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From Bentley's Miscellany.

FRENCH LITERATURE AND LITERARY MEN SINCE THE

FEBRUARY REVOLUTION.

THE part which the press has played in the | by enterprising individuals, desirous of revolution of the 24th of February is too commencing forthwith the publication of curious to be overlooked. The share which new journals, for there were no longer it had in bringing it about is sufficiently stamps to be bought, or securities to be well known; but it might have been thought given, every one was free to play at editthat when not words but deeds were ing a paper as soon as he liked; and this required, pen and ink would have to may explain the prodigious quantity of give way to other weapons. But no. In journals which have since made their appearthe very heat of the conflict, while as ance at the price of one half-penny, but yet none could tell what would be its which, nevertheless, like worthy King Steissue--a band of combatants seized upon a phen with his breeches, we cannot but proprinting press, a compositor of course was nounce "all too dear." We cannot think easily found among the insurgents, he placed of giving even their names, as they amount to himself at "at case," and forthwith compos- nearly a hundred. Some of them have lived ed, while others pulled off a placard of only through two or three numbers, some have "Vive la République," to be stuck upon enjoyed an ephemeral existence of a single the barricades. day, and others have perished in the embryo prospectus state. One is stated to have been rejected even by the newsvenders, and to have

As the émente went on there was a demand for brief striking addresses; and when the popular cause had gained the vic-been sold in the café by its editor! One, tory, the majority of the people as yet the "Petit Homme Rouge," announces knew nothing of the new government, the that it will appear sometimes; another, the prize which their hard fighting had won. "Haute Verité," states, with exemplary Proclamations therefore were wanted, and frankness, that it will come out as often as these written on the press itself, were in- the subscribers furnish the means. Verily stantly composed and printed at railway great must be the faith of the simple mindspeed. During the revolution of '89, ad proprietors in the attractions of "La man, said to be a lawyer, was seen every day running about Paris, buying up all the placards, proclamations, journals, pamphlets, engravings, caricatures, in short all the multitudinous utterances of the voice of the people, that could be obtained. Should any one have been similarly occupied during the days of February, he may have ob tained perhaps a still more curious collection; for many varying gusts of popular feeling, which then passed away in mere noisy breath, were this time fixed and frozen to permanence" in printer's ink; and many rapidly changing aspects of events, which then swept for a moment across the surface of the agitated waters, are now daguerreotyped and preserved for the future historian of the epoch.

The productions of the first day of the revolution, while the press worked amid the din of battle, present, of course, curious specimens of typography; there could be no attempt at correction but the sheets were tumbled into the world with all their imperfections on their heads. On the second day the presses were already invaded

Haute Verité," if they think they can venture on such a statement-may they in no wise lose their reward. The writers of these papers have been divided into serious journalists, that is to say, those who have for a long time followed the newspaper press as a profession, old politicians who had retired from the world, but in whom the revolution has rekindled some of their wonted fire, a host of young authors, mostly of romances, who now cry "It's all over with novel writing! Vire la politique!" and others who have never yet written a word, but who believe that the revolution bas gifted them with a sort of plenary inspiration. Much of real talent is nevertheless also pouring itself out in this impetuous torrent, now sweeping on at a rate that makes a close examination of its contents impossible. Of what we can properly call books, scarcely any have made their appearance for months, but pamphlets have come thick as autumnal leaves. There is one, however, which has claims to attention, the "Solution du Probleme Social," by M. Proudhon. It is said to exhibit very

"I stopped," says M. Mery, "to meditate upon it. The workman smiled, stopped his work, and leaning upon his spade in the way stage-gardeners and laborers are accustomed to do, said,

great talents; to be written with earnest- French sense), that is, looking on. Here ness of purpose, and an iron severity of at least labor seemed to be very satisfactologic. Here and there too, like a "sun-rily organized. One man, however, clad beam that has lost its way," in these stor- in a blouse of coarse ticking, was actually my times, we meet a quaint piece of literary at work, and with an energy worthy of a dandyism, wearing the fashion of twenty better object, was levelling and scraping the years ago, such as the "Souvenir of a visit ground at the side of a ditch that might to M. de Chateaubriand, during which he just as well have remained in statu quo. permitted me to read to him my tragedy But perhaps there is some mystery in this of Valteda, of which the subject is drawn matter which common minds cannot penefrom the Martyrs" in verse. Just imagine, trate. reader, in the midst of this whirlwind, a long account of a visit in verse! Of the pamphlets an immense number have been of course compositions on the theme of Louis-Philippe, with variations. We have "Maria Stella, or the criminal exchange of a young Lady of the highest rank for a Boy of low degree." We find also one entitled, "Mysterious and Apocryphal birth of Louis-Philippe," "The Amours of Louis-Philippe," "The Correspondence of Louis-Philippe and Abd-el-Kader," a comic squib that you hear recited on the bridges and in the streets; the "Crimes of Louis-Philippe," "The Truth concerning Louis-Philippe, his treacheries, his baseness, &c., from his birth to his flight."

