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try. There is, alas! another side to the picture: they are profligate to a frightful extent; chastity is unknown lower orders of women, and is only preserved amongst the higher, by strict seclusion; they are deficient in probity, both in word and deed. Distrusting all, they are cunning and jealous beyond measure; servile and abject to their superiors, they exhibit tyranny and injustice to all below them. Gain is the end of a Chinaman's life, and he regards not the means by which he attains it. All classes, from the highest to the lowest, are addicted to gambling, and fraud is prevalent in their very amusements. However, there is one trait in a Chinaman's character, which is worthy of imitation, and that is filial piety, which is certainly carried to a very great extent, and I have known instances where servants have hoarded up all their earnings with scrupulous care, in order to contribute to the comfort of their aged parents. A son is often permitted to suffer punishment for a father, who has infringed the laws of his country; and should the officers of justice be unable to find a son who has been guilty of any offence or crime, they deliberately put the father into prison, knowing full well that the delinquent will soon appear to liberate his parent. Nothing is so abhorrent to all, both high and low, as filial disobedience, which is severely punished by law, from policy. The emperor calls himself, what he ought to be, the father of his people, and wisely considers he will not be regarded in that light, or treated with becoming respect, should his subjects be deficient in filial obedience to their natural parents. The following are some of the moral maxims amongst the Chinese upon the subject, extracted from their ancient sages, and hung about their dwellings, which are worthy of the most refined and enlightened nation :—

"Let a son honor his parents, not observing their faults, which he should carefully conceal; he may, however, remonstrate three times with

them relative to their faults; should they disregard him, he must observe towards them the same undiminished piety.”

"A son should never refer to old age or infirmities before his parents."


Let every other occupation be promptly laid aside to answer a parent's call."

"Should his parents be in trouble, a son must not visit nor receive his friends. Should they be ill, his dress and countenance should express his sorrow; he should refrain from music, and he must particularly resist getting into a passion."

"To have a proper estimation of filial duty, a


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Would that all the other moral lessons inculcated by their ancient sages were equally observed with the preceding! Were such the case, China would be one of the most moral nations in the world, instead of the most depraved.

I must not omit to mention, that the Turks are not greater fatalists than the Chinese. I have heard of a Chinese merchant at Canton, who was smoking his pipe at the time the intelligence was brought to him, that his warehouse, which was filled with the most valuable merchandize, was on fire, who coolly replied, "Mas-kie," (which is the Anglo-Chinese for "Never mind") and added, "If it's to burn, it will burn; if not, it will not!" he then very quietly continued to smoke his pipe. The Chinese are all great stoics in their way, and have been known to endure the greatest bodily suffering and torture, rather than surrender their wealth, which they have borne without flinching. Still, during the late war, there were many instances where terror so far prevailed, that they seem to have been actuated to adopt very dissimilar courses; for instance, upon entering a town, our troops have found written, in large characters, in the Chinese language, over the doors of many houses, "Take all we have, but spare our lives." In other towns, which they found complet ly deserted, horrible spectacles awaited them in every house they entered, the wretched women found with their throats cut, some cold, and have been found filled with females, and others dying; in other places, the wells the women have been seen in the act of drowning themselves and their off-ping. Again, on entering the residence of a very wealthy man, the house was found deserted by all but the proprietor, who was discoverrobes, and bound to his chair, in the midst ed, partially consumed, seated in his richest of his books, furniture, and valuables, which were piled in heaps around him, and set on fire. This again seems to be contrary to the character or profession of the individual, who proved to be one of their greatest philosophers.


There are three prevailing desires im- | to acquire landed property, to enrich his planted in the breast of every Chinaman. offspring; and, thirdly, he desires longevFirst-he anxiously looks for male offspring, ity, in order that he may live to see his to perpetuate his name and sacrifice to his children's children in the enjoyment of the manes; secondly-he labors indefatigably wealth he has accumulated

From the North British Review.


