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which was defrayed by a tax upon the property of the town. The rate of taxation was 31 mills on one dollar, and the collector's commission was 33 %; what was the valuation of the property ?

Ans. $101920.

GENERAL AVERAGE.

! 515. General Average is a method of computing the loss to be sustained by the proprietors of the ship, freight, and cargo, respectively, when, in a case of common peril at sea, any portion of the property has been sacrificed or damaged for the common safety.

516. The Contributory Interests are the three kinds of property which are taxed to cover the loss. These are,

1st The vessel, at its value before the loss.
2d. The freight, less } as an allowance for seamen's wages.

3d. The cargo, including the part sacrificed, at its market value in the port of destination.

Note. In New York only } of the freight is made contributory to the loss. 517. Jettson is the portion of goods thrown overboard. 518. The loss which is subject to general average includes, 1st. Jettson, or property thrown overboard.

2d. Repairs to the vessel, less } on account of the superior worth of the new articles furnished.

3d. Expense of detention to which the vessel is subject in port. : 1. The ship Nelson, valued at $52000, and having on board a cargo worth $18000, on which the freight was $3600, threw overboard a portion of the goods valued at $5000, to escape wreck in a storm; she then put into port, and underwent repairs amounting to $1200, the expenses of detention being $350. What portion of the loss will be sustained by each of the three contributing interests ? What will be paid or received by the owners of the ship and freight? What by A, who owned $8000 of the cargo, including $3500 of the portion sacrificed, and by B, who owned $6000 of the cargo, including $1500 of the portion sacrificed, and by C, who owned $1000, or the residue of the cargo?

OPERATION.

LOSSES.

CONTRIBUTORY INTERESTS. Jettson, $5000 Vessel,

$52000 Repairs, less J, ... 800 Freight, less 3,..... 2400 Cost of detention, . 350

Cargo,..

18000 Total,

$6150
Total,..

$72400
$6150 = $72400 .0849447+, rate per cent. of loss.
$52000 x .0849447

$4417.13, payable by vessel. 2400 x .0849447 203.87,

« freight.
18000 x .0849447 1529.00,

cargo.
$6150.00, Total contribution.
$8000 x .0849447 = $679.56, payable by A.
6000 x .0849447 509.67,
4000 x .0849447 339.78,

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$4417.13+ $203.87 = $4621.00, payable by owners of vessel and freight. 800.00+ 350.00 1150.00,

to 4621.00—1150.00 3471.00, balance payable by ship owners. 3500.00 679.56 2820.44, receivable by A. 1500.00 509.67 990.33, Hence the following

RULE. I. Divide the sum of the losses by the sum of the contributory interests; the quotient will be the rate of contribution.

II. Multiply each contributory interest by the rate; the products will be the respective contributions to the loss.

EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE. 1. The ship Nevada, in distress at sea, cut away her mainmast, and cast overboard } of her cargo, and then put into Havana to refit; the repairs cost $1500, and the necessary expenses of detention were $420. The ship was owned and sent to sea by George Law, and was valued at $25000; the cargo was owned by Hayden & Co., and consisted of 2800 barrels of flour, valued at $9 per barrel, upon which the freight was $4200. In the adjustment of the loss by general average, how much was due from Law to Hayden & Co.?

Ans. $2629.36. 2. A coasting vessel valued at $28000, having been disabled in a storm, entered port, and was refitted at an expense of $270 for repairs, and $120 for board of seamen, pilotage, and dockage. Of the cargo, valued at $5000, $2400 belonged to A, $1850 to B, and $750 to C; and the amount sacrificed for the ship's safety was $1400 of A's property, and $170 of B's; the gross charges for freight were $1500. Required the balance, payable or receivable, by each of the parties, the loss being apportioned by general average.

$1295 payable by ship owners; $1268 receivable by A; Ans. 41.25

68.25

+

{;

CUSTOM HOUSE BUSINESS.

519. Duties, or Customs, are taxes levied on imported goods, for the support of government and the protection of home industry.

