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author of the " Vicar of Wakefield.” It to render his country's laws, in reference to is certain that Washington Irving has culti- literature, more accordant with the spirit of vated style with as much care as did the the great republic of letters. There are essayists of the “Spectator” and “ Tat- writers in America who aspirate for the ler; ” but at the same time he has culti-“ nationality” of American literature, and vated those sentiments upon which style is seem as though they desired the invention essentially dependent. Style is abstractly of a new language, in order to destroy the the peculiar manner in which a writer de- popular vehicle by which their country's velopes his conception through the medium mind becomes conventionalized according to of language ; but at the same time it pos- the model of British thought. Washington sesses attributes independent of words. Irving knows that so long as we speak the Words themselves are insufficient to cha- common language of Milton and Scott, and racterize the thoughts of a writer, and must so long as we can claim a common ancestry, possess some peculiarity of form and com- so long will there be community of literabination dictated by the writer's feelings, ture, which is the revelation of thought. and, when written, representative of those The primitive character of a great portion feelings, before they can be designated as a of the American continent will for a long peculiar style. Some styles are acquired, time preserve the primitive integrity of the Others are spontaneous ; the latter belongs red men, and support those peculiarities in to what is termed genius, and of that cha- the frontier whites which now distinguish racter is Washington Irving's. It was dic- them. These circumstances of themselves tated by his heart, modified by his taste, will sufficiently nationalize the literature and not only became the vehicle of his which seeks to illustrate frontier life, and conceptions, but of his sentiments also. (the habits of the nation generally, in exWe know of no living author who resembles pression and thought, cannot fail to chaWashington Irving so much as Dickens in racterize the writers; but Washington sly humor and genial sympathies, and of no Irving knows, and many of the best writers dead one with whose modes of feeling, in America also know, that in political thought, and expression his so coincide as institutions, predilections, and speech, we with those of Sterne. No man in America are one—we do not differ in essence but in has sought so earnestly to create a friendly form-our authors do not write exclusively feeling with Great Britain as Washington for our own countrymen, although they Irving, and as an individual, perhaps no write against the spirit of literary piratage one has so eminently conduced to effeot so in the United States-We are one people, patriotic and so noble a purpose. Although although two nations--and therefore the devotedly attached to his country, and noble author of " Bracebridge Hall" strives proud of his country's institutions, he was to perfect a union in thought by accelerating not wedded to the follies or crimes of his a just legislation in fact. We do not nation, nor had he any sympathy for the know whether most to admire the man, the demagogueism that was not only political essayist, or the patriot; in all respects he but literary.
stands out as a great moral, intellectual, The contents of his “Sketch-Book” had and political example, and yet he scarcely appeared in an American periodical, but it knows the sound of his own modest voice was left to the author to reap the advantage in literary coteries or in political clubs. arising from a re-publication of that popular work in this country, whose writers had
VALUE 'OF MINERAL PROPERTY.-Mineral probeen less honorably and ceremoniously perty on the hills, which, when the Monmouthshire used by the “trade” of the United States. Canal and its tramroads were constructed, was only British booksellers were gentlemen as well worth 5s. an acre surface rent, soon increased in as British authors. They repudiated trans- The area of the Monmouthshire coalfield exceeds atlantic piratage, they disclaimed all sym- 89,000 acres, and the various seams of coal that can pathy with it in their own land ; and seeing be profitably worked are said to average fifty feet, and feeling this principle as an author, which produce a gross yield per acre of nearly Washington Irving sought to inoculate his 23,000 tons. The total quantity now worked an
nually is estimated at about 2,200,000 tons; at countrymen with it as a patriot. Superior which rate there is a sufficient supply left for the to the despicable subterfuge that would next 1,500 years. The net quantity available for sustain the rejection of an international export has been estimated at about 3,000,000,000
tons! Great Britain now annually consumes from copyright law upon the plca of British all her collieries about 21 million tons - Cliffe's enmity to republican institutions, he sought Book of South Wales, second edition.
