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while we are writing, at the close of Sep- tion, although it was remarked that, after tember, that the first accounts of the killed all, but a small portion of the men there and wounded, which were said to have ex- employed, comparatively, had taken part ceeded ten thousand, were exaggerated, in the insurrection; perhaps from an unand that the total number of deaths attri- willingness to risk their government pay. butable to the insurrection of June, includ- Instead of wages for nominal work, relief ing those who have since died in the hos- was now given to them in rations,—as in pitals, is under 1,500. Ireland upon the discontinuance of the sys


The suspension of ten of the most disaf- tem of employment upon the roads. fected journals-including La Presse, the vote of the National Assembly decreed the editor of which (Emile de Girardin) was penalty of transportation, with trial by repaid for his advocacy of legitimacy by court-martial, against all who had acted several weeks of confinement in prison; with the insurgents, and this penalty has the disarming of three legions of the Na- been enforced in the case of several thoutional Guards, and of the entire district sands who were at the time or subsequently which had been the principal seat of the apprehended. insurrection; and the dissolution of the Upon these measures, or upon measures Ateliers Nationaux, were the first measures of a more severe character, if such had of the provisional dictatorship of General been passed and confined to the emergency, Cavaignac. The latter step was adopted it would be hardly necessary to make any on the ground that the Ateliers Nationaux comment; for at a time when blood is flowwere a dangerous focus of political agita- ing, it is idle to talk of respect for law, or "How is a man to live (he used to say) when aliments have been told that a patient thus affected, and lyare thrust into his windpipe? you are choking me, ing in an hospital for a wound, said, "I want to and I shall soon be dead." But some time afterwards eat the flesh of a national guard, soaked in the blood we received specimens of another description of pa- of a garde mobile." Although I do not vouch for tients, whose derangement might be fairly attributed the truth of this report, I can state that what I heard to the working of the new political ideas. These in my establishment is fully as bad as this savage were not dejected and sad; on the contrary, they wish. The excitement caused by the firing of the had proud, gay, and enthusiastic looks, and were musketry and artillery even seized upon women. very loquacious. They were constantly writing One of them, who was brought to this asylum, after memorials, constitutions, &c., proclaimed them- having been removed from a barricade where she selves great men, the deliverers of the country, and was holding forth in a furious manner, told me that took the rank of generals and members of the go- she left her husband without knowing what she was vernment. It has long been maintained, that mad- about, and that she remembered neither the words ness often bears the imprint of pride. I declare nor the acts which were attributed to her. This that I never saw this fact so forcibly borne out as lady, who has a cultivated mind, is full of talent, with the patients whom the revolution of February and writes excellent verses, seems to me to have drove mad; particularly those who, imbued with been under the influence of a febrile over-excitesocialist, communist, and regenerating ideas, be- ment, brought on by the agency of terrible events lieved themselves destined to play a conspicuous upon a naturally sensitive and nervous disposition. part in the world. Going through the wards, a few But the greater number of these patients belong to days ago, with one of my professional brethren, we the melancholic form of the disease. Like the stopped with one of those patients whose disposition February patients of the same category, they talk was originally of a kind and peaceful description, of death, the guillotine, ruin, pillage, and fire. The but who had grown restless and enthusiastic, by be- terrible scenes which they have had under their ing torn from his usual and regular occupations by eyes have plunged them into a sort of stupor. A the excitement of the times, and flung into the lady inmate of the asylum was telling me yesterday streets, the clubs, and amidst the working classes. He spoke as follows, after having discussed two points which had been much debated of late: "I perceive that the people want to make it appear that I am mad: but I am proud of the glory which will be shed on my name when posterity will do justice to me, and ask, with painful astonishment, how the author of such useful and philanthropic views could ever have been thought mad! Why should I grieve at this injustice, however; was not Tasso locked up under the same suspicion ?"

