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P. 381, line 9 from buttom. Arnall! aid me while I lie. One of the writers for the Walpole ministry: a shrewd and sensible man; but latterly wasteful; and, after undergoing great distress, closing his career by the still more unhappy fate of suicide.--Bowles.
P. 382, line 6. To break my windows. Pope had become obnoxious to the street politicians; and they broke his windows, one day, when Lords Bolingbroke and Bathurst were at dinner with him
P. 382, lines 21, 22. SK.-P-ge. Sherlock and Page
P. 382, line 24. In power.
P. 382, line 28. He only stain'd. The priest alluded to in the preceding line, notwithstandig Pope's denying note, was Dr. Allured Clarke, who wrote a panegyric on Queen Caroline.
P. 382, line 29. Flord youth. Lord Hervey, alluding to his painting himself.
P. 394, line 16. This Epistle was sent to the Earl of Oxford, with Dr. Parnell's Poems published by our author, after the said earl's imprisonment in the Tower, and retreat into the country, in the year 1721.--POPE.
P. 395, line 18 from bottom. Craggs was made secretary at war in 1717, when the Earl of Sunderland and Mr. Addison were appointed secretaries of state: this Epistle appears to have been written soon after he was inade one of the secretaries of state. He was deeply implicated in the famous South Sea scheme: he died soon after the detection of it, and would most probably have been called to a severe account had he lived. He died of the small-pox, February 16, 1721.
P. 396, line 10. So mix'd our studies. Pope's fondness for painting, an art in which he was not born to excel, led him into frequent intercourse with Jervas. The painter was an intelligent and accomplished man, who probably returned the poet's attentions by his anecdotes of high life. He was the most fashionable portrait-painter of his day, though Walpole boldly pronounces him defective in the three great points of his art-drawing, colouring, and composition. Jervas was remarkable for vanity of person : Lady Bridgewater was sitting to hiin; and after paying her some rapturous compliment on her beauty (for he conceived' hiinself to be in love with her), he said, that she had not a handsome ear.". " And pray, Mr. Jervas," said she, “what is a handsome ear ?" Jervas turned up his cap, and showed her his own.
P. 396, line 17. In pleasing tasks, &c. A head of Betterton by Pope is in Lord Mansfield's possessions another is in the collection at Arundel Castle.
P. 396, line 3 from bottom. Paulo's free stroke. Warton says that Reynolds told him, “he did not think the epithets of the various painters well applied :" but they are unquestíonably the epithets which criticism has applied to them from their first days of fame, and if Pope thus loses the merit of originality, at least he has the value of precedent.
P. 396, last line. The work of years!
P. 397, line 19. Thus Churchill's race. Churchill's race were the four beautiful daughters of John, the great Duke of Marlborough : Henrietta, Countess of Godolphin, afterwards Duchess of Marlborough; Anne, Countess of Sundere land; Elizabeth, Countess of Bridgewater; and Mary, duchess of Montagu.
P. 397, line 20. Worsley's eyes. Frances, Lady Worsley, wife of Sir Robert Worsley, Bart., of Appuldercombe, in the Isle of Wight; mother of Lady Carteret, tlie wife of John, Lord Carteret, afterwards Earl Granville.
P. 397, line 21. Each pleasing Blount. The two sisters, Teresa and Martha Blount.
P. 398, line 19. The Smiles and Loves. From the pretty epitaph on Voiture :
« Etruscæ Veneres, Camænæ Iberæ,
Hermes Gallicus, et Latina Siren,
P. 399, line 12 from bottom. Thus Voiture's early cars. Mademoiselle Paulet.
P. 400. Mrs. Teresr count.
On her leaving town after the coronation of George I. in 1718
P. 402. Mrs. Martha Blount. Pope's attachment to this woman lasted to the close of his life; but it was less like that of a lover, than of a child to its nurse; and she returned the feeling much in the style of a nurse to a child, alternately fondling, and tyrannizing over, her rather capricious charge. She probably clung to his fame, for her heart seems never to have been interested in the connection. But after a long and intimate intercourse, she suddenly assumed a ridiculous reserve; and, as Wharton, with just contempt at this affectation, remarks :-"When she visited Pope, in his very last illness, and her company seemed to give him fresh spirits, the antiquated prude could not be prevailed on to stay and pass the night at Twickenham, because of her reputation !"