From Chamberg's Edinburgh Journal.
THE DEATH OF MURAT.
The sun was gilding with its last rays the calm For a time, however, the wind began surface of the Mediterranean on the evening obviously to fall off, and the boat scarcely of the 22d of August 1815, as two persons moved through the waters. Murat, who emerged from a rocky path which leads down felt no dread at the idea of a tempest, had to a small bay about five miles from Toulon. scarcely moral courage enough to bear up One was apparently a provincial lawyer of against the horrors of a calm, and to hide some substance ; but the rank of his com- his annoyance, affected to sleep. Believing panion was less easy to discover. Though his slumbers to be real, his companions enclothed in far more homely attire than the tered into conversation on the impossibility other, his commanding figure, his noble and of such a vessel outliving the storm which, military carriage, belied the poverty of his to their experienced senses, was now obvioushabiliments, while a brilliant smile playing ly brewing. around his lips seemed to mock the evident “ Haul down !" cried Donadieu suddentrepidation of his friend. Looking round ly; "and in the next instant the sail was to see that they were unobserved, the law- lowered, together with the yard to which it yer clambered up a slight eminence, and was attached. discharged a pistol. In a few moments, “ What are you doing?” exclaimed the more a boat, hitherto concealed by a jut- deposed monarch, starting up, and speakting rock, suddenly swept round, and en-ing in the voice of one accustomed to imtered the bay, which was, however, so shal- plicit obedience. “Do you forget that I low, that she grounded some ten or twelve am a king, and that I command you to proyards from the dry shingle. The instant ceed ?" she did so, three young men jumped out of Sire,” replied Donadieu in a firm, yet her, and wading through the water, hasten- respectful manner, " there is a Sovereign ed towards the persons we have described. more powerful than your majesty, whose
After brief salutations — supported by voice will soon be heard in the coming blast. Donadieu, Langlade, and Blancard, three Permit us, then, if yet within our power, to of the most promising young officers in the save your life.” French
navy, and followed by his late host At this moment a flash of lightning sudthe lawyer to the little bark that was to denly illumined the heavens, and a loud convey him away–Murat, for the noble-clap of thunder seemed to shake the very looking traveller was' no less a personage, firmament. A slight foam quickly appearleft the shores of his native kingdom never ed on the surface of the ocean, and the litto return.
tle bark trembled like a thing of life. MuOnce on board, he gave a letter to the rat at once saw the coming danger. Ho wortby lawyer to despatch to his wife, who was now in his glory. He threw off his hat, had secured a retreat in Austria ; then fix- and shaking back his long black locks, smiled ing his eyes on the receding land, he conti- as he stood up, and seemed to.court the apnued in a standing position to gaze on the proaching war of the elements. loved shores of France till night shut out The storm rapidly burst out in all its the view.
fury. The howling wind, the flashing “Would to Heaven we had more wind !” | lightning, the thunder that seemed to rend grumbled Langlade;" we might then pass the clouds immediately above their heads, the line of cruisers before daylight.” And would have inspired terror in any breast less he began in true sailor-like style to whistle brave than that of the exiled king. Donafor a breeze.
dieu for an instant put the helm up, and “ We shall have enough of it, and more the boat, freed from restraint, like a wild than enough, before midnight,” replied Do- animul shaking off its trammels, flew madly nadieu.
before the blast. In less than five minutes, “ You are right," said Blancard, a more however, the equall had passed away, and a experienced sailor than either of the other lull succeeded. two. “ And if my advice were taken, his " Is it over " asked Murat, surprised at majesty would allow us to put back, and the short duration of the tempest. remain in the bay till the tempest is over.” "No, sire; this is but a skirmish with the advanced guard; the main body will sal ; then turning to one of his officers, he come up to us presently."
