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tutions of its States may expose them to be drawn of the inheritance of Charles V. the influence of greater Powers, it matters With scarcely the political importance of not much, for our immediate point of view, Tuscany, and none of the geographical sigon what particular scale it may be re-parti- uificance of Savoy, Spain might also be abtioned between its respective shareholders. sorbed in the opposite continent of Africa, A few words will suffice for the yet unno- and leave Europe to terminate at the Pyreticed States of Europe. The growth of nees, without affecting the system of states. Prussia into a power of the first magnitude, A rupture with the free city of Hamburg appears among its other effects to preclude would create more inconvenience than arises the likelihood of any re-appearance of the from our present rupture with the cabinet of Scandinavian Powers, under ordinary cir- Madrid.* Treated as a mere toy for diplocumstances, upon the fields of the Continent. That they retain strength and spirit enough * Perhaps, however, the curiosity of the reader to defend their own rights they have satis- ject, and render of some interest the details which may compensate for the insignificance of the subfactorily proved under trying circumstances; unexpected disclosures have now so well eluciand any contest between them and their dated. The conferences between England and neighbors on the main-land has now become, ed, as will be recollected, in a stipulation that France on the subject of the Spanish match resultas a royal speaker phrased it, "a fight be- the Queen of Spain should not wed a French tween a dog and a fish." Though one of prince, and that a French prince should not esthem is under a government as absolute as pouse the Infanta Maria Louise till issue had any in Europe, they have altogether escaped fundamental condition, however, presumed that, been had of the marriage of the Queen. As the the revolutionary epidemic of the season, "none but a Bourbon should fill the throne and have exhibited a feeling of nationality of Philip V." the choice of a husband for the so practical, a union of interests so cordial, Queen was limited to the present king, his brother, and an attachment to their institutions so the intended spouse at this stage of the proceedand the Count Trapani. The latter, it seems, was resolute and sincere, as to attract the admi-ings; and such an arrangement would have made ration even of those who thought their cause everything smooth; but the national dislike to the weaker. Very different must be the this Neapoliton Bourbon was so strong, as to be insuperable. There was then Francisco d'Assis; comments upon the other extremity of the but with his family Queen Christina was on such Continent. The Spanish Peninsula, like bad terms, as to render it absolutely indispensathe Swedish and Danish, stands also unmoved ble, for the preservation of her own interests, that by the European shock, but simply because she should either try to exclude him from the throne, or counterbalance his influence by some it has already gone through its constitutional rival power. The first of these alternatives sugrevolutions; and if the only result of this gested the Coburg alliance which was proposed by year's convulsions is to be such as is there Christina herself; and when that was negatived, it was she who insisted on the simultaneous marexhibited, we might almost turn, in the impa- riages, from an apprehension of what might result tience of despair to the policy of Verona. in the interval, if her personal foes exercised the There is reason to believe that both in Spain power of royalty, while she was left without any and Portugal the Realistas, that is to say, King Louis Philippe, with all the desperate resoappui whatever. By holding out a Coburg before the partisans of the régime superseded by lution of a woman fairly alarmed, she at length the constitutional dynasties, comprise the frightened the French monarch into his ill-fated majority of the population; and that it is consent to the double match, and thus fortified but a comparatively small minority, which herself with the Montpensier alliance against the influence of Don Francisco's family. These maragain is subdivided into those more promi- riages had been supported by the whole of one nent parties of Moderados and Progressistas party in Spain and opposed by another. Accord-Chartistas and Septembristas-who have ingly France and England had both their Spanish monopolized the attention of Europe. The the French Revolution found matters in Madrid. party, whether they would or no. Moderados are for the most part adventurers Both parties now became more anxious for our of good family: who are nothing without the alliance: Christina and the Moderados to supply court, but can govern the country with it. what they had lost in France; the Progressistas The Progressistas are the middle classes in vorable an opportunity. Neither coalition, howthe great towns. It is not that there linger ever, on such terms, was consistent with the in the breast of the majority any deep-rooted proper policy of this country. An alliance with feelings of traditionary loyalty or of personal the Moderados would have lost us for ever the respect of every other party, and at once have attachment, but that people would be willing converted the Progressistas into Red Republicans. to return to what they remember, in order We therefore determined on neutrality, resolving to escape from what they experience. Per- to maintain friendly relations with the Progressishaps at a future period some incredulity may publicanism-on the other hand, to avoid all tas, lest they might otherwise take refuge in rebe excited by such a picture as might now violent quarrel with the Moderados, because they