1. The Expedition to Borneo of H. M. S. Dido, for the Suppression of Piracy; with Extracts from the Journal of JAMES BROOKE, Esq., of Sarawak, now Her Majesty's Commissioner and Consul-General to the Sultan and Independent Chiefs of Borneo. By Capt. the Hon. HENRY KEPPEL, R.N. Third Edition. With an Additional Chapter, comprising recent Intelligence. By WALTER K. KELLY. In 2 vols. London, 1847. 2. Narrative of Events in Borneo and Celebes, down to the occupation of Labuan; from the Journals of JAMES BROOKE, Esq., Rajah of Sarawak, and Governor of Labuan ; together with a Narrative of the Operations of H. M. S. Iris. By Captain RODNEY MUNDY, R.N. With numerous Plates, &c. In 2 vols. London, 1848.

3. Borneo and the Indian Archipelago, with Drawings of Costume and Scenery. By FRANK S. MARRYAT, late Midshipman of H. M. S. Samarang. London, 1848. 4. Sarawak-Its Inhabitants and Productions; being Notes during a residence in that Country with His Excellency Mr. Brooke. By HUGH Low, Colonial Secretary at Labuh-an. London, 1848.

5. Narrative of the Voyage of H. M. S. Samarang, during the years 1843-46, employed Surveying the Islands of the Eastern Archipelago; accompanied by a brief Vocabu lary of the principal Languages; published under the authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. By Captain Sir EDWARD BELCHER, R.N., C.B., F.R. A.S., F.G.S., &c., Commander of the Expedition. With Notes on the Natural History of the Islands. By ARTHUR ADAMS, Assistant Surgeon, R.N. 2 vols. London, 1848. IT is interesting to study the variety of and hallowed the resting-place of the permeans by which Providence carries on its great work of progressive civilization. In the earlier stages of society, the arts of life followed the conqueror in his bloody career, and subjugated nations exchanged a wild independence for the blessings of stable government and salutary institutions. At other times, and these, too, of frequent occurrence, civilization has been the offspring of political and religious oppression. Chased by the tyrant from their fatherland, or driven by bigotry from their altars, families distinguished by patriotism and piety have fled for shelter to some friendly shore, and have repaid the hospitality which welcomed them by the noble truths which they imparted, and the holy life which they led. In a more advanced state of society, an exuberant population, in search of food or employment, have been dispersed among the uncultivated wastes, and the luxuriant woodlands of far-distant climes; and thus have the arts of peace, the principles of freedom, and the message of eternity, followed in the train of the starving emigrant,

secuted saint and the patriot exile. No sooner has the temporary dwelling excluded the summer's heat or the winter's cold, than the sons of toil equip themselves for the destined task. The forest falls beneath the peasant's brawny arm, and under his skilful care a golden harvest waves over once barren plains. The village rises amid fruit and foliage-the germ peradventure of some gay metropolis-the centre, it may be, of some mighty empire. The schoolhouse and the temple adorn and bless the exile's home, while light, secular and divine, emanating from this double source, diffuses itself around, and reaches even the homes and hearts of the savage population. In our own day, however, it is by the schoolmaster and the missionary that the great work of civilization must be carried on; and it is by means of our colonial establishments, and the extension of our commercial relations, that we can expect to obtain the most successful and permanent results. The interchange of European or American manufactures with the pro

duce of savage or semi-barbarous nations, | humanity owed each noble conception, and cannot fail to lead to a closer and more it was by one stern will that each arduous friendly intercourse, while the rapidity of purpose was accomplished; but until our locomotive travelling and steam navigation, own day History has furnished us with no and the electric transmission of intelligence example in which a single individual has over Europe, must give to all maritime ventured to undertake, on any considerable states a power of control over barbarous scale, the civilization and improvement of nations which they could not otherwise barbarous communities. have wielded. Should our missionary or colonial establishments be assailed by violence-should pirates interrupt our trade, and enslave their captives-a quick and condign punishment will soon reach the aggressors, and secure our countrymen, in their most distant settlements, from the cruelties and depredations to which they have been too frequently exposed. Even among the distant islands of the Indian and the Pacific Oceans, the British and the American flags have waved over the burning villages of the treacherous and bloody savage.