-"Before this dreadful revolution I was of a cheerful disposition; but how is it possible not to go mad, when one is in constant apprehension for the life of one's children, for one's property, and where the certainty of being stripped of everything stares one in the face? These fearful events have plunged me into this wretched state. I am a prey to constant frights the least movement, the least noise, makes me shudder. I endeavour to reason myself into a calmer state, but I feel powerless." It should be noticed, that our civil discords have not been the The terrible insurrection of June has already be- direct cause of derangement with all the patients. gun to bear its fruits. I have received more than There were some among them who, for some time twenty patients already, and I know that the pro- previously, had shown symptoms of aberration of portion is equally large in other establishments. mind, and in whom the revolution has hastened the Among this number there were several cases of appearance of the confirmed disease. Others had mania; those who were thus maniacal were threat- had anterior attacks; but about half of them had ening to kill, shoot, massacre everybody; they were been in the full enjoyment of their mental faculties, constantly calling out murder, and help, and were, and their madness had no other cause than our fearin fact, in a state of indescribable excitement. Iful political commotions.--Lancet.

the forms of constitutional liberty; but we humiliation, that such a man as Leon Fauhave seen with surprise and mortification chér, from whom, as a member of the Sothat the conservatives and moderate or ciety of Political Economists, we had looklukewarm republicans of the National As-ed for better things, puts this doctrine forsembly, forming the majority, have united ward as his interpretation of republican to put themselves in the wrong, not only liberty. The mischief that he is thereby with the unreasoning portion of a demo- doing is immense. Political economy is by cratic public, but with all sincere lovers of too many regarded as a mere scientific apofreedom, in maintaining martial law long logy for wealth and privilege; and the after the necessity for it has ceased, and speeches of Leon Fauchér, in the National reviving some of the most odious restric- Assembly, like the writings of Peter tions of the right of discussion, to get rid M'Culloch, in this country, are helping to of which seemed to be the very object of confirm that impression in the mind of the the Revolution. More than three months working classes. have now elapsed since the insurrection has Equally impolitic and mischievous has been quelled, and Paris is still in "a state been the conduct of Odilon Barrôt, in of siege." General Cavaignac is still in- bringing the support of what, in England, vested with the powers of a military dicta- we should term the whig interest, to the torship, in favor of which it is only to be impeachment of Louis Blanc and Caussisaid that they are exercised with strict im- dière, for their presumed share in the riot partiality; neither the advocates of com- of the 15th of May. The evidence against munism, nor of monarchy, nor of republi- them, adduced by the Committee, estabcanism in any other form than that which lishes nothing but their mob popularity and now exists in France, being permitted to their sympathy with the mob. These are give free and fair utterance to their senti- hardly crimes for which a jury will convict; and if a conviction be obtained, they are Now, if ever there was a time when rules still not crimes in the estimation of the of law and public opinion would have been working portion of the population. The sufficient restraints for the licentiousness of charge also was one which had been already the press, it was the month following the disposed of by the Assembly. Why revive sanguinary days of June. The appetite it, especially when the evidence had entirely for violence had been too much satiated failed of connecting either Louis Blanc or with blood, for its advocates to retain their Caussidière with the events of June, if not influence with any considerable class of from motives of personal and party animothe people. The authors of new provoca- sity?


tions to insurrection would have sunk be- In the meantime the Minister of War neath the withering effects of public scorn announces that the French army has been and hatred, even if the law had failed to again raised to an effective force of 500,000 punish. They had then no case for agita- men;-this not from any fear of invasion, tion;-now a plea is given to them. Their of which there was never less ground of apacquiescence is to be asked in a constitu- prehension, but with the same objects as tion, voted at a time when liberty of dis- that of Lord Palmerston,-to hold a high cussion was suspended. How can a consti- rank as the arbiter of nations. The English tution so passed win its way into the confi- and French governments are now spending, dence of the masses? The National As- upon what they term necessary measures of sembly have even revived the law of cau- national defence, the collective sum of tion-money, the effect of which (like our thirty-five millions sterling per annum; and own stamp laws) is to confine to capitalists neither government has the wit to perceive, the privilege of newspaper publication. No that if it were to keep a third part of this political daily journal, however small, is sum in the public treasury in the shape of a to be published in France without a depo- surplus revenue, it would be infinitely better sit lodged in the hands of government of prepared for the war which may never come, nearly £1,000. The sage principle of this than it now is, with annual deficits and law is, that because a man may knock down overwhelming debts. Of course, neither his neighbor in walking through the government can have anything to spare for streets, no one shall be at liberty to stir the reclaiming of waste lands, nor the reout of doors till he has entered into recog- peal of obnoxious taxes; and of course the nizances for keeping the peace! Yet we new French Minister of Finance has found see with regret and with feelings even of it necessary to re-impose the tax on salt,

and several other of the taxes taken off by tralization of the suffrages of the masses, the Provisional Government in their first but in its wider extension to local institudays of power. tions, with federal organization.

