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Lee succeeding him as Chief Justice. All seals, at an age when others are scarce made sothe particulars connected with the accep- families of Britain, obtains a patent for a mar

then marries his son into one of the first tance of the Great Seal, as well of some important events immediately subsequent, the Duke of Kent's death; the Duke dies in a

quisate, and eight thousand pounds a-year after relating to the differences between the king fortnight, and leaves them all! People talk of and prince, are minutely detailed in Lord fortune's wheel, that is always rolling : troth, my Hardwicke's journal, but the narrative is Lord Harılwicke has overtaken her wheel, and too long for quotation here.

rolled along with it.”—p. 473. On the 9th of March, 1738, an important debate on the reduction of the army

Lord Hardwicke's noble defence of Sir took place in the House of Lords, towards Robert Walpole, in the debate on the mothe close of which Lord Hardwicke ad- tion for an address to the King, to remove dressed the house in opposition to the pro- Sir Robert from the ministry, is described posed measure of reduction. His speech, as being “one of the finest specimens, in as reported in “ Hansard's Parliamentary point of style, matter, and reasoning, that History,” is well deserving attention at the we have of Lord Hardwicke's oratorical present time.

efforts.' Select extracts only are given, The death of the Chancellor's old friend but the whole speech is preserved in Hanand relative, Sir Joseph Jekyll, Master of sard. The motion was lost by a majority the Rolls, afforded him another opportunity of 49: andof showing that he did not deserve the imputation of neglecting his former colleagues,

“At the termination of the debate, a resolution for the vacant office was conferred upon Sir ürast of which is in the handwriting of Lord

was moved by the Duke of Marlborough, the John Strange, his former colleague in the Chancellor Hardwicke, “that an attempt to inflict office of Mr. Salkeld, to whom indeed the any kind of punishment on any person, without Solicitor-Generalship had been previousiy allowing him an opportunity to make his defence, given.

or without any proof of any crime or misdemea. Some letters of the Duke of Newcastle nor committed by him., is contrary to natural justo the Chancellor show that nobleman to tice, the fundamental laws of this realm, and the have been of a most jealous and irritable ancient established usages of Parliament, and is a disposition: his brother, Mr. Pelham, Afier a debate of some length, this motion was

high infringement on the liberties of the subject.' seems to have had considerable difficulty in carried by 81 10 54, and a protest against it entered soothing him, and in suspending his fre- by the dissentient peers."--p. 505. quent disagreements with Sir Robert Walpole and other members of the administra- The following brief analysis of the tion. So much respect does the duke ap- House of Commons elected in 1741, is cupear to have entertained for Lord Hard- rious :wicke, notwithstanding the complaints of neglect that would occasionally break from “Among the Chancellor's papers is a · Compuhim, that he employed his lordship to cor- tation of the House of Commons in 1741, made rect any intemperate expressions which before their meeting,' which contains a calculamight escape from his pen in his official total number of members returned by the English

tion as to the sen:iments of each member. The correspondence.

counties and boroughs at this time was 473. Of About the year 1740, Lord Hardwicke these 242 were sei down as for the court' and purchased the Wimpole estate in Cam- 231 as against the court.?. Yorkshire appears to bridgeshire from the Earl of Oxford; and have been then the stronghold of Whiggism, as in May of that year, his eldest son, Mr. out of the 30 county and borough meinbers rePhilip Yorke, was married to the only turned by it, 23 were for the court, and only 7 daughter of the Earl of Breadalbane. against it. And it is singular that Cambridgeshire,

in which the Chancellor's principal estates lay, Horace Walpole, who had no especial love was the only county in which all the members refor the Chancellor, thus writes to his cor- turned, being 6, were favorable to the Whig in. respondent, Mr. Conway, in reference to terest

. Hampshire returned 22 for and 4 against this among other instances of the Chancel- the court. Lancashire, 14 for and 4 against it. lor's “luck.”

On the other hand, Bedfordshire, Cheshire, and

Leicestershire, each returned 4 county and bor“ Harry, what luck the Chancellor has ! First, ough members, all against the court. In Oxfordindeed, to be in himself so great a man; but then shire the whole 9 were on the Tory side. in accidents: he is made Chief Justice and Peer, “ The Cinque Ports returned 16 members, of when Talbot is made Chancellor and Peer: Talwhich 11 were for the court and 5 against it. bot dies in a twelvemonth, and leaves him the Wales returned 24 members, of which 14 were

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-P. 508.