gave an order, which Donadieu could not In the next instant the prediction of the overhear; but probably guessing his intenwell-practised sailor was fulfilled. Before tions from his gestures, he desired Langher head could be put to wind, the boat lade and Blancard to keep the boat off
. shipped a sea which half filled her. This they did ; which, being perfectly in
“ Bale away, bale away; now is the time comprehensible to Murat, he petulantly exwhen your majesty can assist us." claimed, “What are you about? What
Blancard, Langlade, and Murat, instant- are you doing? Don't you see they are ly set about the task. A more miserable coming up to us ?” group than the four persons in the boat pre- “ Yes, I see it plainly enough,” replied sented could not be imagined. During three Donadicu. Quick, quick, Langlade, hours, they continued with little advantage, Blancard! Yes, she's coming with a ventheir arduous labor; and though the wind geance! That's it; steady now ;” and he rather died away at daybreak, the sea con- suddenly seized the tiller and put it down. tinued rough and boisterous. Hunger also The boat spun round in a new direction. began to add its horrors to the scene. The A wave carried her off just as the brig, sudprovisions were entirely spoilt by salt wa- denly tacking, drove past her within a few ter; the wine alone remained intact. This yards of her stern. they eagerly swallowed out of the bottle “ Traitor !” furiously called out the king, after one another. Langlade had fortunate- now perceiving the wicked intention of the ly some chocolate cakes in his pocket; Mu- captain ; receive your reward ;' and rat divided these into cqual shares, and in- would have fired at him, but the powder sisted on his companions taking their por- having become wet during the night, the tions. They now steered for Corsica, but pistol refused to go off. with little hopes of being able to reach it. “ The rascal has taken us for pirates, and
Alarmed lest a sudden squall should dis- I would have run us down,” said Donadieu. mast them, they only ventured to set the “ Alas! what is to be done ?” The water jib during the day; and as night again set now began to gain upon them very fast; in, accompanied by torrents of rain, they the last exertion had still more opened the found they had only got over about thirty planks of the unfortunate bark; and during miles. Murat, now fairly knocked up, threw the next ten hours, the crew were forced to himself on one of the benches and fell fast keep baling out with their hats. asleep, while the three intrepid sailors kept Towards evening another sail was dealternate watch during his slumbers, unwill- scried. Every stitch of canvas was set, and ing to confess even to each other their convic- the little boat made for her.
It now betion that the frail boat must founder if no came a matter of time. The water was assistance arrived within four-and-twenty pouring in each moment with increased hours.
power. Whether they could reach the As day slowly broke, Donadieu perceived vessel before the frail bark foundered, bea vessel within a few miles, and in his de- came now an object of great doubt. Donlight cried out with such energy, that the adieu recognised in the felucca they were ex-king of Naples started up from his slum- approaching a post-office packet plying bebers. The helm was instantly put down; tween Toulon and Bastia. Langlade being every sail was set; and the boat quickly acquainted with the commander, instantly bore up for the stranger, who evidently was hailed him; and though the distance was a small merchant brig en route from Corsica far beyond the ordinary reach of the human to Toulon. Langlade, in the meantime, voice, yet impelled by fear of instant affixing the king's cloak to the end of a boat death, his hail was so shrill as to be clearly hook, kept waving it, in order to attract the heard on board the packet. The water was notice of the people on board the brig. In now rising fast; the king was already up to this he succeeded; and in less than half an his knees; the boat began to roll about unhour the two vessels lay within fifty yards of able to advance. She had become watereach other. The captain appeared on the logged, when two or three strong cords deck. Murat hailed him, and offered him were thrown from the vessel. One of these a considerable sum if he would receive him- fortunately fell in the little craft; the king self and his three companions on board, and caught hold of it, and was dragged into the convey them to Corsica. The commander packet; Blancard and Langlade followed seemed to listen attentively to the propo- I his example : Donadieu remained the last ; Vol. XV. No. III.