But it is only in seasons of European quiet that the arm of civilization can put forth its power to control the savage tribes that yet occupy and deface the fairest portions of the earth; and it is only in times of domestic peace that a Christian people can direct the undivided energy of their faith against the licentious orgies and the bloody rites of Pagan idolatry. While Freedom has to struggle against the despot, and enlightened nations have their liberties yet to conquer, the Christian and the Philanthropist must pause or falter in their aggressive movement against ignorance and superstition. It is but when nations are governed by equal laws--when rank and wealth exercise their just and salutary influence-when the civilized races are united by friendly ties, and the mutual interchange of food and industry-it is only then that the national will can be concentrated on national objects, and that our armed battalions, and our ships of war can be summoned to the noble enterprise of wafting the teacher and the missionary to the land of darkness of striking the fetters from the slave-and of breaking down the strong holds of cruelty and vice. In the annals of philanthropy there are recorded many precious examples of individual and successful devotion to its cause. When Howard strove to ameliorate the prisoner's lot and to purify his living grave; when Elizabeth Fry labored to instruct and reform the convict and Guthrie to teach and educate the ragged child-and Ashley to soften the agonies of female toil and of youthful labor, it was to one mind that

This remarkable effort, which has excited the admiration of his countrymen, and will command the applause of every succeeding age, has been recently made by Mr. James Brooke, an English gentleman, who has devoted his fortune and his talents to the civilization and improvement of one of the loveliest portions of the globe. The numerous works placed at the head of this article, relate almost solely to this most interesting chapter of Modern History; and difficult as the task must be, we have felt it incumbent upon us to present our readers with a succinct and continuous narrative of those extraordinary operations in which Mr. Brooke has been engaged.


Mr. Brooke was borne at Coombe Grove, near Bath, on the 29th April, 1803. He was the second, but is now the only surviving son of the late Thomas Brooke, Esq., of the East India Company's Civil Service. At an early age he went to India, as a cadet in the Bengal army, where he held advantageous appointments. On the breaking out of the Burmese war, he accompanied his regiment to Assam; and in an action with the enemy, his gallantry was so conspicuous that he received the thanks of the Government. But having been shot through the lungs, he was obliged to return to England for the recovery of his health. made himself master of several modern languages, he made a tour through France, Switzerland, and Italy, and upon the expiry of his furlough he again embarked for India. The ship, however, was wrecked on the Isle of Wight, and this little incident, combined with the paltry and unjust regulation of the East India Company, derived our Eastern empire of the services of a man who might have been its brightest ornament; and thus transferred to the cause of humanity the energies of his powerful mind, and the benefits of his transcendent talents. Owing to the delay which this misfortune had occasioned, Mr. Brooke's leave of absence had expired when he had reached Madras; and when he found that a troublesome and tedious correspondence with the Home authorities would be necessary to replace him in the position which