-p. 535.

for the court, and 10 against it. Scotland returned , waited on His Majesty, who received bim graci45, 17 of them being Whigs and 24 Tories. The ously, and ordered his guards to be restored. The whole Parliament was estimated at

reconciliation between the King and the Prince of " For the court

284

Wales, together with the change in the ministry, Against the court

270

were celebrated with public rejoicings all over the “ Besides which there were four double returns.” kingdom ; and immediately after the adjournment,

peace and concord appeared, for a time at least, to

reign supreme, even in that most in harmonious of In this Parliament, among the new mem

all terrestrial assemblies the House of Commons." bers, occurs the name of Mr. Philip Yorke, eldest son of the Chancellor, who was returned for Reigate, in Surrey ; a connex

This calm was, however, but the precurion kept up to the passing of the Re- sor of a storm; and as it was necessary to form Bill, when Reigate was deprived of single out some victim to be sacrificed to one of its members. The last member of popular discontent, in order that men's the Yorke family who sat for Reigate is the minds might thereby be diverted from the present Earl of Hardwicke, son of the contemplation of the various political late Vice-Admiral Sir Joseph Sydney changes and party defections which had reYorke.

cently taken place, no one was deemed so In the course of this year, among other proper for this purpose as the fallen minisletters on the same subject, Lord Hard- ter; accordingly, on the 23d of March, wicke received one from his friend, Dr. Lord Limerick moved for an inquiry into Herring, Bishop of Bangor, describing the the conduct of Robert, Earl of Orford, for condition of his diocese, 16 which was at the last ten years of his administration ; that time suffering from a double calamity and this inquiry was granted after a warm --the sickness and dearth then prevalent debate. A secret committee was chosen by throughout the kingdom, and the late con- ballot, and began to examine witnesses, when tested elections ;' the other from Lord Mr. Paxton, Solicitor to the Treasury, reChancellor Jocelyn, from Ireland; mention- fusing to answer certain questions, was coming the distressed state of that country mitted to Newgate. A bill was prepared, at this period, owing to the entire failure on the motion of Lord Limerick, for inof the potato crop which had occurred, and demnifying evidence against Orford, and which was followed by famine and disease made rapid progress through the Commons, to a frightful extent, the account of which meeting with slight opposition from the bears a close resemblance to that of the Earl's friends in the Lower House, from same calamities with which the same unfor- their belief that it would be rejected by the tunate country has been lately visited." Peers, as it was, by a majority of 52. In The meeting

the new Parliament on the debate on the second reading in the the 1st of December, 1741, was signalized by Lords, Lord Hardwicke spoke at considermany stormy debates.

Numerous disput- able length, and concluded with the emed elections, by the results of the discus-phatic declaration,-“ Though I do not sions upon them, clearly indicated the de- imagine myself endowed with any peculiar clining power and popularity of the minis degree of heroism, I believe that, if I were try. On the 3d of February, 1742, the condemned to a choice so disagreeable, I King adjourned Parliament to the 18th, should more willingly suffer by such a bill and in the interim Sir Robert Walpole re- passed in my own case, than consent to signed all his employments, and was creat- pass it in that of another.”—Vol. ii. p. 9. ed Earl of Orford. Notwithstanding the

Extracts from numerous letters written various changes consequent upon this re- by Lord Hardwicke to his third son, Josignation, the Duke of Newcastle retained seph Yorke, who had entered the army, the post of Secretary of State for the and was then in Flanders, place his lordSouthern Department, and Lord Hardwicke ship in the most amiable light as a kind remained Chancellor, by the particular de- and affectionate father. They abound in sire of Mr. Pulteney. The following ex- the soundest advice as to choice of associtract intimates the termination of the dis- ates, subjects of study, care of his health, sensions which had long prevailed in the and general behavior, and are models of Royal Family.

this species of epistolary correspondence.

