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in a year.

effect in all their territories, by obstructing of trade.) And they can more speedily and powerfully offend any kingdom by sea, in one month, than the most puissant army is able to march through,

Well, it is time to reduce these men to justice and reason; pru. dence teaches us to set liniits to that power, which deservedly may be suspected. For, as they grow in puissance and strength; so the more formidable they will render themselves to all kings and princes. From one great king * they have taken so much blood, that he is fallen into a deep consumption; and it is adjudged, by some wise physicians of state, that he will hardly recover.

Did they not lately break the heart of one potent king +, and almost the back of another I. Do they not privately engage prince against prince, and, by that mean-, bring misery and cala. mity to them both; and, out of their ruin, create riches and plenty to themselves? Do they not undirnine the trade of all Europe, and send nothing but poverty, misery, and complaints into all princes dominions ?

How dangerous and fatal their grea'ness will, in a few years, provs to all the kings and princes of Europe, and to their sub. jects, if not timely prevented, a weak statist, without the help of Galileo's prospective-glass, may easily see.

Yet there are a people in the world, which contribute their assistance to them; but let them be a-sured, that, if these States, by their arts, can extri. cate themselves from the destruction and calamity which now threaten them, they must, for all their friendly assistance, expect nothing but Polyphemus's courtesy, to be the last that shall be swijlowed

пр.. This is too evident by their ingratitude and inso. lencies to the kings of Great Britain, and to the English natiun.

Nothing can give a check to their growing power, but the naval forces of the king of Great Britain, whose situation, ports, strength of shipping, courage of people, and experience in sca-fights have always made him very forinidable: Ani that Henry the Eighth understood so i ell, that he assumed to himself that motto, Cui ad. hæreo, pruet.

This naval power of the king of Great-Britain is the security and safety of Europe; for, if that were broken, they would look upon all the other as inconsiderable, because they are so far sepa. rate, that they might be destroyed before they could unite; and, in case they did, the issue would be very doubtful.

Then they would sacrilice one prince after another, and bring nothing but confusion, poverty, and misery to prince and people. And, whether this he not more than conjectural, look into their practices in the East-Indies; observe their arts and methods, by which they have reduced so many great kings, with their subjects, vassals, and slives, to their vast ambition. I have done; yet I cannot but drop a few tears for some hones • King of Spain.

† King of Sweden. • King of Denmark.

people amongst them, who must be inwrapped in the punishment, though innocent as to the guilt.

Now the most formidable and potent kings in Christendom are drawing their forces against them, all their trade is gone by sea, nothing but horror and confusion in their land; none of their allies durst appear for them. A mournful tragedy! Methinks, like wine patriots, they should seize upon their States, whom they may thank for all their calamities and miseries, and yield them up to justice; set up their prince, whose ancestorshare spent so much blood and treasure to vindicate their rights and liberties, and not to serve their ends of him (as all wise men think the States du at this juncture of affairs;) for it is an adage amongst them, that Leo vinciri liber pernegat.

And the States. do as certainly hate a prince, as a prince doth a free State.

Discite Justitiain moniti, &c.



Wherein the Declaration of his Majesty is vindicated, and the War proved to be

just, honourable, and necessary; tlic Dominion of the Sea explamed, and his Majesty's Rghts ibereunto asseried; the Obligations of the Dutch to England, and their continual Ingratitude :

In Answer to a Dutch Treatise, intitled,

Considerations upon the present Stute of the United Netherlands.


Pompeii omne consilium Themistocleum est; existimat eniin, qui mare teneat, eum Necesse rerum potiri.

CICERO AD ATTICUM, lib. x, ep. 7.

Pudebat nobilem populum, ablato mari, raptis insulis, dare tribuia quæ jubere consueverat,

Lucius Florus.

London: Printed for Henry Hills and Jolin Starkey, and are to be Sold at the Bell in St. Paul's Churchi-yard, and the Matre withm Temple-Bar, 1672.

Quarto, containing eighty-eight Pages,

The Author to the Reader.