P. 408. Sir William Tyumball. Our author's friendship with this gentleman commenced at very un, equal years; he was under sixteeen, but Sir William above sixty, and had lately resigned his employment of secretary of state to king Wil. liam.-P.
P. 408, line 1. First in these fields. 6. Prima Syracosio dignata est."-VIRGIL.
P. 408, line 12. In your native shades. Sir W. Trumball was born in Windsor-forest, to which he retreated, after he had resigned the post of secretary of state to King William III.-P.
P. 409, line 12. Granville. George Granville, afterwards Lord Lansdowne, known for his poems, most of which he composed very young; and proposed Waller as his model ---P.
P. 410, line 4. A wondrous tree, that sacred monarch bears? An allusion to the royal oak, in which Charles II. had been hid from the pursuit after the battle at Worcester.---P.
P. 410, line 18 from bottom. A Shepherds tvy.
P. 411, line 21. Colin. The name taken by Spenser in his Eclogues, where his mistress is celebrated under that of Rosalinda.-WARTON.
P. 411, line 24. Rosalinda's. This is the lady with whom Spenser fell violently in love, as soon as he left Cambridge, and went into the north; it is uncertain into what family, and in what capacity.-WARTON,
P. 412, line 10. Your praise the birds. Pope had first written the lines,
“ Your praise the tuneful birds to heaven shall bear,
And listening wolves grow milder as they hear . but he acknowledges this to have been an oversight; " and the au. thor, young as he was, soon found the absurdity, which Spenser him. self had overlooked, of introducing wolves into England.
P. 412, line 9 from bottom The art of Terence, and Menander's firo
"Alluding," says Warburton, " to Cæsar's character of Terence, O dimidiate Menander !" &c. a sufficiently qualified panegyric of the Roman Comedian; but that any allusion was intended is by no means clear. It is curious to find modern criticism dilating on the “comic power" of Terence, which the character so distinctly denies :
“Lenibus atque utinam scriptis adjuncta foret vis
P. 413, line 28. Not balmy sleep, &c.
" Quale sopor fessis."-VIRGIL. Warton attributes this passage to Drummond of Hawthornden's picturesque lines :
“ To virgins flowers, to sun-burnt earth the rain,
To mariners fair winds amid the main,
Are not so pleasing as thy blest return.
“ Nor glittering starlight without thee is sweet," contain the same idea; but expressed, as it could be expressed only, by the golden flow of Milton.
P. 414, line 4 from bottom. Thus sung. To this poem Warton appends a note in praise of the pastorals of Fairfax, who je verse is almost Shaksperian ; and Bowles adds Brown's Pastorals, from which even Milton did not disdain to borrow.
P. 415. Mrs. Tenipest. This lady was of an ancient family in Yorkshire, and particularly admired by the author's friend, Mr. Walsh; who, having celebrated her in a pastral elegy, desired his friend to do the same, as appears from one of his letters, dated September 9, 1706 :~" Vour last eclogue being on the same subject with mine, on Mrs. Tempest's death, 1 should take it very kinily in you to give it a little turn, as if it were to the inemory of ihe same lady." Her death having happened on the night of the great storm in 1703, gave a propriety tu this eclogue, which in its general turn alludes to it. The scene of the pastoral lies in & grove; the time is midnight.--P.
P. 415, line 22. Cypress garlands bring.
" Lay a garland on my brow
of the dismal yew.
Say, I died true.
From my hour of birth:
Softly, gentle earth.'
P. 416, line 27. But see, where Daphno.
Weep no more, woful shepherds, weep no more
P. 416, the four last lines. These last four lines allude to the several subjects of the four pas. torals, and to the several scenes of them particularized before in each.-P.
