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2. Any number of cubic feet diminished by } will represent an equivalent number of bushels.
Thus, 250 cu. ft. — 1 of 250 cu. ft., or 50 cu. ft. 200, the number of bushels in 250 cubic feet.
3. Any number of bushels increased by 4 will represent an equivalent number of cubic feet.
Thus, 200 bu. + 1 of 200 bu., or 50 bu. = 250, the number of cubic feet in 200 bushels.
many bushels of wheat can be put in a bin 8 ft. long, 6 ft. 6 in. wide, and 3 ft. 4 in, deep?
2. What must be the depth of a bin to contain 240 bu., its length being 10 feet and its width 5 feet?
OPERATION.-240 bu. +60 bu. = 300; 300:10 x 5 = 6 ft., the depth.
RULE.—Divide the contents in cubic feet or inches by the product of the two dimensions, in the same denomination.
3. What must be the length of a bin that is 6 feet wide and 41 feet deep, to contain 324 bushels ?
Ans. 15 ft. 4. How many bushels of apples will a bin hold, that is 12 ft. long, 3 ft. wide, and 2 ft. 6 in. deep? How many of barley ?
5. A bin 20 ft. long, 12 ft. wide, and 5 ft. deep, is full of wheat. What is its value at $2 a bushel ?
Ans. $1920. 6. A bin 7 ft. long, 6 ft. wide, and 5 ft. deep, is full of rye. What is its value at $1,371 a bushel ?
7. A crib, the inside dimensions of which are 15 ft. long, 7 ft. 4 in, wide, and 8 ft. high, is full of corn in the ear. If 2 bushels of ears make 1 bushel of shelled corn, what is the value of the whole, when shelled, at $.92 a bushel ?
Ans. $259.07. 8. If i bu. or 60 lb. of wheat make 48 lb. of flour, how
many barrels of flour can be made from the contents of a bin 10 ft. long, 5 ft. wide, and 4 ft. deep, filled with wheat ? Ans. 397% bbl.
9. Dunkley & Co. bought 12400 bu, of wheat, delivered in New York, at $1.50 a bushel. They shipped the same to Liverpool, paying 6s. sterling per quarter freight, and sold the entire cargo at 12s. per cental. Making no allowance for exchange or for waste, what was the gross gain in U.S. Money, the £ being valued at $4.6661?
796. To find the exact capacity of a vessel or space in gallons.
1. How many gallons of water will a cistern hold, that is 4 feet square and 6 feet deep?
OPERATION.—(4 x 4 x 6 x 1728) :-231 = 71814 gal., capacity.,
RULE. Divide the contents in cubic inches by 231 for liquid gallons, or by 268.8 for dry gallons.
2. How many cubic feet in a space that holds 48 hhd. ?
3. How many hogsheads will a cistern 11 ft. long, 6 ft. wide, and 7 feet deep contain ?
Ans. 549 hhd. 4. How many gallons will a space contain that is 22.5 ft. long, 3.25 ft. wide, and 6.4 ft. deep?
5. A man constructed a cistern to hold 32 hogsheads, the bottom being 6 ft. by 8 ft. What was its depth? Ans. 5 ft. 7 in.
6. A tank in the attic of a house is 6 ft. 6 in. long, 4 ft. wide, and 3 ft. 6 in. deep. How many gallons of water will it hold, and what will be its weight?
Ans. 6808 gal.; 5672 lb. 7. If 64 quarts of water be put into a vessel that will exactly hold 64 quarts of wheat, how much will the vessel lack of being full ?
Ans. 604.8 cu. in. 8. If a man buy 10 bu. of chestnuts at $5 a bushel, dry measure, and sell the same at 25 cents a quart, liquid measure, how much does he gain?
Ans. $43.09. 9. A cistern 5 ft. by 4 ft. by 3 ft. is full of water. If it be emptied by a pipe in 1 hr. 30 min., how many gallons are discharged through the pipe in a minute?
Ans. 474 gal. 10. A vat that will hold 5000 gallons of water, will hold how many bushels of corn ?
Ans. 5377 bu. 11. A cellar 40 ft. long, 20 ft. wide, and 8 ft. deep is half-full of water. What will be the cost of pumping it out, at 6 cents a hogshead ?
Ans. $22.80. 12. A reservoir 24 ft. 8 in. long by 12 ft. 9 in. wide is full of water. How many cubic feet must be drawn off to sink the surface 1 foot? How many gallons ?
Ans. 23524, gal.
THE METRIC SYSTEM
OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
797. The Metric System was adopted in France in 1795; its use was authorized in Great Britain in 1864; and in 1866, Congress authorized the Metric System to be used in the United States by passing the following bills:
AN ACT TO AUTHORIZE THE USE OF THE METRIC SYSTEM OF
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That from and after the passage of this Act, it shall be lawful throughout the United States of America to employ the Weights and Measures of the Metric System ; and no contract or dealing, or pleading in any court, shall be deemed iuvalid, or liable to objection, because the weights or measures expressed or referred to therein are weights or measures of the Metric System.
