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Mr. Gurney, though a man of good fortune, | ling in and on stage-coaches. We are not was not only a regular preacher of that told what came of his great plan for supplysect, but a leading superintendent of its ing the French regiments with bibles. religious missions; his time was largely pre- In his letters and diary wbile abroad occupi d, and at any rate his persuasion was there is a good deal-we do not wish to incompatible with Parliament. Mr. Buxton peak uncivilly, but we are at loss for a had now borne the burden of the brewery better phrase-of Quaker cant on the subso long and so successfully, that in the ject of war. It sbocks bim to think that opinion of the elder partners he ought to be inore money than ever the Bible Society relieved by a junior, as they themselves had had had at its cow niand should bave been been by him; the business had already en laid out in fortifying Dover and Calais. He riched him 100—he might henceforth, like meets nothing but courtesy and kininess them, participate in its profits without giv- over the water: why, he exclaims, had ing the bulk of his time. His capacity as a " these two nations of friends been cutting speaker was ascertained-perhaps amiably each other's throats for twenty years toover-estimated ; his ambition, it must have gether!" And he talks with lofty imparbeen obvious to eyes so near, had been tiality of “ our mutual rulers” having touched; the Frys and Gurneys were very “ judged that expedient.” But he answers willing to echo Wilberforce's hint. He re- himsrlf with nost effective simplicity by the ceived, in short, every domestic encourage- anecdotes which he is obliged to record of ment to enter on a public carcer; and from Buonaparte's insolent and inbuman ambithis time we have frequent appearances tion and tyrınny. We fortified Dover, and at Bible Society and Missionary me tings, incurred other heavy expenses, in order which drew him into close relations with the that London breweri's might not be plunmost prominent persons of what was then dered nor Norfolk Quakers conscribed. by far the most active religious party in the On bis return he drew up a short report community-the party so long graced and on the foreign prisons, and this so pleased dignified, and so immensely advanced in Mrs. Fry and her allies, that he was inducinfluence, by the character and tal'nts of ed to expand it into a volume for publicaWilberforce. His first exertions were na tion. The “ loquiry into Prison Discitually in that walk opened by Howard, pline" (1817) was the first and by far the which Mrs. Fry bad so eff.ctively re-openad, best of his literary performances : it is a and to this bour no third name stands above clearly arranged and neatly written bookMr. Buxton's in connexion with it. He the compilation of facts and documents bail never yet been on the Continent. One careful and valuable, and the practical inof the first uses he made of his freedom was icrenc's drawn out and sustained with to visit France and the Netherlands—but shrewdness and ingenuity. It not only it was not a pleasure tour; he made part of raised his name among the classes with two deputations—one from the Bible So- whom Mrs. Fry had most sway, but made ciety, whose leaders were anxious to estab- a very favorable impression on Romilly, lish branches or affiliations; the other from Mackintosh, Brougham and others, who Mrs. Fry's Prison Society, to collect details had taken up in Pailiament the question of as to the treatment of convicts in Ghent and a general revision of our criminal code. Antwerp. The authorities were very civil All our readers are well aware that when in giving facilities for inspecting prisons, Mr. Peel became Home Secretary, he apand he seems to have profited as much as plied bimself to this subject with eneroy any man who could not speak French was and decision, and that from his official likely to do. Of the other Embissy less exertions chiefly sprang those many wise is said, hut enough to show that he came as well as merciful changes in that sy 3away with very painful impressions as to tem which distinguished the reign of the religious condition of the Continent-George IV. Whether our sub-equent proespecially France. The Roinan church was cedure in the direction of mitigation in punnever in his eyes anything but a thinly dis- ishments has always been wise--whether guised heathenism--but he saw a total in the views of Mrs. Fiy and her original diference to the whole subj?ct everywhere, Q.aker colleagues have not of late huen and after a long enumeration of minor hor- carried out to a dangerous extent, is a differrors at Paris, he finishes with “the eternal ent ques ion--one of the gravest on which ejaculation of Mon Dien!" Yet he seems, opivion is now divided. In a late article when at home, to have been fund of travel-l on the Peutonville Prison we gave Sir
James Graham's last summary of facts and peculiarity marked to us-though whether, figures; and our readers may draw their own or how far, this prculiarity was personal, or, inferences. We must note, however, that so to sprak, sectarian. we are hardly qualiMr. Buxton never adopted Mrs. Fry's opi- fied to judge. While his head-quarters nion (or rather sentiment) on one point, were in the brewery, he appears to bave he never gave any courtenance to the usually rented a villa near London in partcrowning philanthropy which would abolish nership with some other family of the Gurcapital punishment altogether, even in the ney connexion—which is not, we believe, Cise of murder, From this extravagance a sort of thing at all common in this counhe was saved by his respect for the Bible. try-indicating no doubt much of the amiwhose plainest words he durst not with able, but also, perhaps, a departure from feminine rashness misinterpret.