Amid these complicated difficulties, we may lament, but we cannot wonder, that the populace of Paris should return, at the last election of September, as a defiance to the National Assembly-Raspail, the very leader of the tumult of the 15th of May, still a prisoner in the dungeons of Vincennes; and, for the second time, Louis Napoleon.

that surrounded the city to take the road to Lacken.

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ANECDOTE OF JOSEPH THE SECOND.-Joseph the the Second, and grandfather to Ferdinand, the preSecond (Emperor of Germany, succeeded by Francis sent Emperor of Austria) was fond of any adventure where he was not recognized as Emperor. But was this philosophy? I think not, for, when it was necessary to sacrifice some imperial caprice to the wishes of the nation, Joseph showed himself but Remark, however, that this untoward re- liule of the philosopher. Having arrived at Brussult is to be attributed not to universal sels in 1789, in striet incognito, he lived by prefersuffrage, but to the original error of the ence in the delightful palace of Lacken, built many electoral districts, to which we have alluded. years before by his ancestors. Driving himself one day a very modest equipage, being a carriage to The number of registered electors for the hold two people, with a servant out of livery, in the Department of the Seine, is 406,929. Of neighborhood of Brussels; he was overtaken by a these the number that voted on the 20th of shower a short distance after leaving the avenue September, was but 247,242; out of whom He had not gone two hundred paces when he overLouis Napoleon obtained the votes of only took a pedestrian going the same way, and who made 110,752, although at the head of the poll. a sign to him that he wished to speak to him. This was an old Belgian soldier. Joseph stopped the -Raspail, 66,963. The actual majority horses.." Monsieur," says the pedestrian, divided their votes among a greater number there be any indiscretion in asking a place beside of moderate republican and conservative you ?—it would not inconvenience you, as you are candidates than could be returned. We alone in your caleche, and would save my uniform, have contended that a minority should share for I am an invalid at the expense of His Majesty." "Let us save the uniform, my good man," says the in the representation; but here is a contri- Emperor," and place yourself beside me. vance by which the majority itself is ex- have you been walking?" Ah," says the soldier, cluded. It should at least have been fore-"I have been to see one of my friends, who is one seen, that the majority of a constituency, excellent breakfast." of the royal park-keepers, and have made a most "What is it you have had so such as that of Paris, would form a mass excellent ?" "Guess ?" "How should I knowtoo unwieldy for united action, excepting at some soup, perhaps?" Ah, yes-soup indeed, better than that." "A fillet of veal well larded ?" periods of extraordinary excitement.. "Better than that." "I cannot guess any more," France and Germany are now engaged says Joseph. "A pheasant, my worthy sir, a pheaupon the important problem, not so much sant, taken from the royal preserves," permitting of universal suffrage, as the question of the himself to give a slight tap on the imperial shoulder best mode of its application. In some way ought to be much the better," replied the monarch. next him. "Taken from the royal preserves, it or other every man, and let us add, every" So I can assure you it was," answered his comwoman, as integral elements of the state, panion. exercise and have always exercised an influ- As they approached the town, and the rain still ence (recognized or not) in political affairs. continuing, Joseph asked his passenger where he How is that influence to be extended so that good, sir," says the old soldier, "I shall impose upon lived, and where he would get down. "You are too it can receive its most beneficial direction? your kindness." No, no," replied the Emperor; The undoubted object of every community let me know your street." The pedestrian naming is that of placing its wisest and worthiest the street, requested to know to whom he was so at the head of the public administration." Come, it is your turn," says Joseph, "to guess." much obliged for such civility as he had received. How is that object to be attained? Not, "You are in the army, without doubt?" "Lieutenant ?" certainly, by a form of suffrage in which the mass of the electors are compelled to vote in the dark, being placed in a position in which the best judgment they can form of candidates personally unknown to them is but a blind guess.