In this state

to make clean work of their adversaries at so fa

matists, stripped of almost every vestige of | since seemed almost the exclusive function external power, bankrupt in honesty, and of the three Northern Powers to preserve below even its own emancipated colonies in and maintain. We do not, of course, mean European credit, Spain can only attract no-to say that each particular insurrection was tice from the suggestions of the past, or the the explosion of feelings long cherished, the possibilities of the future. It should be re-burst of repugnance long suppressed, or the membered, however, that no country has prompt seizure of an expected opportunity ever shown such extraordinary capacity for to effect a deliberate and preconceived rea sudden resurrection. Three years of Al- form. On the contrary, every hour brings beroni's ministry restored Spain from a con- us additional reason for concluding that dition as degrading as the present (excepting contagion was the principal agent in the sethe stigma of a repudiated debt), to a state veral catastrophes; that the outbreak, or, not inconsistent even with her ancient gran- at least, all its unconstitutional violence, was deur; and though in the rapid succession of in almost every instance the work of a small, edifying characters which marks the phan- misguided, and inconsiderate minority; and tasmagoria of Peninsula cabinets, no figure that however general might have been the has appeared with the outline or semblance desire for constitutional governments, there of an Alberoni, yet it is impossible to dis- was no wish for a suspension of all governcard consideration of a country which needs ment whatever in favor of those provisional nothing but such an acquisition to raise it to substitutes which have now so strangely asa level with the greatest powers of the West. sumed the prerogatives of power. Still, the 'Rich in national character, as in natural re- revolutionary shock could never have been sources, productive beyond even the blight- thus transmitted from Paris to Vienna, if ing influence of misgovernment, and standing the States of Central Europe had not been now alone among her neighbors in the bless-fitted, by some such reactionary spirit, for ing of a surplus revenue, it seems as if Spain receiving and conducting it. But, besides might any day again take rank in the European commonwealth. At the same time, to those who have considered carefully the whole circumstances of her sudden rise and her headlong fall, it may perhaps appear doubtful after all, whether the state in which she was found by Olivarez was not as naturally incidental to her constitution, as that in which she was left by Ximenes; whether her elevation is not a more curious problem than her decline; and whether the geographical isolation of her position does not require to be compensated by fortuitous and irregular advantages, before she can exert upon the general system an influence proportioned to her dominion.

We have reserved for the conclusion of our remarks, the consideration, or as the narrowness of our limits will rather render it, the proposition of a question, which far exceeds in its possible importance that of all the realities or contingencies we have hitherto numerated. The revolutions of 1848, which succeeded that of France, may, perhaps, be generally characterized as a violent reaction against that status quo of political principles, of which we have traced the construction at Carlsbad and Labaych, and which it has

were in office. But as this, in the eyes of the ascendant faction, was tantamount to opposition, they thought it desirable to drive away our minister and remove us from the field altogether. Voila tout!

these ordinary and anticipated consequences of a French revolution, the present occasion appears, among its other results, to have given an impulse of development to a particular sentiment of Nationality, hitherto unformed or dormant.

Even in this country, so conspicuously behind the Continent in its speculations upon European combinations or destinies,* convictions have been expressed, that in the possible fortunes of the Sclavonic race, was comprised the only element by which the course of modern history was likely to be seriously affected. This potent element has been sensibly quickened by the events of last February. Most readers will be familiar with the general theory of Panslavism, or, in other words, with the idea, as recently elaborated by the writers of Eastern Europe,

