in such trade schools for

(a) Full-time day training of scholarship holders;

(b) Part-time day training of present apprentices;

(c) Evening work giving advanced instruction to journeymen;

4. That 1, 2, and 3 be communicated to the trade advisory committees, and that
these committees be fully instructed as to their duties and responsibilities
in connection with the trade schools;

5. That efforts be made to get the particular trade to recognise the day trade
course arranged under its guidance, and the certificates of competency
granted by its trade committee, as qualifying in part for journeymen status."

to assist in

existing

113. In a general way it is hardly possible for an Education Department The to create new industries; it has to wait for the industry to be created before Department it can begin to play a part. In this respect the Department is a camp-follower the expanrather than a scout. But in regard to existing industries it may, through its sion of technical institutions, be able to help in the producing of skilled operatives, and industries. by means of special classes for the training of higher craftsmen, assist in the expansion of existing industries. To enable this to be done, however, there must be close co-operation between the technical colleges on the one side and employers and employees on the other. It is the intention of the Department to get into touch with local manufacturers to ascertain if the Department can render assistance in any way; but the matter is not an easy one. The requirements of the manufacturers may be such that the present equipment of the colleges may not meet them; and in existing financial conditions funds may not be available to enable the State to provide the required equipment. The preliminary inquiries will, however, disclose whether the Department can be of direct practical use to the manufacturers and, if so, in what way.

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TRADE EDUCATION.

114. In the matter of educational development, trade education is one of the most pressing requirements. The war has emphasized the urgent necessity for an efficient system in trade training. In the Annual Report of the Department for 1913 the question of trade training was discussed as follows:-

"105. The institution of Industrial Boards and the determinations of those Boards have had an important and a far-reaching influence upon apprenticeship. Formerly, apprenticeship was the only process by which tradesmen were produced, and it imposed upon employers very stringent responsibilities. To-day, employers will not accept those responsibilities, and it is generally admitted that the apprenticeship of to-day does not completely prepare an apprentice for the practice of his trade, and that some form of technical training is also necessary. On the other hand, it is recognised that a training in a technical school cannot in itself be expected to produce an all-round tradesman. Real efficiency will only come through meeting and overcoming the complex difficulties of actual practice of the trade-difficulties which no technical school, however well organised, can anticipate.

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:

106. Broadly, the objects of vocational teaching may be summarised as follows:(1) To be preparatory to or complementary to apprenticeship;

(2) To promote the efficiency and the manual dexterity of trainees in the occupations which they have adopted or intend to adopt ;

(3) To advance the general education of trainees, keeping in view that the fundamental basis of any course of study must bear upon their occupations;

(4) To stimulate initiative and originality;

(5) To make the trainees good citizens as well as efficient workmen.

"107. A beginning will be made in two ways-(1) The institution of trade classes for the benefit of apprentices; and (2) the establishment of a day preparatory trade school. "108. The classes for apprentices will be complementary to the training in the employers' workshops, and will consist of a trade course comprising practical trade work allied to the occupation of the apprentice, together with instruction in drawing and mathematics. The practical work will be made as suitable as possible, and special exercises and schemes of work are in process of preparation. Tools and general equipment have also been very carefully selected. Advisory committees consisting of representatives of employers and employees will be appointed to direct and supervise the practical work of the students so as to ensure that the practical instruction in the College shall be truly complementary to, and fall in with, the requirements of the workshops in which the apprentices are employed.

"109. A beginning will be made with the following trades:-Fitting and machining, blacksmithing, iron and brass-founding, pattern-making, carpentry and cabinet-making, plumbing and tinsmithing, and electrical trade work. The Department is also in communication with the Printers' Industrial Board regarding printing classes; and other trades will be included as the demand arises and opportunities occur. The fees will be reasonable.

"110. The day trade school will give a direct preparatory training for fitting and machining and for carpentry, but the training will also be useful in a preparatory way to any of the allied trades. The course will extend over two or three years and will embrace practical trade work, English, mathematics, drawing, and civics. The practical work will be as carefully supervised and arranged as in the case of the apprentice courses. Boys may enter this school about the age of thirteen, but they will not be admitted unless they have completed the work for fifth class in primary schools or are educated up to a standard equivalent thereto. Winners of the ordinary scholarships will be permitted to enter this school. The hours will be from 9 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. daily, and from 9 a.m. to 12 noon on Saturdays. Approximately twenty-eight hours per week will be devoted to practical work, and the balance to the other subjects.

"111. The usual fee will be thirty shillings per annum per pupil.

"112. The Department hopes to make arrangements with industrial boards. whereby the period of apprenticeship will be reduced proportionately to the time spent by the student in the day school, and the degree of efficiency attained by him.

"113. The school will be established early in 1915."

115. Since the foregoing was written, the war has come and retarded the trade scheme. The following progress has, however, been made:

1. The Central Technical College buildings have been completed, and accommodation has been provided for trade teaching.

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2. Advisory Committees have been appointed to direct and supervise
the practical work of students in-

Fitting and Machinery,

Carpentry and Joinery,

Electrician's work, and

Plumbing.

3. The preparation of exercises governing the work in trades has
been proceeded with steadily.

4. Part of the equipment for trade classes has been provided.

ment of

116. The foregoing in regard to Commerce, Scientific Research, and Indus- Establish. tries will show that the main direction in which the Education Department could trade help is in the establishment of trade classes; these classes should be established classes. at once.

ment and

primary

117. But there is another direction in which the Education Department Developmight render some useful assistance, if it were given the opportunity, and that is strengthenin the more effective development of our primary industries. For many years to ing of come Queensland will be a land of primary industries rather than of manufactures, industries. and commen sense dictates that we should develop and strengthen what we have rather than pine for what we have not. The question of the primary industries is also very closely interwoven with post-war problems, and a good system of agricultural education is essential to the expansion of the primary industries. The time is, therefore, opportune to consider the whole question of agricultural education. In a general way the stepping-stones are--work of an elementary nature in the country primary schools; establishment in approved centres of schools with an agricultural bias of the proposed Nambour type; establishment of the farm school at Zillmere; the Gatton Agricultural College; establishment of a Faculty (or at least a department) of Agriculture in the University. Under existing conditions the primary school work is controlled by the Education Department, and the Gatton College by the Agricultural Department; the Zillmere farm school and the Nambour types, when established, will be administered by the Education Department; and the work in the University will be controlled by the University Senate. This multiplicity of controlling authorities must obviously result in weakness. Just as the ordinary branches of primary, secondary, and University education are co-ordinated, so might the several branches of agricultural education be co-ordinated. A scheme of co-ordination is now under consideration by the Government.

tion neces

118. So far as the Education Department is concerned, a scheme is required Co-ordina which would assist in expanding and developing agricultural education; in making sary. arrangements for the training of teachers in this specialized work; in determining the centres in which rural schools with an agricultural bias should be established; in indicating the lines on which the Zillmere farm school should be designed, equipped, staffed, and administered so as to give the best results and secure public confidence; in linking the rural school and farm schools with Gatton College; in paving the way for University activities in regard to agricultural education; and generally in making agricultural education a potent factor in pushing forward our great primary industries.

raw

119. If Queensland cannot do much at present in the way of the secondary Queensland industries, she could at least do a great deal in helping to feed the Empire and in to provide providing much of the raw material on which secondary industries depend; and, material. as has been mentioned, the Education Department, working in unison with other forces, could, through a well organized and wisely directed system of agricultural education, render valuable help if it were given the opportunity.

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