SECTION 2. And be it further enacted, That the tables in the schedule hereto annexed shall be recognized in the construction of contracts; and in all legal proceedings, as establishing, in terms of the weights and measures now in use in the United States, the equivalents of the weights and measures expressed therein in terms of the Metric System ; and said tables may be lawfully used for computing, determing, and expressing in customary weights and measures, the weights and measures of the Metric System.
798. The Metric System of weights and measures is based upon the decimal scale.
799. The Meter is the base of the system, and is the one tenmillionth part of the distance on the earth's surface from the equator to either pole, or 39.37079 inches.
800. From the Meter are made the Are (air), the Stere (stair), the Liter (leeter), and the Gram ; these constitute the primary or principal units of the system, from which all the others are derived.
801. The Multiple Units, or higher denominations, are named by prefixing to the name of the primary units the Greek numerals, Deka (10), Hecto (100), Kilo (1000), and Myra (10000).
802. The Sub-multiple Units, or lower denominations, are named by prefixing to the names of the primary units the Latin numerals, Deci (15), Centi (100), Mille (Tdov).
Hence, it is apparent from the name of a unit, whether it is greater or less than the standard unit, and also how many times.
MEASURES OF EXTENSION.
803. The Meter is the unit of length, and is equal to 39.37 in. nearly.
The meter, like our yard, is used in measuring cloths and short distances.
The kilometer is commonly used for measuring long distances, and is about of a common mile.
804. The Are is the unit of land measure, and is a square whose side is 10 meters, equal to a square dekameter, or 119.6 sq. yards.
1 Centiare, ca. =(1 Sq. Meter) 1.196034 sq. yd. 100 Centiares, = 1 ARE
= 119.6034 sq. yd. 100 ARES A. = 1 Hectare (Ha.) = 2.47114 acres.
805. The Square Meter is the unit for measuring ordinary surfaces; as flooring, ceilings, etc.
100 Sq. Millimeters, sq.mm. = 1 Sq. Centimeter .155+ sq.in. 100 Sq. Centimeters, sq. cm. 1 Sq. Decimeter = 15.5 + sq. in. 100 Sq. Decimeters, sq. dm. 1 SQ. METER (8q. M.)= 1.196+ sq. yd.
806, The Stere is the unit of wood or solid measure, and is equal to a cubic meter, or .2759 cord.
= 3.531 + cu. ft. 10 Decisteres, dst. = 1 STERE
= 35.316 + cu. ft. 10 STERES St. 1 Dekastere (DSt.) = 13.079+ cu. yd.
807. The Cubic Meter is the unit for measuring ordinary solids; as excavations, embankments, etc.
1000 Cu. Millimeters, cu, mm. = 1 Cu. Centimeter .061+ cu. in. 1060 Cu. Centimeters, cu. cm. = 1 Cu. Decimeter = 61.026+ " 1000 Cu. Decimeters, cu. dm. 1 CU. METER = 35.316 + cu. ft.
MEASURES OF CAPACITY.
808. The Liter is the unit of capacity, both of Liquid and of Dry Measures, and is a vessel whose volume is equal to a cube whose edge is one-tenth of a meter, cqual to 1.05673 qt. Liquid Measure, and .9081 qt. Dry Measure,
10 Milliliters, ml.
= 1 Centiliter. 10 Centiliters, cl.
1 Deciliter. 10 Deciliters, dl.
1 LITER. 10 LITERS L.
= 1 Dekaliter. 10 Dekaliters, DI.
1 Hectoliter. 10 Hectoliters, H.
= 1 Kiloliter, or Stere. 10 Kiloliters, K.
1 Myrialiter (M.). The Hectoliter is the unit in measuring liquids, grain, fruit, and roots in large quantities.
809. EQUIVALENTS IN UNITED STATES MEASURES. Metric Denominations. Cubic Measure. Dry Measure.
Wine Measure. 1 Myrialiter = 10 Cubic Meters = 283.72 + bu. = 2641.4 + gal. 1 Kiloliter 1 Cubic Meter = 28.372 + bu. = 264.17 gal. 1 Hectoliter = 1 Cubic Meter = 2.8372 + bu. = 26.417 gal. 1 Dekaliter = 10 Cu. Decimeters = 9.08 quarts = 2.6417 gal. 1 LITER
1 Cu. Decimeter .908 quart = 1.0567 qt. 1 Deciliter it Cu, Decimeter = 6.1022 cu. in. .845 gill. 1 Centileter = 10 Cu. Centimeters = .6102 cu. in. .338 fluid oz. 1 Milliliter 1 Cu. Centimeter = .061 cu, in. = .27 fluid dr.