In a letter from Mr. Charles Yorke to his * On the 17th of February the Prince of Wales, brother Joseph, the former tells him that attended by a numerous retinue of his adherents, i among Lord Somers's papers which had

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been in the possession of Sir Joseph Jekyll, of unanimity among the discordant memhe found a letter from the Duke of Shrews-bers of the cabinet ; but the dissensions bury to Lord Somers, in which the Duke soon after broke out more fiercely than ever, says that he wonders how any man who had and led to the presentation of a remonbread in England will be concerned in bu- strance to the king against the foreign posiness of state ; and declares, “ Had I a licy of Lord Granville, whose dismissal son, I would sooner breed him a cobler was demanded ; and after much angry recrithan a courtier, and a hangman than a mination, and some threats from His Mastatesman."

jesty, was granted: the seals of Secretary In the month of June, 1742, the Duke of State being transferred to Lord Harof Somerset solicited the place of Chief rington. Baron of the Exchequer for Sir Thomas At the commencement of the year 1745, Bootle; but Lord Hardwicke, in reply, states the lords justices who, during the absence of that he could not forward Sir Thomas's in- the king in Hanover, conducted the governterest, as he had already applied in behalf ment, were placed in a peculiarly perplexof his friend, Mr. Justice Parker, who, he ing position, from the threatening aspect of says, " is a near relation to my late Lord affairs, both foreign and domestic, and the Macclesfield, to whom I had the greatest dissensions by which the cabinet was dividobligations in the beginning of my life;" ed. There was, too, a perfect absence of and further states that gratitude, as well as cordial feeling between the king and his regard to the public, induced him to take ministers, which paralyzed their efforts, and this step : another proof that he was not prevented their taking such measures as the in the habit of neglecting former friends. exigences of the times demanded. For at

An extract from a letter from the Bishop this period the nation was upon the eve of of Salisbury, thanking Lord Hardwicke for one of the most exciting events in the conferring some piece of ecclesiastical pre- whole course of British history. The alarm ferment upon a worthy man, exhibits a of invasion, which had so often in anticipapicture of the very low condition of the tion raised the fears of some and the hopes church at that time.

of others, was now about to be realized,

and that too at a moment when the govern“ Your lordship’s observation on the present ment was least prepared to meet it. From state of the clergy is very just ; but it is a melan. this portion of the biography of Lord choly truth; and what is still worse, there is but Hardwicke, who was one of the most enerlittle hope of finding a remedy for this evil. Dis. cipline is in a manner lost; and the episcopal au.

getic and clear-sighted members of the cathority with respect to the behavior and conduct binet at this critical juncture, may be of the clergy become so feeble, that many are of drawn a very complete history of the Reopinion, that there is no other way to cover the bellion of 1745; and the preliminary obweakness of it, but not to make use of it.”—p. 27. servations of Mr. Harris upon the inciting

causes of this revolutionary movement apIn November, 1742, Lord Hardwicke pear so just, that we are induced to quote selected the Hon. Wm. Murray to be So- them at length. licitor-General; and the subsequent career

“ The tracing out the canses and origin of seof this distinguished advocate as Lord ditious combinations, gradually ripening into Mansfield, fully justified the choice. rebellion, in a state, is at once a very interesting

Numerous letters from Bolingbroke to and instructive study. In the present instance, as Lord Hardwicke, whose exertions in that in most of these cases, strong dissatisfaction with nobleman's behalf were mainly instrumen- the reigning government was undoubtedly the tal in procuring his recal, are given in the leading cause of this commotion. The person of second volume. They convey a highly fa- habits were at variance with those of this country.

the sovereign was unpopular in the nation. His vorable idea of the friend of Pope, and His partialities appeared all to lie with Hanover. treat on many different subjects, the most His whole recreation was spent there. Troops important, perhaps, being those relating to from thence were brought over here, to the great affairs in France, which, from the alarm of disgust of his English subjects, and every favor invasion felt at this time, were calculated was shown to the former. The interests of the to arrest the attention of the ministry, and nation, it was generally believed, were on all octo put them in possession of many facts ca- those of his German dominions,-a notion not

casions made subservient by the sovereign, to pable of being turned to good account.

altogether without foundation, as certain docuThe alarm of invasion in the year 1744, ments already quoted will serve to show. And served to bring about a temporary degree heavy taxes were imposed on the people of Eng. land, which they mainly attributed to the Hano-, cabinet we have already mentioned; and it verian succession.