as he snatched the rope thrown to him, and he feared to trust the native troops in an rose up, the wretched boat gave one lurch, attack on a sovereign once so popular. and disappeared for ever! Five minutes Off the island of Capri a storm overtook later, and these four men must have foun- them, which drove them as far as Paola, & dered with her.
little bay about thirty miles from Cosenza. Murat had sca
carcely reached the deck Here they remained at anchor till the 6th when a man, suddenly, bursting from his of October, but on the 7th, Murat received companions, came and threw himself at his clear intimation that no reliance was to be feet. It was a Mameluke that he had placed on his allies in the other vessels. brought with him from Egypt. Presently General Franceschetti took advantage of the Senator Casabianca, Captain Oletta, a this momentary overshadowing of his bright nephew of the Prince Baciocchi, Boerco, visions to advise him to give up his perilous and others crowded round him, addressing enterprise, and accept the asylum offered by him by the style of “your Majesty.” Mu- the emperor of Austria, in whose dominions rat thus found himself suddenly surrounded his wife had already found shelter. The by a little court. His sorrows, his exile, ex-king listened with attention. At this seemed to have been engulphed with the moment the General perceived a sailor little boat, and he now began to believe sleeping in a corner of the deck close to himself again Joachim I., king of Naples. them; and fearful that they had been over
Uncertain, however, of his reception in heard, they went up to him : it was Luigi. Corsica, Murat assumed the title of Count Crouched on a coil of rope, he seemed to Campo Mello, and under this name landed slumber soundly. The interrupted converat Bastia, on the 25th of August. The sation went on, and ended by Murat conprecaution, however, was useless. In less senting to the proposition of the general. than three days every one was aware of his It was agreed that they should pass through presence; and so great was the enthusiasm the Straits of Messina, double Cape Spartithat the ex-king left the town, fearful his vento, and enter the Adriatic. This settled appearance amongst them might cause pub- they separated for the night. lic commotion.
On the following morning (the Sth OctoHaving removed to Viscovato with his ber) the king desired the commander, Barthree friends and the Mameluke, he imme- bara, to steer for Messina. Barbara replidiately sought out one of his old officers, ed that he was ready to obey his majesty, General Franceschetti, whose house became but that, being in want of provisions and his residence. As soon as the king's arrival water, it would be advisable to go and fetch was generally known, numbers both of of them. The king acceded, but refused to ficers and men, who had already served un- give certain passports and safeguards which der him, flocked to his standard, and in a he had in his possession, and which Barbafew days Murat found himself at the head ra demanded as an authority, and without of nine hundred men. The three sailors, which he positively refused to proceed. Langlade, Blancard, and Donadieu, now Murat commanded him. He continued obtook leave of him, and returned to France, stinate ; when the ex-king, impatient at his in spite of his entreaties to the contrary disobedience, and unaccustomed to be They had clung to the unhappy exile—they thwarted, threatened to strike him ; but on refused to follow the steps of the exulting a sudden altering his determination, he or
dered his troops to get under arms, and deOn the 28th, the expected answers to his sired the commander to lay to. despatches arrived. They were brought Murat jumped into the boat accompanied over by a Calabrese named Luigi, who by twenty-eight individuals, amongst whom stated himself to have been sent by the was. Luigi, and rowed towards the shore Arab Othello, who from illness was unable Arrived there, General Franceschetti was to return. These letters, sent by the min- about to spring out of the boat, when Muister of police in Naples, strongly advised rat stopped him, crying, “ I'll be the first him to make a descent on Salerno, and to tread the soil of my dominions ;” and urged bis instant adoption of this measure. passing the general, he leaped on shore. Deceived by their apparent truth and can- He was dressed in the full uniform of a dor, Murat set sail with three vessels for general officer. He wore white pantaloons that port, where Ferdinand had already and top-boots; a belt, in which he had posted three thousand Austrian troops, as placed a pair of magnificent pistols; and a
cocked hat, richly embroidered, the cockade where a bridge now exists bearing his name. being affixed to it by a knot of nine splen-Seeing Trenta Capelli advance towards him, did brilliants. In his right hand he bore he instantly cried, “Will you exchange his own ensign. The clock of Pizzo struck your captain's epaulettes for those of a genten as he disembarked.