he had innocently forfeited, he at once relin- | Animated by such noble objects, he left the quished the service, and resolved to proceed Thames on the 27th of October, 1838, in with the ship to China, in search of health his yacht the Royalist schooner, a vessel of and amusement. In crossing the China Seas, 142 tons, belonging to the Royal Yacht he saw for the first time the islands of the Squadron, "which, in foreign parts, admits Indian Archipelago, inviting the traveller her to the same privileges as a man-of-war, by their surpassing beauty, and teeming and enables her to carry a white ensign." with Nature's rarest and richest produc- Her ship's company consisted of nine offitions. But while a tropical sun was shed- cers, nine seamen, and two boys Most of ding its pure light over the landscape, and the hands had been with Mr. Brooke three tipping its rocks and mountains with gold, years and upwards, and in the course of a there lay above the valleys a moral darkness year spent in the Mediterranean he had which time and toil only could disperse; tested both his vessel and his crew.* The and where animal and vegetable life ar- Royalist was a fast sailor, and was armed rested the eye by their magnificence and with six six-pounders, a number of swivels, beauty, life intellectual stood forth a hide- and small arms of all sorts. She carried ous blot upon Nature's scutcheon, drawn four boats, and provisions for four months, in the blackest lines of cruelty, treachery, besides all the requisite instruments for oband vice. The two antagonist pictures ap- servation, including three chronometers, and pear to have been simultaneously impressed the means of collecting and preserving speupon the mind of our youthful adventurer, cimens of natural history. In concluding and the attractions of the one seem to have the proposal which he made to the Geoallured and impelled him to abate the de- graphical Society, Mr. Brooke remarks, "I formity of the other. To visit and explore embark upon the expedition with great the lovely scenes which were now pre- cheerfulness, with a stout vessel and a good sented to him in the course of his voyage, crew, and I cast myself upon the waters, was only a passing thought; but when he but whether the world will know me after learned at Canton the true value and the many days is a question which, hoping the singular variety of the products of the Ar- best, I cannot answer with any positive dechipelago, the idea took possession of his gree of assurance." "I go," he said to a mind, and upon his return to England he friend, "to awaken the slumbering spirit of resolved to realize it. In conjunction with philanthropy with regard to these islands. a friend, to whom he had imparted his pur- Fortune and life I give freely, and if I fail pose, he fitted out a vessel of large burden, in the attempt I shall not have lived wholly and proceeded to the China Seas, but cir- in vain.". cumstances and events which have not yet Quitting England on the 16th of Decembeen made public, prevented him from car-ber, the Royalist made a good passage to Rio rying his plans into effect under any other Janeiro, which occupied nearly two months. auspices than his own. After a fortnight's stay, Mr. Brooke sailed on the 9th of March for the Cape, and having put into Table Bay on the 15th of March, 1839, and completed the repairs of his yacht, he again set sail on the 29th of the same month, and anchored at Singapore in the last week of May. In this delightful spot he spent the months of June and July, making preparations for his trip to Borneo, and arranging the plan of his future operations. Furnished with letters from the

Upon the death of his father in 1838, Mr. Brooke succeeded to a handsome fortune, and was thus enabled single-handed to carry out his darling project. When his preparations for sea were completed, he published a prospectus of his undertaking in the Geographical Journal for 1838,* expressing his conviction that the tendency of his voyage was to add to knowledge, to increase trade, and to spread Christianity.

• This communication, entitled Proposed Exploring Expedition to the Asiatic Archipelago. By James Brooke, Esq., and published in the Society's Journal, vol. viii., pp. 443-448, contains an admirable exposition of his plans, and shows how thoroughly and deliberately he had studied the subject, and weighed the various chances of failure or success which were likely to occur. In this paper, which was the first public notice of his intentions, his views were limited entirely to the object of exploring Borneo, Celebes, and the other islands of the Archipelago.

* In the course of this voyage, Mr. Brooke visited the Island and Gulf of Symi, in February, 1837, and communicated to the Journal of the Geographical Society a very interesting paper, entitled, Sketch of the Island and Gulf of Symi, on the south-western coast of Anatolia. By James Brooke, Esq. This well written article exhibits the learning and sagacity of the author, and is a most favorable earnest of what might have been expected from his future labors. We are surprised that it has not eve been noticed in the multifarious works which relate to his proceedings in Borneo.