* A curious illustration of the aptitude displayed by our neighbors for these inquiries, is to be found in a resolution passed by the Committee of Foreign Affairs in the National Assembly almost as soon as it was constituted. Representatives were nominated to prepare reports on the principal European questions as coolly as committees would be appointed in our own House of Commons to scrutinize a Railway Extension Bill: e.-M. Drouit de Lhuys was to treat the Spanish question; M. d'Aragon, the affairs of Italy; M. Xavier Durrieu those of Russia; M. Edmond Lafayette, Moldavia and Wallachia; M. Jober, Austria and the Sclave countries; M. Payer, the German Confederation; M. de Voisin, the East; M. Heckeren, Prussia and Prussian Poland; and M. Puysegur, Egypt.

of uniting all Sclavonic populations into one should be despatched to Pesth, so that Hunenormous empire; which would thus almost gary would gain a distinction of which Ausnecessarily become the master Power of this tria and Prussia were soon to be deprived. quarter of the globe. A full development of But this was not all. The Imperial sanction Panslavism would of course presume the su- was obtained for the incorporation with the premacy of Russia; for since the inhabitants kingdom of Hungary of those provinces which of this empire comprise fifty-three out of the lie between its proper border and the Ottoseventy-eight millions numbered by the man territories, viz., Croatia and the military Sclavonic race, it would be impossible to colonies of the frontier. Now it happens consummate the projected union, without that in the populations which compose the both including the population of Russia, and Hungarian State, and which it was thus proacknowledging her natural presidency. But posed to amalgamate so completely, there a modification of the theory has been sug- subsist the same varieties and jealousies of gested, by which the idea itself is pressed race as in the Austrian empire itself—some into service against Russian ambition; and three millions of Magyars being all that can indeed is represented as the only plausible be shown against six millions of Sclavonians. expedient for checking the fated advance of The consequence has been the repetition, that eastern empire. It is proposed that upon a small scale, of the troubles and disAustria, which reckons in its population re-tractions of the Imperial State in one of its turns some seventeen millions of Sclavonians provinces; and the Croatians and Borderers against six millions and a half of Germans, have exhibited just the same repugnance to should give to this preponderating element the centralizing government of the Magyars, its due supremacy; should in short, declare as did the Bohemians and Moravians to the itself a Sclavonic state; and should thus re- Germanizing authorities of Frankfort. They organize the tottering fabric of its empire upon a new and enduring basis.

have even gone further; for Baron Jellachich, the Ban of Croatia, has openly levied war We are only concerned with these and the against the hitherto dominant race of Hunlike theories, as far as they have been in- gary; has defeated the Magyars, it is said, vested with an actual influence upon the state in several engagements; and is leading his of Europe under the recent movements; and triumphant Sclavonians to the gates of Pesth. to no inconsiderable extent is this the case Very little reflection will be sufficient to with the Austrian Empire. No sooner had show how such a movement as this may soon the "constitution" of the 25th of April been transcend, in the consequences it will carry promulgated, than all the nationalities be- with it, the more exciting conflicts on the tween the Säave and Dniester were in full Mincio and the Eyder. Even in the Parebullition. The inhabitants of Bohemia, liament or Assembly of Vienna, the Sclavobeing two-thirds Sclavonians, refused, as nian deputies have already a clear majority; will be remembered, to compromise their and at times it has seemed as if the assumpnationality by sending members to the Ger- tion of this Sclavonic form was really the man Constituent Assembly; and by way of only alternative remaining to the rulers of counteracting the Germanizing tendency of the Austrian Empire. the new movement, they summoned a Scla- But, connected with this contingency, vonic Congress at Prague, from Croatia, comes the inevitable annexation or reconIllyria, Gallicia, and Moravia. We need stitution of Poland. The ancient provinces not refer to the curious coquetry of the Aus- of this kingdom are the very focus of Sclatrian Court with this rudimentary confede- vonic nationality; and the first step of ration; nor to the tragedy which cut short Sclavonized Austria must necessarily be the the proceedings in the Bohemian capital, as recognition of their suspended rights. Three our purpose is sufficiently answered by suppositions have been contemplated :-the pointing out the actual effects of the move-union of all the Polish provinces in a federal ment upon the Imperial dominion. The Sclavonic State under the rule of Austria; distinct nationality of Hungary, it will be their incorporation, on similar conditions, recollected, was so far recognized, that it with the dominions of Russia; or their erecwas actually admitted to treat upon inde-tion into a state absolutely independent. pendent terms with the central government But in either case the ultimate consummaof that new confederacy or empire of which tion of Panslavism would appear unavoidable; German Austria formed a part: and it has for the intimate alliance of restored Poland even been suggested in our diplomatic cir- either with Russia or New Austria, is alcles, that a representative of British interests most a thing of course; and is it then prob