SINCE the Author of the Considerations is pleased to conceal his name, and suffer his book to pass as the work of a private person; it seems requisite, that I do declare tbis ensuing Treatise to proceed from an band, not less private, if not more; and this I am the more obliged to ownl, lest by any mistake of mine, througli haste, ignorance, or misinformation, some prejudice might be created


against the just and unquestionable rights of his Majesty. The interests of Princes are not proper subjects for ordinary pens; yet in this juncture of our affairs, in these innes of universal danger, I hope my attempt shall not be liable to misconstruction, since it liath no other source and original, than the ser. vice of my King and native country; and I do profess, that I have not, to my knowledge, made use of any officious untruths, nor in any allegation, or asse. veration, imposed upon the credulous reader; nor have I asserted the less probable opinions at any time, out of compliance with the present exigencies of state, in opposition to those which are strengthened with greater authority and

I have thoroughly convinced myself in the first place, and therefore hope the discourse may prove more satisfactory unto all others. The infant re. publick of the United Netherlands, alier that it had got some considerable strength by the assistance of England, began to be sensible of the advantages they drew from navigation, and how necessary it was for them, not only to open the cotumuerce uno both Indies, but to secure themselves of the fishing in the Briush seas. The death of Queen Elisabeth (who would otherwise have been jealous of their growing power, and ten'ler of her own rights) together with the peaceable disposition of King James, seemed to make way for their ambitious designs; and ine cabal of Holland, whereof Gro!ius was one, did publish an anonymous Treali<e. called, · Mare Liberom,' where in the treedom of the sea, to naviyale, or fish in, was maintained as a due right of mankind, according to the law of nature, and nations; which foundation des esteenied more suitable to their ends, than it they should depend upon a revocable privilege, or lacit permission. The book was the less resented at that time, because it was in apo pearance levelled against the Spanish Indies, and the prohibition of cominerce There; and then all Europe was willing to see the pride and power of Spain abaled by any means, Howsoever, King James was angry at the pretended liberty of fishing, and his anbassador Charleron complained thereot to the Siales; but they never avowed the principles, but oined the rigits of King James, though indeed slıhted them, and usurped upon the listung, in such manner, as I have sbewed in this treatise. That smgle book hath occasione a multitude of discourses upon that subject; Mr. Selden defended the English dominion over the British seas: 0.hers that of Venice, and Genoa: The Durch advocates undermuning by their writings all the regalıses of Princes, as their ma ters have done by their acrions. Alier that the troubles of Scotland and England had disabled King Charles the Firse, from attending unto the domi. nion of the sea, according as he most generously purposed, the Dutch thought that the English, bemg weakened with the civil wars, and distracted with intestine factions, by reason of the alieration of the government, could not resist their ambition, shoulú they usurp the universal dommion of the seas; and to secure themselves therein, they sent Van Tromp to destroy the English navy, without declaring any war; but neither did that attempt, nor the war ensuing thereupon, prosper, as they hoped they would. But ever since that fierce war, they have determined upon the ruming the English navigation, and not only to exclude the Enplish from the East- India trade, but to expelthem from, and deprive them of the dominion of the British seas. It is a received apliorisni amongst the Hollanders, that the flourishing condition of England is a dimunu. tion of their glory , also, that irale, and the repute of strength, are mseparably linked together, and hereupon they have so many ways contributed to the erubroiling of our kingdoms, and omied nothing thai might represent us as ri. diculous and contemptible unto foreign Princes. After they had usurped the fishery, ihey began to assume a freedonu to act all manner of hostilities upon our allies (ii at enmity with theni) not only upon our seas, but in our ports; and hereof there are many instances, besides the destruction of the Spanish fleet, in 1639. After this, their pride increasing with their power, they resused to strike sail to our ships of war; now they will allow it to be but a ceremony and civility, and dispute the paying thereof, unless we come up to such terms as are msupportable. Tous by degrees they have reduced the nation to the present weakness and contempt; nor can any concessions, any indulgence, satisfy their arrogance and covelousness: They who cover all will not acquiesce in any grants, that are not answerable to their desires, how unjust or vast sg ever they be: And their friendship is souber purchased by a brisk opposition, than complaisance. If we look upon the number and quality of the injuries which we have received from the Dutch, the Turks of Algiers, and Tunis, are less offensive, and less perlidious. If we consider the courses, by which the Dutch attack us, the Algerines are more supportable to an English spirit, since they act by force, and open piracy, what the Hollanders do by finess and deceit. And since it is our unhappiness to have so ill neighbours, that we must either fall by a lingering and inglorious death, or hazard, by war, a more pre. cipitate end; I think his Majesty hath made that choice which is most contor. able to the genius and temperament of his subjects; and, instigated by his bom nour, justice, and necessily, put into the hands of the English an opportunity at least of perishing bravely. But, as we ought not in a righteous cause to distrust the mercy of God, so, upon so auspicious a beginning as the Lord of Hosts hath favoured us with, under the conduct of our undaunted admiral, we may hope for a prosperous success, over our treacherous and ungrateful enemies.It becomes the nation now to express their generous resolution and courage, whereby the first advantages may be timely and vigorously pursued. It is true, war is expensive; yet it is not to be esteemed so, when the efects of peace will be more tatal, and cost us more: It is expensive, yet in the beginnings of war, even prodigality is wisdom; and he that lays oui most lays out least. Small supplies may foment and continue a war, but great ones put a speedy end there. unto. Let us then shew ourselves unanimous and resolute. Let us add to car usual boldness all that fury which despair infuseth. Our circumstances are such as admit of no after-game; either we must be the distressed kingdom of Eng. land, or they once more the distressed States of Holland; and it will be more insupportable for us to fall into a condition, we never yet understood, than for them, who return only to their primitive estate. The Daich presume not so much upon their own strength, as upon our divisions, anivuosities, and poverty. Let us undeceive them in these surmises. Let us convince them, that the Eng. lisha have yet much to give, as well as all to lose ; and that they can abandon all private emulations and jealousies, where the publick is so highly endanger ed; and either totally extinguish them, or lay them aside till they have a more fitung time to resunie them. It we can form our minds to such' sentiments as these, we may have, in a short space, what peace we desire; if we act by other principles, we can have no peace, but what pleaseth the insolent and caraged Hollander.