what constitutes on the whole not the least The success of this book gave its author valuable among the social characteristics of additional encouragement in his parliamen- Englishmen. He now became joint-t: nant tary views, and he soon attained his object. with a brother-in-law of a large mansion and At the general election in 1818 he stood for manor on the Windham estate, near the Weymouth, which in those days returned coast of Norfolk, and throughout a great four members. Two Tori's came in-and part of bis parlianentary life it was here two Whigs-of whom be was one, though alone that his wife and children had a home perhaps he hardly knew it; for in bis letters -be being contented with a lodging for he seems almost as anxious to separate bim- himself in Westwinister during the Session. self from “ the party" whose colors he wore, There may have been special reasons for as from the violence of the blue mob. The health-but we do not find anything of that
“elections at that time present kind stated in the book—and if there were ed very different scenos from what they now not, the whole arrangement lias to us a afford;" and proceeds to tell us how Mr. strange look. We understand why many Buxton had to preach against “ corruption members of parliament follow some such and bludgeons"--which, we must infer, are plan-tbey bave inherited houses and esnow alize abolished. It is not for us to tates in the country, and economy may be guess what Mr. Buxton's definition of cor- necessary—this separation is, perhaps the ruption would have been 'in 1818—but we heaviest price they pay for the seat, With fiod bim writing on the eve of more than others possibly the opportunity of the sepaone subsequent election for the same place, ration may be one of the scat's charms: but in a style from wbich it is obvious that in in the case of a virtuous and affectionate bis mind the end might occasionally justify head of a family, blest with abundant forthe means. For instance :
tune, it appears an odd device to choose to
be quite apart from one's own fireside for “I feel warranted in depriving my family of more than half the year Having no light the sum my election will cost, considering the but from the book, we are apt to conjecture very peculiar situation in which the slave ques That the ruling motive was neither more nor tion stands. Without extravagantly overrating less than his now " ruling passion” for field my own usefulness, I think it would be inconvenient for me to be out of Parliament just now
sports--all the means and appliances of (1826). There are plenty of people with more which he henceforth possessed on a scale of talents, but a great lack of those who truly love costly magnificence, and used and enjoyed a good cause for its own sake, and whom no with a zeal not surpassed in East-Anglia. price would detach from it; and so, for this time, I feel warranted in robbing my family.”—p. 188. “ No Arab ever took a greater delight in horses
than Mr. Buxton; and several of his favorites, As for “bludgeons," many elections of 1818 especially John Bull
, Abraham, and Jeremie,
were renowned for their strength and beauty. were attended with disgraceful violence : i: was the same on every subsequent oc- hesitated to give any price in order to render his
He was cousidered a very good judge, and never casion of strong pa: ty excitement. We hope stud more complete.' 'of dogs, too, he was very Mr. Charles Buxton may never see the like fond. He never lost his taste for stooting, and hereafter.
had the reputition of being a first-rate shot. Before we attend his father to the House Great pains were taken by him in the manageof Commons, we say obse ve that the ac
menit of his game, especially in rearing his count of his domestie arrangements before, Pheasants,” &c, &c.—pp. 162, 163. but especially after, the point we have He must bave been a problem to the reached in his history, preseuts features of squires. The biographer gives every now