able, that with such sublimated ideas of race, | Wallachia and Moldavia, should neither be these two sections of a great nationality will appointed nor removed without consent from conceive their missions fulfilled, by simply St. Petersburg first obtained. A disregard balancing each other? At this moment the of this stipulation was the pretext for the liberalization, if we may use such a term, of war of 1810; and the right of interference Prussia and Austria is presumed to have was so far confirmed and extended by the disengaged, to a great extent, the respective treaty of Adrianople in 1829, that these Polish populations of each power; and to Danubian principalities may be now reprehave precluded the possibility of their re-sented as depending rather on the protectotention any longer in severance or subjec- rate of Russia than on the sovereignty of the tion. The Poles consider that they must Porte. It was among the conditions exacted now be necessarily competed for by Russia by Russia, that no Turks should reside in and Austria, and that the destinies of Eu- these provinces; so that her influence over rope depend upon the decision. Suggestions a pure Romanic population (the Wallachians towards a cordial union with Russia, upon being the descendants of the colonists of the the one overpowering principle of race, have old Roman empire) should be preserved enbeen thrown out for some years past; and, tire. When, accordingly, the shock of doindeed, it is even more with respect to this mestic revolution, reaching even to Jassy question, that the present reports from the and Bucharest, caused the overthrow of the Danubian principalities assume their un- hospodar and the proclamation of a prodoubted importance, than with regard to the visional government, Russia exerted her relations between Russia and the Porte, or privilege by marching troops across the the great and terrible question of the East Pruth to rectify the disorder. This howThe provinces of Wallachia and Molda- ever, as we have said, is not all. By the povia, to which the trans Danubian possessions sition thus occupied she has been enabled to of the Turks are now limited, were among aid the insurgent Sclavonians of Southern the territories wrested by Solyman the Mag- Hungary, with succors sent up the Dannificent from the kingdom of Hungary, at ube; and it is reported that she is actively the time when the stream of Turkish con- availing herself of these facilities for pushing quest was diverted, under the direction of her Sclavonic interests; and that her ostenthis great sultan, to the borders of the Dan- sible proceedings in the Principalities do but ube from the banks of the Tigris and the cover the ramifications of a deeper scheme. Nile. Reduced no less by the grinding des-1 No reader will be surprised if, within such potism of the Porte than by the pestilential limits as were at our command, we have influence of the climate, to almost perfect failed in giving a satisfactory account of any desolation, they serve by this very character particular European state. We have seof misery to strengthen the barrier between lected for illustration those which by reason Turkey and her foe. The natural line of of their constitution or position appeared defence for the Ottoman Empire being the eminently to call for notice; but it should Danube, these unhealthy wastes have to be not be forgotten in estimating our conclutraversed by any invaders from the north- sions, that we have anticipated the usual east before the real defences of the country season of comment, and have offered these can be arrived at; and so thoroughly have remarks during a period of transition, when they answered their purpose, that Russian almost every day was producing some matearmies usually appeared before those fatal rial change in the aspect of the affairs under fortresses between Widdin and Ismail, shorn consideration. Perhaps, however, the very of one-half their strength, which had been character which our observations must needs left behind in the Moldavian swamps. Con- derive from such a circumstance, may lend siderations of this kind quickened the nation- them some additional interest hereafter, as al propensity of Russia to push her frontier it may be instructive to refer, when the end to the Danube; and with such success were shall have at length arrived, to these records her efforts exerted, that the transfluvian pro- of a state of actual progress. In any case, vinces in question are now almost as much we hope that we may have facilitated the Russian as Turkish. By the treaty of Jas- comprehension of the events now daily ansy, which concluded the bloody campaigns nounced from all quarters of Europe, and of Suwarrow upon the Danube, Russia ob- have enabled the reader to appreciate, with tained such a recognition of her influence greater satisfaction to himself, the incidents beyond her own proper frontier, as to stipu- of the drama still in progress. Were it a late that the hospodars or governors of less agreeable subject to dwell upon, we