governor of Singapore to the Rajah Muda | patched his gig for Sarawak, in order to acHassim, governor of Borneo Proper (and quaint the Rajah of his arrival," he was uncle to the sovereign), who had shown met on the 13th by a canoe, containing a much kindness and liberality to the crew of an English vessel wrecked on the coast, and taking with him valuable presents of various kinds, Mr. Brooke left Singapore on the 27th July, and anchored on the 1st of August, on the coast of Borneo, in a night "pitchy dark," amid torents of rain and peals of thunder. Learning that the Rajah was at Sarawak, where he was detained by a rebellion in the interior, Mr. Brooke resolved to proceed thither, in place of Malludu Bay, at the north point of the island. On the morning of the 2d the clouds cleared away, and exhibited to him the majestic scenery of Borneo, with Gunong Palo, a mountain 2000 feet high, rising in the back ground, and throwing out its picturesque knolls into the wooded plains. On Sunday the 4th, after" performing divine service himself, manfully overcoming that horror which he had to the sound of his own voice before an audience," he landed near a forest of noble timber, clear of brushwood, and thus gives vent in the following beautiful passage to the sentiments which the scenery inspired:

Pangeran of note (Illudeen) to welcome them, accompanied by other persons of distinction, and a score of followers. The party ate and drank, and talked with much ease and liveliness, and, from the state of the tide, were obliged to sleep in the Royalist. On the 15th the yacht anchored abreast of Sarawak, and saluted the Rajah with twenty-one guns, which was returned with eighteen from his residence. Mr. Brooke and his party were received in state, in the most flattering manner, in the Hall of Audience, a large shed erected on piles, but tastefully decorated in the interior. The strangers were seated in chairs on one hand of the Rajah, and on the other sat his brother Mohammed, and Macota and other chiefs, while immediately behind him were seated his twelve younger brothers. Tea and tobacco were served by attendants on their knees. A band played wild airs during the interview; and after a visit of half an hour, the strangers rose and took their leave.

After various interchanges of visits and presents, some of them without the usual formality and reserve, Mr. Brooke obtained leave to travel into the country of the Dyaks, and to visit the Malay towns of Sadung, Samarahan, &c.; and in pursuance of this plan, he left Sarawak (formerly Kuchin), accompanied by the prahus (boats) of Pangeran Illudeen and the Panglima, the former pulling twelve paddles, and having two brass swivels and twenty men, and the latter having a gun and ten men, while the Skimalong, a long boat of Mr. Brooke's, carried a gun and ten men. equipment, superior to any force of the Rajah's enemies, they "proceeded up a Borneon river (Morotaba) hitherto unknown, sailing where no European ever sailed before; and admiring the deep solitude, the brilliant night, the dark fringe of retired jungle, the lighter foliage of the river bank, with here and there a tree flashing and shining with fire flies, nature's tiny lamps, glancing and flitting in countless numbers, and incredible brilliancy." The expedition

With this

"This dark forest," says he," where the trees shoot up straight, and are succeeded by generation after generation, varying in stature, but struggling upwards, strikes the imagination with features trite but true. Here the hoary sage of an hundred years lies mouldering beneath your foot, and there the young sapling shoots beneath the parent shade, and grows in form and fashion like the parent stem. The towering few, with heads raised above the general mass, can scarce be seen through the foliage of those beneath, but here and there the touch of time has cast his withering hand upon their leafy brow, and decay has begun his work upon the gigantic and unbending trunk. How trite and yet how true! It was thus I meditated in my walk. The foot of European, I said, has never touched where my foot now presses-seldom the native wanders here. Here I indeed behold Nature fresh from the bosom of creation, unchanged by man, and stamped with the same impress she originally bore! Here I behold God's designs when he formed this tropical land, and left its culture and improvement to the agency of man The Creator's gift, as yet neglected by the creature, and yet the time may be confidently looked for when the axe shall level the forest, and the plough turn the ground."--Mr. Brooke's Journal in Kep-had proceeded about a hundred miles up the pel's Expedition, vol. i., pp. 18, 19.

Near the island of Talang-Talang, Mr. Brooke was welcomed on the 7th by the Bandar, or treasurer of the place, who came in his canoe, and assured him of a hearty welcome from the Rajah; and having "dis

Samarahan river, admirably calculated for the purposes of navigation and trade, receiving hospitality and kindness at the different villages on its banks, when the Pangeran, dreading the hostility of the Dyaks, and alleging that the river was narrow, ra

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