In the pamphlets as well as in the songs and caricatures, M. Guizot follows his royal master as closely as the confidante "mad in white linen" her mistress Tilburina. Few established names appear among those of the authors of the pamphlets, which with the periodicals constitute almost the sole literature of France at the present moment, and the "Lettres au Peuple" of Madame Sand, do not appear to have created any sensation. One literary man, who has lately made his appearance, is certainly too remarkable to be passed over. This is a poetical newsvender, who does not know how either to read or write, but stands by the printing press, and dictates his effusion to a compositor, who has at least a tincture of "humane letters." A very amusing illustration of the condition of literature and literary men is afforded by M. Mery in his" Paris Republicain." One morning, he says, chance led him towards that part of the Boulevarde which runs along the Parc de Monceaux. The fine trees threw a pleasant shade over a crowd of the national workmen (lucus a non lucendo) who are, or are supposed to be employed there. The soft green sward formed a delightful couch for a slumbering inspector, a party of the travailleurs was busily engaged at a game of quoits, and others assisting (in the

"You are trying to find out what I am doing? If you are not more busy than I am, citizen, we may as well have a gossip for an hour or two."

"With all my heart," was the reply; " "I am a workman as well as youself; a workman in prose, and I and my brethren are waiting to see whether some economist will not have the goodness to organize our labor."

The national workman put away his spade forthwith, seated himself on the turf, his visitor offered him a cigar, and the conversation began. Each party, before fairly launching into it, naturally wished, in these revolutionary times, to know something of his companion's political tendencies, whether he considered himself a Legitimist, an Orleanist, a Fourrieriste, a Humanitary, a Saint Simonian, a Barbesian, a Socialist. a Federative, a Communist, a Jesuit, a Gallican, an Absolutist, or a Republican, and if a Republican, whether of '89, '92, '93, on the 9th of Thermidor; a tolerable variety of opinion to choose amongst.

"You wish to know my political opinions," said M. Mery. "Well then, I am a partisan of the existing government."

"And what is the existing government?" asked the workman.

At this question M. Mery perceived that he had to do with a man who was not to be put off with a mere sounding phrase, and was preparing to explain, when the workman answered himself.

"The world," said he, " has been governed in many different ways. Before man existed, by the Ichthyosauri and other extinct dynasties, the duration of whose reign is somewhat uncertain; then by the nomadic royalty of shepherd kings, by the settled royalty of the first city, by the float

ing royalty of Noah, by priests in Chaldea, by women in Assyria, by prophets in Judea, by warriors in Persia. Rome has counted among her sovereigns one shepherd, one demi-god, seven kings, decemviri, tribunes, consuls, dictators, triumviri, emperors, prætorian guards, and sovereign pontiffs. The ablest people the world has yet seen, began its search for the best kind of government thirteen centuries before Christ, and perished shamefully under the name of the Lower Empire in 1448. In - France, which is the land of imitation, we have made trial of all ancient governments, as if they had been good ones; the Romans gave but two hundred and eighty-six years to their royalty experiment; we gave it fourteen centuries, and after that we had a republic, a directory, a triumvirate, a consulate, an empire, and a few constitutional monarchies. These, it is true, have all been failures, but we never lacked excellent reasons to prove, after every overturn, that France had now adopted the best possible form."

By this time M. Mery began to look with great curiosity at his learned workman, and to consider whether he might not be the great organizer of labor himself, working in disguise, like the Czar Peter, in the dockyard of Saardam. But he now proceeded to show that, after so mamy vain attempts, France had come to the conclusion that the best government is none at all; that for the last three months France had been governed by the absence of a government, by a nonentity. Any government that had existed would have been overturned on the 17th of March and the 15th of May, but it was impossible to overturn what was not. The prætorian guards of order, namely, two hundred thousand Parisians, with common sense and muskets in sufficient quantities, are ready to be called together at any moment by beating a drum, and at last the disturbers themselves will grow tired of the everlasting rappel. Either France has no government, or that government is no other than the national guard of Paris; and it has its abode not at the Hôtel de Ville, but in a palace of fifteen leagues in circumference.

us with amusement every evening, and rousing us from our sleep every night, who will devote himself to the study of the past? Motives of economy, too, have induced parents to withdraw their children, so that the career of wandering professors like myself has been entirely broken up. Here among the national workmen are thirty men of letters like myself, and here we gain our daily bread without expending much of the sweat of the brow.' The only thing that afflicts me is to see so many millions expended on such useless and barren works, and here is another proof that we have no government. At Rome, twelve thousand Hebrews built the Coliseum in two years. In the middle of the third century Volusian, the son of the Emperor Gallienus, passing by Arles, found soldiers and laborers wanting employment, and he made them build the amphitheatre. An architect of Agrippa, travelling in Gaul, rewarded the good conduct of some soldiers and colonists by ordering them to build the bridge of Gard, and the amphitheatre of Nismes. We are paid four times as much as the workmen of Gallus and Agrippa, and this," said the workman, looking round him, "is what we are doing."