should hardly think it necessary to explain from the internal disorganization of states the absence of a mighty figure from our extempore panorama. We have said nothing of Great Britain, for the best of all reasons: nor shall we recur to any of those proverbial illustrations of the conspicuousness which follows upon certain conditions of retirement. Our readers will gratefully recognize the blessings which enable all mention of this country to be dispensed with, in an estimate of revolutions and their results.

wear an unpleasant and menacing aspect; but the practical propagandism of February was cut very short in its career, and no power can be now said to give its neighbors any such apprehensions as those excited by Jacobinical France, or anarchical Poland. Neither, amidst all the medley of constitutional novelties, does it appear that the domestic organization of any people will become fundamentally inconsistent with the If, now, we take a retrospective glance at character of the European fabric, or that the scenes which have passed in review be- any dangerous discord will be introduced fore us, we shall be probably inclined to con- through the adoption of a policy or adminclude, that the disturbance likely to be suf-istration irreconcileable with those generally fered by the political system, is smaller than received by other governments. Still it cancould have been conceived by the most san- not be denied that there are states which guine anticipations some six months ago. It have been so rudely shaken as to be quite does not appear that any Power will acquire incapacitated for the discharge of what have undue preponderance or aggrandizement, or hitherto been their accepted functions, and that any strange member will be introduced which are so altered in external circumstaninto the system, excepting on conditions ces, as hardly to be recognized for their hardly yet probable the development, former selves. But, on this point, it may namely, of the new-born spirit of "nationali- be observed, that certain of those functions ty" into some practical and effective agency. were such, perhaps, as to render their perIf Germany should really become a consoli-petuation by no means unconditionally desidated state animated by a single will, such a Power would doubtless excite suspicions, and provoke combinations hitherto untried; though, as we have already stated, there is no great reason for supposing that its influence could be detrimentally exerted. As much, it is true, cannot be asserted of a great Sclavonic state; but this contingency is much farther from its realization than a Germanic empire, and would be attended with obstacles infinitely more serious than those which, even in the latter case, have not yet been proved surmountable. Excepting, however, by the instrumentality of this new element of " race, ," there does not appear much likelihood of the growth of any Power into proportions inconsistent with the stability of the system. As little is it probable that any minor Power will be demolished or absorbed. The Eastern ques-period, had actually, as French writers astion has not been perceptibly brought nearer its solution by the recent shock; and, as to the kingdom of Denmark, that, it would seem, may be safely left to the right arm of the Danes. If any new creations appear to be in embryo, they are not of a character to justify much beyond a passing interest. The kingdom or duchy or principality of Lombardy, will import little to the system of Europe, and a place might be found even for independent Sicily without any serious disarrangement.

Beyond doubt, the inconveniences arising

rable; not to mention that it is as yet uncertain what form or capacity they may hereafter assume. Viewed with reference to its bearings upon social and political progress, the system of Europe has been no doubt radically changed by the events which have occurred; but we are by no means prepared to allege that such change is essentially and altogether prophetic of evil.

The most satisfactory feature of the whole panorama is, perhaps, that a degree of vigorous force and virtue has been demonstrated to exist at present in the political system, which, considered in its most significant light, approaches to a guarantee of the public peace. Nothing can be more gratifying than the contrast, in this respect, of the Europe of 1848 with the Europe of 1793. Whether the political system at the earlier

sert, become effete and useless from age and violence before the summoning of the States General, or whether, as the publicists of other nations allege, it was overthrown, while in serviceable action, by the rude shock of French aggression, it is at least certain, that when the day of trial came, it was found wanting, and that war broke out almost as abruptly as if no international ties had ever existed. At the present crisis, general war has hitherto been happily averted; and this, throughout a succession of chances unusually critical and perilous.

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