520. A Custom House is an office established by government for the transaction of business relating to duties.

It is lawful to introduce merchandise înto a country only at points where custom houses are established. A seaport town having a custom house, is called a port of entry. To carry on foreign commerce secretly, without paying the duties imposed by law, is smuggling.

Note.-Customs or duties form the principal source of revenue to the General Government of the United States; by increasing the price of imported goods they operate as an indirect tax upon consumers, instead of a general direct tax.

521. Duties are of two kinds - Ad Valorem and Specific.

Ad Valorem Duty is a sum computed on the cost of the goods in the country from which they were imported.

Specific Duty is a sum computed on the weight or measure of the goods, without regard to their cost.

522. An Invoice is a bill of goods imported, showing the quantity and price of each kind.

523. By the New Tariff Act, approved March 2, 1857, all duties taken at the U. S. custom houses are ad valorem. The principal articles of import are classified, and a fixed rate is imposed upon cach list or schedule, certain articles being excepted and entered free.

In collecting customs it is the design of government to tax only so much of the merchandise as will be available to the im

porter in the market. The goods are weighed, measured, gauged, or inspected, in order to ascertain the actual quantity received in port; and an allowance is made in every case of waste, loss, or damage.

524. Tare is an allowance for the weight of the box or the covering that contains the goods. It is ascertained, if necessary, by actually weighing one or more of the empty boxes, casks, or coverings. In common articles of importation, it is sometimes computed at a certain per cent. previously ascertained by frequent trials by weighing.

525. Leakage is an allowance on liquors imported in casks or barrels, and is ascertained by gauging the cask or barrel in which the liquor is imported.

526. Breakage is an allowance on liquors imported in bottles.

527. Gross Weight or Value is the weight or value of the goods before any allowance has been made.

528. Net Weight or Value is the weight or value of the goods after all allowances have been deducted.

Notes. - 1. Draft is an allowance for the waste of certain articles, and is made only for statistical purposes ; it does not affect the amount of duty.

2. Long ton measure is employed in the custom houses of the United States, in estimating goods by the ton or hundred weight.

The rates of this allowance are as follows:

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529. In all calculations where ad valorem duties are considered,

I. The net value of the merchandise is the worth of the net weight or quantity at the invoice price, allowance being made in cases of damage.

II. The duty is computed at a certain legal per cent. on the net value of the merchandise.

NOTE. — In the following examples the legal rates of duty, according to the New Tariff Act, are given.

OPERATION.

OPERATION.

4 EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE. 1. What is the duty, at 24 %, on an invoice of cassimere goods which cost $750 ?

ANALYSIS. According to Prob. I,

(449), we multiply the invoice, $750, $750 X .24 = $180

which is the base of the duty, by the

given rate, and obtain the duty, $180. 2. The gross weight of 3 hogsheads of sugar is 1024 lb., 1016 Ib., and 1020 lb. respectively; the invoice price of the sugar 71 cents, and the allowance for tare 80 lb. per hogshead; what is the duty, at 24 %?

ANALYSIS. We first find 1024

the gross weight of the 1016

three hhd. from which 1020

we subtract the tare, and 3060, gross weight.

obtain 2820 lb., the net 80 x 3 240, tare.

weight. We next find the

value of the net weight, 2820, net weight. $.071

.at 73 cents, the invoice

price, and then compute $211.50, net value. the duty at 24 % on this .24

value, and obtain $50.76, $50.7600, duty.

the duty required. 3. Having paid the duty at 8 % on a quantity of Malaga raisins, I find that the whole cost in store, besides freight, is $378; what were the raisins invoiced at?

AnalysIS. According to Prob.

IV, (452), we divide the amount, $378 ; 1.08 = $350

$378, by 1 plus the rate, 1.08, and

obtain the base, or invoice, $350. 4. A Boston jeweler orders from Lubec a quantity of watch movements, amounting to $2780; what will be the duty, at 4 %?

5. What will be the duty at 15 % on 1200 lb. of tapioca, invoiced at 5 cents per pound?

Ans. $9.90. 6. What is the duty at 15 % on 54 boxes of candles, each weighing 1 cwt., invoiced at 8 cents per pound, allowing tare at 31 per cent. ?

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OPERATION.

34/1,

26 *

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