and then a bit of his diary-we wonder if that he laments, and that simply as occupyhe kept one note book only, or, like Mr. ing so much of his time as to interfere with Wilberforce, two or three at the same time his study of this or that Calvinistic Treatise --if there was but one, a page or two of it or Sugar-question Blue-book. Not a word in erlenso would have been a curiosity. of his own intimates that he who toiled for Any honest diary must show enough of twenty years to emancipate the Negro, had patchwork, but we think we might safely ever allowed his mind to dwell for a moment back his for oddity of mosaic. We mean on the question of man's right to inflict nothing disrespectful--we give him credit needless pain on any of God's humbler for simplicity and sincerity : but we can creatures. His son appears to have felt this hardly fancy any reader keeping gravity be- silence as we do—and he therefore takes fore a running panorama of devout medita-paids to assure us that Mr. Buxton was a tions and exhortations, philanthropic plans bumiane fowler—that he never fired unless and petitions, notes of communings with he was confident be could kill, and had a black missionaries and murderers under c'n- great aversion to the opposite practice of cern-passionate lectures on the urgent ne- inferior sportsmen, in consequence of which cessity for mitigating the penalties of rape the wounded far outnumber the slain-espeand robbery-interlarded at every other leaf cially at great Norfolk gatherings (p. 163). with hacks, hunters, cubs, and coverts– It is obvious, however, that it is only a conbrushes here and batiues there--experiences summate artist who can be in this sense a of trolling for jack, and tribulations in wail- humane one, and that such skill can only be ing after geese-controversies on percussion the result of long practice. It is therefore caps, and backslidings of poachers--the admitted that the preparatory practice was only tract.proof sinners, to be left to the a course of cruelty; and, as the narrative Cromer quorum until Michaelmas Sessions shows Mr. Buxton to have put guns into next before the Millennium. We give Mr. (bis boys' hands as soon as they could hold Buxton, we repeat, entire credit for sincerity them, we doubt if the story is much mended --we believe him to have been a pious phi- by this filial supplement. Moreover, the lanthropist, as well as a keen shot and an supplement applies only to the shot. The expert horse-breaker—but still one cannot rawest stripling, the rudest clown, is as but feel how very queerly Innoduunins would anxious to kill outright as the most polished look as an epithet in any hagiography. gentleman in the field can be-for, to send a Sad and grievous lapses in the morality of pheasant or partridge away torn and helpa saint are, we confess, quite intelligible in le-s, to bleed out life by slow degrees in its comparison. Mr. Buxton's case, however, thickets, or be pecked and gnawed to death we must also acknowledge, appears to us less by ravens and weasels, is on all sides allowed puzzling than others that we might refer to. to be discreditable for the marksman. On He was an exceedingly short-sighted man, the other hand, the greater the skill of the and he was destitute of music. We do not virtuoso, the longer does he play his salmon. believe that the imaginative faculty ever can Cruelty in this department gives the measure be highly developed unless the eye or the of accomplishment. Neither father nor son ear (one or other of them at the least) comes alludes to the mercy of the angler. But, in in exquisite perfection from the band of Na- fact, the whole subject is not one that will ture : and, after all, the only faculty of man bear arguing. If you once let in the quesin which, as far as observation goes, the in- tion of degrees of pain, there is an end. In ferior animals have no part, is imagination. no sporl is the mere extinction of the aniWe are loss surprised than distressed to see mal's life the principal object-the very a child blowing up a frog, or impaling a but word implies the reverse-it implies time terfly ; but of 11 this world's wonders none for pursuit—that is, time for mortal fearis to us more incomprehensible than the time for anguish. In the exact proportion fact, that there have been deep philosophers, that you abridge your pastime you bring solemn divines, nay, tender, thoughtful, yourself nearer to your butcher: and meditative poets, who could wander from abridge the process as you may, you never morn to dewy eve among woods and waters can be so humane, in your actual character torturing fish and massacring birds. of executioner, as the tradisman in the blue
There are several passages of Mr. Bus. apron easily may be--and as the law should ton's Diaries and letters in which he ex-compel him to he in all cases whatsoever. presses dissatisfaction with these habits ; but Who could have looked for a paragraph it is only the excessive indulgence in them like this in a Nimrod's diary ?