P. 417, line 8. A Virgin shall conceive--All crimes shall cease, &C. VIRG. Ec), iv, ver. 6.
P. 418, line l. See, Nature hastes, &c.VIRG, Ecl. iv. ver. 18.
P. 418, line 7. Hark! a glad voice, &c.-VIRG. Ecl. iv. ver. 46.
The lambs with wolves, &c.-VIRG,
P. 418, line 6 from bottom. Ecl. iv. ver. 21.
P. 419, line 13. Rise, crowned with light, imperial Salem, rise! The thoughts of Isaiah, which compose the latter part of the poem, are wonderfully elevated, and much above those general exclamations of Virgil, which make the loftiest parts of his Pollio.-P.
P. 425, line 7. Tyrants no more. Possibly in allusion to Louis the Fourteenth's saying, that "the Cinna of Corneille made him wish to pardon the Cardinal de Rohan."
P. 425, line 11. In pitying love. Warton contemptuously asks, " Why then did Addison introduce the loves of Juba and Marcia ?" The answer may fairly be, that no play can be popular without some touch of nature; and that those loves furnish the only touch of nature in the play. It must, however, be acknowledged, that of all loves, on or off the stage, those are the least qualified to take the heart of the spectator by surprise. Marcia is mure frigid than Cato himself, and Juba is as forinalas an ambassador. That the haughty daughter of the head of the Roman commonwealth should stoop to the passion of a Lybian leader of savages, was sufficiently improbable, but that passion should declaim in the language of either, was an impossibility. Even the love of Desdemona was attributed by her countrymen to witchcraft; yet what incomparably superior ground for passion was laid in the impetuous and fiery vivia ness of Othello, and the rich romance and exquisite sensibility of his "fair Venetian !" It is said in imperfect apology for Addison, that those scenes were an after thought, in compliment to the habits of the stage: it inight more honestly be said, in tribute to the necessities of the stage. No play can ever effectually engage the interest of the audience without passion; and of all the movers of sympathy, the simplest, the most powerful, and the most universal, is love.
P. 425, line 2 from bottom. Britons, attend. It has been already remarked, that the original word was “arise;" but it was thought too inflammatory: such were the delicacies of the time.
P. 443. THE BASSET TABLE.
Pope's claims to this poem are not perfectly clear. He and Lady Wortley Montague wrote six “ Town #clogues," of which four were by her ladyship; but which four, is the difficulty.
The style of this poem was popular. Gay wrote a "Quaker's Eclogue," and Swift a “ Footman's Eclogue. It was probably on this ocasion, and to the ideas suggested by the latter jeu d'esprit, that the “Biggars' Opera” owed its birth. * I think," said Swift, one day to l'ope, “the pastoral ridicule is not yet exhausted: what think you of a Newgate pastoral among the thieves there?” Gay was fire nished with the design (how far advanced by Swift's vigorous conception, and Pope's subtlety of satire, nannot now be told), and found in it an irrant and ext.uorainary source of emolument and fame.
A pretty poem of Lady Wortley Montague is preserved (Algaotti, v. 7.):-«« Thou silver deity of secret night,
Direct my footsteps through the woodland shade;
The lover's guardian, and the Muse's aid;
To ihee my tender grief confide:
My friend, my goddess, and my guide.
The charms of young Endymion drew,
With all thy greatness, all thy coldness too."
P. 447, line 5. Was there a chief, &c. The fine figure of the commander, in that capital picture of Belisa. rius, at Chiswick, supplied the poet with this beautiful idea.--WAR.
P. 447, line 10. Their quibbles routed, and defied their puns. Anold gentleman of the last century, who used to frequent Button's coffee-house, told me they had many pleasant scenes of Dennis's indig. nation and resentment, when Steele and Rowe, in particular, teazed him with a pun..WARTON.
P. 447, line 24. When simple Macer, &c. This character first appeared in the volume of Pope's and Swift's “ Miscellanies" in 1774. Warton conceives Macer to be James Moore Smith, writer of the 's Rival Modes," a comedy, and a contributor to a virulent journal, the “ Inquisitor," set up by the Duke of Wharton. He had pilfered some verses from Pope.