eral officer ? If so, cry Long live Joachim ! Murat proceeded straight to the town, and follow me with your brave band to which was only about a hundred yards off. Monteleoni.” Here he found, it being Sunday, the whole “Sire," quickly replied the other, “We population assembled in the market-place. are the faithful subjects of King Ferdinand. No one recognized him. They stood in We come to seize, not to accompany you. mute astonishment, gazing at the brilliant Surrender yourself, therefore, and prevent uniforms that approached them. The ex- an unnecessary effusion of blood." king, however espied an old sergeant whom At this moment a pistol was discharged he remembered as having served in his guard by the opposite party, and seeing no hope at Naples. He walked straight up to him, of conciliation, General Franceschetti orand placing his hand on his shoulder, de- dered his men to fire. In an instant the manded, "Travalla, do you know me?" discharge was returned, and the combat beReceiving no reply, he added, “I am Joa- gan, not, however, with the slightest chance chim Murat! I am your king! Be yours the of success on the side of the exiled king, honor of first shouting Long live Joachim !" who could only offer about twenty-five men The king's suite instantly took up the cry, to oppose five hundred. Presently several and shouted it loudly forth. But the Cala- fell on both sides, and the peasants, headed brese, amongst whom there seemed a grow by Trenta Capelli, pressed on. To cut ing feeling of discontent, remained perfect- through this mass was impossible, while in ly mute. The king seeing this foretold an the rear of the little body retreat was renapproaching conflict, and turning again to dered utterly impracticable by a precipice, Travalla, said, “ Well, then, if you won't of about thirty-live feet. Murat' did not cry long life to me, at least find me a horse, hesitate ; he threw himself down this acand I will instantly make you a Captain." clivity, and fortunately falling on the sand Travalla immediately turned away. He en- beneath, arose unhurt, and plunged into a tered his cottage, and did not appear again little wood which skirted the shore. Genthat day.
eral Franceschetti, and his aid-de-camp Every moment fresh crowds of peasants Campana were equally fortunate. poured in ; but not a single demonstration The instant the trio emerged from the of sympathy could Murat elicit from them. cover of the trees, they were saluted by a A bold push now could alone save him. volley from above, but happily without ef“On, on to Monteleoni !" cried he; and fect. On reaching the shore, they found placing himself at the head of his little that the boat which had brought them to band, he rushed towards the road which land had again put to sea, and had rejoined leads to that town. The people drew aside the three vessels, which, -far from coming to to allow him to pass.
his aid, had set every sail, and were making Scarcely, however, had he left the market- off as rapidly as possible. The Maltese place, than the mob began to recover from Barbara bad repaid the monarch's threat hy their stupor ;
and a young man named now betraying him. He carried off with George Pellegrino suddenly appeared arm- him not only all the fortune of the exiled ed with a musket, and began shouting, king, but in thus abandoning him, crushed " To arms, to arms !” The crowd echoed his last hope. the cry; and in another moment every one A fisherman's bark was lying high and sought his dwelling, and armed himself as dry on the land: it became Murat's only best he could. On the arrival of Captain chance of escape. If they could only get it Trenta Capelli of the gendarmerie of Cog- afloat, they might yet be saved, for none enza, who happened to be in Pizzo, and dared to leap the precipice in pursuit, and whom Pellegrino had gone in search of, he the regular descent was some distance found two hundred persons in the market- round. The three fugitives used their square, bearing different weapons, who, on every exertion to push the boat into the his placing himself at their head, immedi- water. The agony of despair gave them ately gave chase to their ex-king.
increased strength, and they had nearly Murat, sceing them coming, ordered a succeeded, when a sudden shout caused halt, and prepared to meet them at a spot them to look round. The populace headed