“I am bound to acknowledge that I have al- / Holy Spirit, that, free from views of gain or ways found that my prayers have been heard i popularity—that, careless of all things but fideland a.iswered-110t that I have in every instance ity to iny trust, I may be enabled to do some (though in alınost every instance I have) re good to iny country, and something for man. ceived what I asked for, nor do I expect or wish kind, especially in their most important conit. I always qualify my petitions by adding, cerns. I feel the responsibility of the situation, provided that what I ask for is for my real good, and its many temptations. On the other hand, and according to the will of my Lord. But with I see the vast good which one individual may this qualification, I feel at liberty to submit my do. May God preserve me from the snares wants and wishes to God in small things as well which may surround me; keep me from the as in great; and I am inclined to imagine that power of personal motives, from interest or pasthere are no little things' with Him. We see sion, or preju lice or ambition, and so enlarge that His attention is as much bestowed upon my heart to feel the sorrows of the wretched, what we call trifles as upon those things which the miserable condition of the guilty and the igwe consider of mighty importance. His hand norant, that I may
'never turn my face from is as manifest in the feathers of a butterfly's any poor man;' anil so enlighten my under. wing, in the eye of an insect, in the folding and standing, that I may be a capable and resolute packing of a hlossom, in the curious aqueducts champion for those who want and deserve a by which a leaf is nourished, as in the creation friend.'”-pp. -80, 81. of a world and in the laws by which the planets move. To our limited powers some things The first important debate after he took appear great and some inconsiderable: but He, bis seat was (February, 1819) on the moinfinite in al things, can lavish his power and tion for a parliamentary inquiry into the his wisdom upon every part of His creation. conduct of the Manchester Magistrates Hence I feel permitted to offer up my prayers for " on the occasion of the riot at Peterloo”— everything that concerns me. I understand lit. erally the injunction, . Be careful for notbing, for so gravely writes the biographer, adoptbut in everything make your requests known ing, perhaps without knowing it, the slang unto God;' and I cannot but notice how amply phrase of the riot party. Next day Mr. these prayers have been met."-p. 197. Buxton says to Mr. John Joseph Gurney :Mr. Buxton, when in the House of Com
“ We have had a wonderful debate; really it mons, took an active part in the late Mr. has raised my idea of the capacity and ingenuiMartin of Galway's measures for preven- and almost all outdid themselves. But Burdett
ty of the human mind. All the leaders spoke, tion of cruelty to animals. Thus in 1825 stands first; his speech was absolutely the finest he writes to his wife :
and the clearest, and the fairest display of mas
terly understanding that ever I heard; and with “ February 25.–Mr. Martin brought forward staine I ought to confess it, he did not utter a last night a new Cruelty Bill. Sir M. Riley sentence to which I could not agree. Canning and another meniher opposed it, and I evidently was second ; if there be any difference between saw that there was so much disposition to sneer eloquence and sense, this was the difference at and make game of Martin, that the bears and between hiin and Burdett. He was exquisitely dogs would sutfer. Up I got, and when I found elegant, and kept the tide of reason and argumyself on my legs I asked myself this cutting ment, irony, joke, invective, and declamation question : Have you anyihing to say? • Not a flowing, without abatement, for nearly three syllable,' was the answer from within; but ne hours. Plunkett was third; he took hold of cessity has no law ; speak I must, and so I did. poor Mackintosh's argument, and griped it to We saved the bill, and all the dogs in England death; ingenious, subile, yet clear and bold, and bears in Christendom ought to howi us a and putting with the most logical distinctness to congratulation.'”—p. 176.
the House the errors of his antagonist. Next
came Brougham-and what do you think of a Very well—but after all, have men more fourth man who could keep alive the attention right “ to mix their pleasure or their pride” of the House from three to five in the morning, with the panting agony of a stag, than with after a tielve hours' debate ? Now, what was the discipline of a dancing squirrel or the the impression maile on my mind, you will ask. madness of a baited bull ?
First, I voted with ministers, because I canBut we must go back to the commence- gistrates to a parliamentary inquiry; but no
not bring myself to subject the Manchester mament of his parliamentary career. This is ihing has shaken my convictions that the magisthe entry of his diary on being elected iv trates, ministers, and all, have done exceedingly 1818:
wrong. I am clear I voted right; and, indeed,
I never need have any doubts when I vote with “Now that I am a member of Parliament, 1 ministers, the bias being on the other side. Did feel earnest for the honest, diligent, and con- the debate influence my ambition? Why, in scientious discharge of the duty I have under one sense, it did. It convinced me that I have taken. My prayer is for the guidance of God's | the opportunity of being a competitor on the
greatest arena that ever existed; but it also for I am not a Whig. I am one of those am-
the estimation of the House as a speaker.
with remarkable elearness. Having usually to such a being fame is absolutely forbidden. i new and distinct information to communiam well content ; I cannot expect the commodi- cate, and being by earnestness of purpose ty for which I will not pay the price.”—p. 82.
raised above the tremors of personal vanity,
there never was a time when he would not The inconsistencies of this
have been well received in the House. of his own feeling and conduct, are glaring His commanding person and voice, bis -but there is sometbing very pleasing in known wealth and influence, were in their the effusion of the new Member. Soon afterwards there was a rumor of bis old became second only to Wilberforce in the
combination powerful advantages. He soon friend North's desiring to come into the House—and his letter on that occasion House, but a large and most important one
esteem of bis own party, a small one in the shows how he had already studied the
out of it.
In March, 1820, having been again suc" April 19.—Perhaps you will like to hear the cess'ul at Weymouth (although bis “ eight impression the House makes upon me. I do not children” are mentioned in the diary as arwonder that so many distinguished men have gunients against the contest), he visits Mr. failel in it. The speaking required is of a very William Forster, a Quaker who had married joking, and nothing else; and the object of its one of his sisters, and who had just returned
joking, and nothing else; and the object of its from a missionary expedition to America.