"But why," said M. Mery, "do you not write, and get some one to publish a good work on history?

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At this question the workman burst into a shout of laughter that, for the moment, put to silence the cavatinas of the nightingales in the surrounding trees. "Citizen,” he replied, "ask me at this moment to find you a griffin, a sphinx, a hippogriff, a minotaur, a winged dragon, and I will not despair of being able to comply with your demand. But a being so wildly fabulous as a pulbisher, who would in this present month of June, 1848, undertake to publish in Paris an historical work! So preposterously fantastic a creature as that, I cannot undertake to look for."

ed that the New House of Commons will positively be ready for the occupation of members in the next session. The last portion of the old House, called the Speaker's house, the adjoining committee-rooms, just been removed. The entrance hall to the New and those forming the centre of the cloisters, have House and the western window to Westminster Hall have attained their elevation, and are rapidly approaching to completion. Orders, it is sad, have temporary erections at the east entrance to West

THE NEW HOUSE OF COMMONS.-It is now stat

And who after all was this wonderful workman? No other than a private Professor of History, who before the 24th of February, had a circle of pupils, and was able to get a living. "But now, when the living history of the present is every day passing under our windows, furnishingminster Hall. ̧

been issued for the removal forthwith of all the

From the Dublin University Magazine.
CHINA AND THE CHINESE.

CHAPTER I.

DESCRIPTION OF MACAO, ITS CHURCHES AND

perous and extensive trade with the Empire, which has now dwindled down to little or nothing. Although Macao is governed

PUBLIC BUILDINGS—VISIT TO CAMOENS' nominally by a Portuguese governor, bishop,

CAVE, AND ENGLISH BURIAL GROUND.

THE view of Macao from the sea is exqui-
sitely fine.
The semicircular appearance
of the shore, which is unencumbered and
unbroken by wharfs or piers, and upon
which the surge is continually breaking,
and receding in waves of foam, whereon
the sun glitters in thousands of sparkling
beams, presents a scene of incomparable
beauty. The Parade, which is faced with
an embankment of stone, fronts the sea,
and is about half-a-mile in length. A row
of houses of a large description extends
along its length, and has a perfectly Portu-
guese appearance. Some are colored pink,
some pale yellow, and others white. These
houses, with their large windows, extend-
ing to the ground, without verandahs, and
with curtains, arranged in continental style,
convey an idea to the visitor that he has
entered a European rather than an Asiatic
sea-port. This idea becomes still stronger,
by the constant ringing of the church bells,
and passing and repassing of Romish priests,

clad in cassocks and three-cornered hats.

and judge, assisted by a senate, yet the in-
terference of the Chinese, and the power
which Chinese authorities exercise over the
Portuguese inhabitants, to enforce compli-
ance with their wishes, would be intolerable
to British colonists. If a Chinaman feels
aggrieved, he immediately lays his com-
plaint before the mandarin, who never scru-
ples to inflict punishment upon a Portu-
guese subject, or make some insolent de-
mand. If any resistance is made to his
will, or his authority is disputed, he in-
stantly cuts off all supplies from the main-
land, upon which the inhabitants are nearly
dependant for support, and issues an order
directing all Chinese subjects, who are do-
mestics, to leave their "barbarian masters."
Prompt compliance to this edict occasions
the most serious inconvenience to the Portu-
guese and other European inhabitants; nor
are these arbitrary measures abandoned,
until the mandarin's commands are obeyed.
The Portuguese garrison consists of only
three or four hundred soldiers, who are quite
inadequate for the service, and too inactive
or feeble to resist the Chinese troops.
local government, it must be presumed, origi-
nally submitted to these tyrannical proceed-
ings, and to this interference, on the part
of the Chinese authorities, in the hope that
this pusillanimous conduct on their part
would secure to them an exclusive trade
with, and a settlement in China. They
thus at once betrayed weakness, and showed
ignorance of the real character of the Chi-
nese, who tyrannize, the more their exac-
tions are submitted to, and become sup-
pliants and submissive, when met with a
firm and unflinching resistance. The local