THEN I perused the treatise, intitled, “Considerations upon

the present State of the United Netherlands,' I could not but recal to mind that raillery of Charles the Fifth, who, when he adjusted the usefulness of several European languages, said, that the Dutch was fittest to be used unto an horse. Certainly, the expressions they use against his sacred majesty, the present king of Great Britain, are so rude and barbarous, the suggestions so palpably false, that, in a controversy betwixt private persons, such a procedure were intolerable in any part of the civil world? How much more then ought we to resent it, where the dignity and ho. nour of our prince (upon whose reputation abroad and at home, not only the national renown, and general commerce, but the wel. fare and being of each particular man is suspended, is concerned i I do not endeavour to serve the present juncture by this high in. sinuation of what importance it is, that the majesty of our sore. reign be upheld; I do not act any thing of the courtier herein; it is a document of the best politicians, and the experience of all ages doth confirm it for a truth. It is no vain, or empty design, for a prince to preserve that credit and renowo which appertains unto his quality ; it is hereby, that he shall insure himself of those that waver in their friendship or allegiance; it is hereby, that he shall

retain his armies in discipline and courage ; it is hereby, that he shall continue in his other subjects their due reverence and respect. In fine, the reputation of a prince is all in all; and, that being once lost, the most powerful and prudent remedies become ineffectual to the support of his crown, and tranquillity of his dominions. Neither do I upbraid the Dutch with the violation of those edicts, whereby christianity regulate, men so in their deportments, as, not to speak evil of dignities; not to blaspheme the gods, or magistrates ; being reviled, not so much as to revile again ; what. soever things are just, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are of good report, if there be any praise, if there be any glory, to think thereof :' No, no, I should injure Christendom to reckon the United Netherlands a part thereof; such are their practices, that it is a crime in them to profess that religion, and a great mistake in those that intitle them thereunto. I know not, whe. ther I do not speak too mildly concerning those deluded persons, since it is a wilfal error in them that imagine so; the Dutch them. selves have avowed it, and those that managed their trade in Ja. pan, when the christians there, at the instigation of the Dutch, were all, by horrible tortures, put to death, and every housekeeper enjoined to declare in writing, that he was neither a chris. tian, nor retained any christians in his family ;' Melchoir Sant. voort, and Vincentius Romeyn, subscribed themselves, that they were Hollanders ;' most impiously, for lucre's sake, declining that profession of christianity, to which Christ and his apostles oblige them. If they were ashamed or afraid to acknowledge Christ then, I know what our Saviour will do to them hereafter; and, if we be ashamed to own them now, or positive in denying them tú be chris. tians now, we are justified by an infallible authority. I would willingly palliate the matter, by casting the scandal spon a few particular persons, who might be surprised with the imminent dan. ger at that time: But their reputation is not to be salved so; for the conditions (upon which the trade continues to be managed there, with the knowledge and approbation of the States-General and the provincials of Holland), are these:

They are, at their first arrival, faithfully to deliver up all the books, which they bring along with them to Japan (not a bible, or prayer-book, is reserved) which are not to be restored till their departure again. They are to refrain from all manner of outward profession of christianity, in word or deed, amongst the Japan. ners ; insomuch that it is death and confiscation of their ships and goods, if they do so much as verbally give God thanks for the meat they eat, or, by any motion of their hands or eyes, testiíy any inclination thereunto. Upon these terms, the emperor permitted them to trade thither; the conditions were sent into Holland to be approved of there, it being added in the close of the letter, that, if they dil make any of the least shew that they were christians, they should not obtain any l'avour at the hands of the emperor.'And the Dutch have so exactly submitted to these conditions, and do so absolutely, in words and deeds, dissemble their christianity,

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