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"Yes, but better than that."

"Colonel, perhaps?" "Better than that, I tell you." "Hallo!" says the old soldier, retreating to the corner of the carriage, "Are you a General or FieldMarshal ?" "Better than that." "Ah! Heavens ! it is the Emperor ?" "As you say, so it is."

There was no means of throwing himself at the monarch's feet in the carriage. The old soldier made the most ridiculous excuses for his familiarity, requesting of the Emperor to stop the carriage that he might get down. "No," says the sovereign,

The French Republic has hitherto only copied the worst features of the American Constitution, with an exaggeration of its defects. The solution of the problem will happy, in spite of the rain, to get rid of me so "after having eaten my pheasant, you would be too ultimately be found, not in the direct cen- quickly."—L'Impartial.

From Bentley's Miscellany.




"The victory of Charles Martel (at Tours) has immortalized his name, and may justly be reckoned among those few battles of which a contrary event would have essentially varied the drama of the world in all its subsequent scenes; Marathon, ARBELA, the Metaurus, Chalons, and Leipsic."-HALLAM.

"Alexander deserves the glory which he has enjoyed for so many centuries and among all nations; but, what if he had been beaten at Arbela, having the Euphrates, the Tigris, and the deserts in his rear, without any strong places of refuge, nine hundred leagues from Macedonia !"-NAPOLEON.

"Asia beheld with astonishment and awe the uninterrupted progress of a hero, the sweep of whose conquests was as wide and rapid as that of her own barbaric kings, or of the Scythian or Chaldæan hordes ; but, far unlike the transient whirlwinds of Asiatic warfare, the advance of the Macedonian leader was no less deliberate than rapid: at every step the Greek power took root, and the language and the civilization of Greece were planted from the shores of the Egan to the banks of the Indus, from the Caspian and the great Hyrcanian plain to the cataracts of the Nile; to exist actually for nearly a thousand years, and in their effects to endure for ever."-ARNOLD.

sidered with more comprehensive judgment than formerly were brought to bear on these subjects. The result has been at least as often favorable as unfavorable to the persons and the states so scrutinized; and many an oft-repeated slander against both measures and men has thus been silenced, we may hope for ever.

THREE of the Six Battles which our great | tion adopted or recommended by eminent historian, Hallam, selects as the most im- men and powerful nations have been exportant in the history of the world, have amined with keener investigation, and conbeen the subjects of portions of a series of papers which appeared in this periodical during the first half of the present year. The high authority of Hallam makes the others which he mentions worthy of the same consideration; and, if confirmation of Hallam's judgment respecting Arbela were requisite, such confirmation would be amply supplied by the deliberate opinion of Na-. The veracity of Herodotus, the pure papoleon as to the decisive effect which a re-triotism of Pericles, of Demosthenes, and verse at Arbela would have produced on the of the Gracchi; the wisdom of Clisthenes career of Alexander; and by the emphatic and of Licinius as constitutional reformers, language in which Arnold has impressed on may be mentioned at random as facts which us how important Alexander's career of recent writers have cleared from unjust susconquest has been to the whole human race.picion and censure. And it might be easily A long and not uninstructive list might be made out of illustrious men, whose cha racters have been vindicated during recent times from aspersions which for centuries had been thrown on them. The spirit of modern inquiry, and the tendency of modern scholarship, both of which are often said to be solely negative and destructive, have in truth, restored to splendor, and almost created anew, far more than they have as- The name of the victor of Arbela has led sailed with censure, or dismissed from con- to these reflections; for, although the rasideration as unreal. The truth of many a pidity and extent of Alexander's conquests brilliant narrative of brilliant exploits has has through all ages challenged admiration of late years been triumphantly demon- and amazement, the grandeur of genius strated, and the shallowness of the scepti- which he displayed in his schemes of comcal scoffs with which little minds have carped merce, civilization, and of comprehensive at the great minds of antiquity, has been, union and unity among nations, has, until in many instances, decisively exposed. lately, been comparatively unhonored. This The laws, the politics, and the lines of ac-long-continued "depreciation was of early

shown that the defensive tendency which distinguishes the present and recent great writers of Germany, France, and England, has been equally manifested in the spirit in which they have treated the heroes of thought and heroes of action who lived during what we term the Middle Ages, and whom it was so long the fashion to sneer at or neglect.