was even pretty extensively believed at the “ The rebellion which broke out on the present time that more than one influential memoccasion, afforded, however, a singular instance of ber of the government was favorably disa rupture of this nature occurring in a nation when the people were fully satisfied with the posed towards the rebel party. The king form of government under which they lived, and was in Germany, and the army on the conexhibited no desire to effect a change, as regarded tinent; while both France and Spain bad this, in any branch of the constitution. Indeed, promised both money and men to aid the so far were they from wishing an alteration here, effort : and apathy at least was extensively that one of the promises made by the invading felt among the people at large. Accordprince, for the purpose of inducing people to flock ingly, Privce Charles Edward, with at most to his standard, was, that no revolution in the existing system of government should take place, in

about seventy followers, landed on the west case of his success. The only change thought of coast of Scotlaud, some time in July, 1745, was in the person of the sovereign who filled the and at once raised his standard, apparently throne ; and as the people in general knew but trusting more to the representations of the little of the individual qualities of either of the favorable disposition towards his cause of rival princes, hence the apathy on the subject of the people among whom he had thus conthe rebellior which prevailed among the populace, fidingly ventured, than to any promises of

• In Scotland, indeed, the union with England assistance from continental powers. The was regarded by many as a heavy grievance, and as destroying the independence and nationality of correspondence relative to the proceedings that country, and which the exiled monarch there of the rebels in the north is exceedingly infore promised to abolish, in case of his obtaining teresting; and none more so than the letthe ihrone of his ancestors. The body of the ters between Dr. Herring, Archbishop of Highlanders had, moreover, some time before, re. York, and Lord Hardwicke, to which we ceived a grievous affront from the government, shall often refer, as they convey a very acand were ripe for insurrection, and eager for an opportunity of revenging themselves on those curate picture of the state of the public who had insulted them; of which the following

mind. account is given by the Hardwicke MSS.

At the present day, with our facilities for “ At the commencement of the war, a regiment transit and communication, it is curious to of these people had been formed and transported read of the state of uncertainty prevailwith the rest of the British troops to Flanders. ing in London as to the progress and Before they were embarked a number of them

de strength of the rebel army. In one letter serted with their arms, urging, which was really to the Archbishop, Lord 'Ilardwicke unrethe case, that they had been decoyed into the service by promises and assnrances that they should servedly declares bis sentiments as to the never be sent abroad. They were overtaken by a critical state of affairs immediately after body of horse, persuaded to submit brought back the landing of Charles Edward. He to London, pinioned like malefactors, and tried says :for desertion. Three were shot to death in ter. rorem, and the rest were sent into exile to the That the Pretender's son is actually in the plantations. Those who suffered were persons of north-west Highlands of Scotland, & that he is some consequence in their own country; and joined by some of the clans of Macdonald & the their fate was deeply resented by the clans 10 Camerons, mostly Papists, I take to be very cerwhich they belonged.

tain. Infidelity has much prevailed here concern“ As regarded the individual whose pretensions ing this fact, tho' I think it is something altered ; were set up against those of the reigning monarch, but I cannot help agreeing with your elder brother his English birth, and the hardship of his fate in of Cant., that, in this case, want of faith proceeds having endured so much for the misconduct of his greatly from want of zeal, which, in political faith, father, excited in his favor a feeling among

is the worst source. There seems to be a certain many; while all who disapproved of the strong indifference and deadness amongst many, & the measures which had been adopted for his exclu- spirit of the nation wants to be roused and anision, and the great proportion of those who were maled to a right tone. Any degree of danger at of the Roman Catholic religion, were at once in-home onght now to be vastly the more attended to duced to espouse his cause. He had assurances from the state of things abroad. That I lament of support from many of rank and importance from my heart. I think I see the evil cause to both in England and in Scotland, several of whom, which it is to be ascribed, & yet I know not however, never declared in his favor, only be whether to wish that, by the public, it should be cause they considered that the time was not ripe attributed to that cause. Wbere to find a remedy for doing so.”—p. 144.

I know not. I see only the probability of one, & am not sure that will be taken.