The

But this illusion is speedily dispelled, when the eye, turning towards the sea, beholds the numerous sanpans and matsail boats which fill the harbor; or, glancing shoreward, rests upon figures clad in Chinese costume. The town is built upon two hills, meeting at right angles. At the rear is an inner harbor, where there is very secure anchorage; but this is said to be fast filling up with sand. Vessels of large tonnage are, therefore, obliged to anchor in the roadstead, at a considerable distance from the shore. The houses of the Portuguese and Chinese inhabitants, together with the places of public worship, are curiously in-government is now compelled to yield, betermingled in the town, and form a most heterogeneous mass. It is now between two and three centuries since Macao was given up to the Portuguese, for services performed by them, when they joined their forces with those of the Chinese, against some daring pirates, who then, as now, infested the neighboring islands. The Portuguese for some time carried on a most pros*The following chapters were written in 1846.

ing alike destitute of energy, a military force, and funds. The Portuguese population is about 7,000, and the Chinese far exceeds that number. The Roman Catholie churches in Macao are numerous and splendid; the finest edifice among them was the Jesuits' Church, which was burned down a few years since. Some estimate

may

be formed of what it must have been, from the front, which remains entire and uninjured. This is richly carved and orna

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stature, and broad, with amazingly large hands and splay feet. They have coarse, curly, and woolly, black hair, dingy black skin, with large, goggle, black eyes," and eye-lids red with ophthalmia, no eye-lashes, bushy eye-brows, low, scowling brows, flat noses, half the width of their faces, wide mouths, and enormously thick lips. Hideous as the men are, I fear I must be ungallant enough to say, the women are ten times worse; or, as a French gentleman said to me, "Vraiment elles sont laides à faire peur.' The fair sex, by courtesy, amongst this lower class, dress themselves in exccedingly gaudy-colored cotton dresses. Over their heads and shoulders they throw a Spanish mantilla or scarf, made of highlyglazed cotton, and of colors equally showy with their gowns. The patterns and glazing of these mantillas remind one forcibly of English bed-curtains. They cross and re-cross their mantillas over their black busts, which are unprovided with corsets, roll about their goggle eyes, and, in short, perform all the airs and graces of a Spanish beauty in a most ludicrously caricature manner. The men of this class dress in European fashion. There are some Portuguese

mented. Statues of various saints, as large as life, occupy the numerous niches. Situated at the summit of a broad and noble flight of steps, it presents the aspect only of departed grandeur-would that we could add also, of departed superstition. Besides those churches, there are three monasteries and a convent, together with a college, a grammar and other schools, a female orphan, and several other charitable institutions. The town is defended by several well-constructed forts. The senatehouse is a remarkable fine building, whose roof is supported by columns, on some of which is inscribed in the Chinese and Portuguese language, the emperor's grant of Macao to the Portuguese crown. The customhouse, which faces the inner harbor, is a very extensive building; but little business appeared to be carried on while I was there --now, I suppose, it is next to useless, since Macao has wisely been made a free port. This measure will, no doubt, benefit the town, by an increase of trade; and the wealthy inhabitants will be considerably augmented, by an influx of our own merchants and their establishments, driven by injudicious enactments from Hong-Kong. The annoyances experienced at this custom-families of high respectability residing in house were very great, as the officers insisted upon opening every article, and duty was charged upon the most trivial, such as a quarter of a pound of tea-the surplus of our sea-store. Frequent complaints were also made of various things which were constantly extracted from luggage or goods. It was found to be but lost labor to seek for any redress.

Although the houses are capacious, the streets, generally speaking, wide, and the public buildings of no despicable character, yet on all sides, and at every winding, the symptoms of decay and departing prosperity were too apparent. There was a noble mansion unrepaired-here another fallen into ruin-grass grew unchecked in the pavements of the most frequented streets, and even on the steps of the churches.

Macao; and the upper classes observe, as in Portugal, the European style of dress; the personal appearance of many of them is as distinguished for beauty as in Europe.

The most interesting object to be seen in Macao is the Cave of Camoens, the author of the "Lusiad." This cave is situated within the pleasure-ground attached to the residence of a Portuguese gentleman, who was most courteous and polite in conducting me through the walks of his beautifullyarranged garden and groves, where flourish in perfection the finest trees of various descriptions. I have seen ill-natured observations, relative to this gentleman's ostentation, but I must say that they were perfectly unfounded. When I extolled his grounds, the taste and care with which they were laid out, and the beautiful prospect witnessed from the poet's cave, he seemed inclined to depreciate everything, and attri

Amongst the Portuguese, indolence and inactivity were but too evident, while the Chinese were occupied with their usual en-buted my commendation to good breeding. ergy. The majority of the lower orders of the Portuguese inhabitants are natives of Goa, whose European blood has become almost extinct, from the intermarriages of many generations with natives and halfcastes. The extreme ugliness of these degenerate representatives of Portugal, scarcely admits of description. They are of low

It is very possible, that the person who wrote or dictated the remarks I allude to, may be the same individual who was handed over to the police for impertinent intrusion, and insults offered to the ladies of this gentleman's family. The owner of the grounds is noted throughout Macao for his politeness and hospitality. The cave is situate

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