date. The ancient rhetoricians,-a class of and to destroy, and to bring all things, babblers, a school for liars and scandal, as persons, and states to the same certain Niebuhr justly termed them,-chose, among ends, which the infinite spirit of the Unithe stock themes for their common-places, the versal, piercing, moving, and governing character and exploits of Alexander. They all things, hath ordained. Certainly, the had their followers in every age; and, un- things that this king did, were marvellous, til a very recent period, all who wished to and would hardly have been undertaken by "point a moral or adorn a tale," about un- any one else: and though his father had reasoning ambition, extravagant pride, and determined to have invaded the Lesser Asia, the formidable frenzies of free will when it is like enough that he would have conleagued with free power, have never failed tented himself with some part thereof, and to blazon forth the so-called madman of not have discovered the river of Indus, as Macedonia as one of the most glaring ex- this man did."* amples. Without doubt, many of these A higher authority than either Arrian or writers adopted with implicit credence tra- Raleigh may now be referred to by those ditional ideas, and supposed, with unin- who wish to know the real merit of Alexanquiring philanthropy, that in blackening der as a general, and how far the commonAlexander they were doing humanity good place assertions are true, that his successes service. But also, without doubt, many of were the mere results of fortunate rashness his assailants, like those of other great men, and unreasoning pugnacity. Napoleon sehave been mainly instigated by "that strongest of all antipathies, the antipathy of a second-rate mind to a first-rate one," and by the envy which talent often bears to genius.

lected Alexander as one of the seven greatest generals whose noble deeds history has handed down to us, and from the study of whose campaigns the principles of war are to be learned. The critique of the greatest conqueror of modern times on the military career of the great conqueror of the old world, is no less graphic than true.

Arrian, who wrote his history of Alexander, when Hadrian was emperor of the Roman world, and when the spirit of declamation and dogmatism was at its full height, "Alexander crossed the Dardanelles 334, but who was himself, unlike the dreaming B. C., with an army of about 40,000 men, pedants of the schools, a statesman and a of which one-eighth was cavalry; he forced soldier of practical and proved ability, well the passage of the Granicus in opposition rebuked the malevolent aspersions which he to an army under Memnon, the Greek, heard continually thrown upon the memory who commanded for Darius on the coast of of the great conqueror of the East. Asia, and he spent the whole of the year

And one of the most distinguished sol- 333 in establishing his power in Asia Minor. diers and writers of our own nation, Sir He was seconded by the Greek colonies, Walter Raleigh, though he failed to esti- who dwelt on the borders of the Black Sea mate justly the full merits of Alexander, and on the Mediterranean, and in Sardis, has expressed his sense of the grandeur of Ephesus, Tarsus, Miletus, &c. The kings the part played in the world by "The Great of Persia left their provinces and towns to Emathian Conqueror" in language that be governed according to their own particuwell deserves quotation :→ lar laws. Their empire was a union of

"So much hath the spirit of some one confederated states, and did not form one man excelled as it hath undertaken and nation; this facilitated its conquest. As effected the alteration of the greatest states Alexander only wished for the throne of and commonweals, the erection of mon- the monarch, he easily effected the change, archies, the conquest of kingdoms and em- by respecting the customs, manners, and pires, guided handfuls of men against mul- laws of the people, who experienced no titudes of equal bodily strength, contrived change in their condition. victories beyond all hope and discourse of "In the year 332, he met with Darius at reason, converted the fearful passions of his the head of 60,000 men, who had taken up own followers into magnanimity, and the a position near Tarsus, on the banks of valor of his enemies into cowardice; such spirits have been stirred up in sundry ages of the world, and in divers parts thereof, to erect and cast down again, to establish

* De Stäel.

the Issus, in the province of Cilicia. He defeated him, entered Syria, took Damascus, which contained all the riches of the great king, and laid siege to Tyre. This

* "The historie of the World," by Sir Walter |Raleigh, Knight, p. 648- ̧、

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