• Sir John Cope, with about 2000 men of the In many respects, however, a more fa- King's troops, is

, I believe, now in the Highlands vorable time for the attempt could scarce- & I trust bis force is sufficient, (hy po blessing of ly have been chosen. The divisions in thel God), 10 crush this infant rebellion, provided it be properly exerled before the assistance, which the behavior of the Scotch nobility on this occasion ? rebels undoubtedly expect from abroad, can com Strong marks of treachery, my lord, when they fled to them.”—p. 154.

their country, wch they might have saved by only Lord Hardwicke mentions, at the end of & lending Cope their advice and countenance.

standing up in Edinburgh, in their own defence, his letter, the return of the King from La Loudon is an exception 10 this, who has beHanover, in perfect health and good hu-haved like a brave and honest man.”—p. 166. mor, valuing “bimself upon the haste he has made to us, when there was any appre- This signal reverse in the very first enhension of danger affecting this country.” counter of the royal troops with the hitherto His Majesty's courage seems, however, at despised enemy, seems to have had the effect a later period to have “oozed out at his of arousing the spirit of the friendly porfingers' ends,” like that of Bob Acres, for he tion of the nation. At York, the arch“is said to have embarked many of his most bishop presided at a meeting of the nobility valuable effects on board vessels, which lay and gentry, a large subscription was raised, in the Thames, ready to set sail at a mo- and numbers came forward as volunteers in ment's notice.

the service of the king. The archbishop Lady Hardwicke seems to have had no himself, in a subsequent letter, and when great faith in Sir John Cope; for in one of the danger seems to have become more imher letters to Mr. Philip Yorke, she says, “I minent, says, – fear Sir J. Cope's not equal to the business;" and subsequently, in writing to Col. "I find I must get into regimentals in my own Yorke, she tells him, “Sir John Cope was defence, in a double sense ; for an engraver has very near the rebels when the last letters already given me a Saracen's head, surrounded came from thence. I wish

with a chevalier in chains, & all ye instruments of old master

your there, for he knows the men and the coun- see another copper-plate is proinised, where I am

war, and ye hydra of Rebellion at my feet, and I try, having lived 11 or 12 years among to be exhibited in ye same martial attitude, wth all them, and they know his firniness and zeal the clergy wth we. By my troth, as I judge fro' for the present Royal family.” Whatever applications made to me every day, I believe I presentiments her Ladyship may have felt, cod raise a regiment of my own order; and I had they were fully verified by the disastrous a ser ous offer ye other day fro' a Welsh curate, affair at Preston-Pans, where, as is well fro’ the bottom of Merionethshire, who is six foot

& } high, that, hearing I had put on scarlet, he known, Cope," at the head of 2,200 men, was ready to attend me at an hour's warning, if well equipped,” was totally defeated, and ye Bp of Bangor did not call upon him for the where, if the brave Gardiner's efforts had same service."--p. 180. been seconded, the result might have been very different. In reference to this latter, Much interesting information is given in the Archbishop thus writes to Lord Hard- the correspondence connected with the wicke :

rapid progress of the rebel army to Derby, “ I conceal it, but I own I conceive terrible ap. sult felt throughout the country; but their

and the general apprehensions for the reprehensions fro’ this affair at Preston-Pans, where the conduct of our general, &c, was- I won't

career was now drawing to a close. The give it the right name, but that of the rebels excel. Duke of Cumberland with the army was lent, & from what I can collect, and ye judgment summoned home from the Continent, and wch I form upon ye opinion of ye soldiers here, took the command of the forces to repel the they are admirably disciplined, & our men have invaders. Col. Yorke accompanied him felt it, well armed. Their resolution and conduct into the north as his aid-de-camp, and to in taking the little battery was admirable, and as him we are indebted for several letters, rethey are vigorous & savage, their leaders well know how to point their strength properly and el. lating the movements of the insurgents. fectually. There is something too in their ariful Other letters from his father and brother taciturnity that alarms one. They say it is fact, describe the terror prevailing in London, and that from their setting out to this bonr, it is not the fear lest the rebels should give the slip easy to say who leads them, nor are they seen, in to the royal troops. Other alarms, arising a manner, till they are felt, so silent & well con. from the reported embarkation of a French certed are their motions. I hope in God all this is army at Dunkirk are also described; and known above much better than it is here, & thal Col. Yorke's expressions of regret, in the it is now seen that this rebellion is not to be following letter, refer to orders for a porbe attended to totis viribus. Who can say what tion of the Duke's forces to return southwod be the consequence of such an advantage wards for the protection of the capital. gained in England ? What shall we think of the The letter is dated “Preston, Dec. 15th.”

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